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Today I’d like to tell you how Embase has grown and evolved over more than 60 years.Over this time the scope of Embase has grown steadily, so that Embase today covers just about every niche of biomedicine.As an Embase user, you can access this content in many ways, and in this webinar I have chosen a number of perspectives to highlight the content
In the next 20 minutes or so I will explain how the scope of Embase has grown over time, highlight Embase’s current focus areas, and give you details of Embase’s journal content and policy.
The story of Embase begins with the creation of 15 abstract journals in 1947-1948, growing over the next 25 years to cover over 40 areas of biomedicine. A key part of the story is that the Excerpta Medica database, as it was called at the time, included abstracts for all records. In fact, many abstracts were specially created by Excerpta Medica’s editors.At the same time, all records were indexed using a controlled vocabulary which later developed into Emtree. During the 1970’s an online version of the database was produced for the first time, and in 1979 EMBASE was released on the Dialog platform with a 5-year back file to 1974. Other platforms quickly followed, and today Embase is available on over 5 commercial platforms.The most recent chapter in the story was the decision in 2009 to extend the content to include all of MEDLINE. What this means is that journals which had until that time been covered exclusively by MEDLINE were added to Embase. To emphasize the change, Embase itself was rebranded using the logo shown here. This change applies to the entire content of MEDLINE, so that at one stroke Embase extended its backfile to 1947. At the same time, the content of the original Excerpta Medica Abstract Journals from 1947-1974 was digitized and made available to Embase users as the sister file Embase Classic.Embase Classic is unique for its coverage of abstracts from this period. For comparison, Index Medicus and hence also MEDLINE from 1947-1965 only covers citations.
Fast forward 65 years, and what does Embase look like now?First and foremost, Embase is renowned for its coverage of drugs and pharmacology. Over 12% of Embase journals today focus on pharmacology, pharmaceutics and toxicology. Of course, there is also extensive coverage of drugs information from many other journals, and today well over 50% of all records in Embase, year-in-year-out, contain searchable information on drugs.Two other areas that come close to drugs and pharmacology in their coverage in Embase are shown here in different shades of purple.... and this is complemented by all the topics of clinical medicine which taken together fill almost three quarters of Embase’s current coverage.The remaining 28% of Embase coverage is devoted to less purely clinical topics such as public health, basic biomedical science and other topics covered by journals licensed from MEDLINE. I’ll return to this in a few minutes.
If we compare this pattern of content coverage with that of MEDLINE, the overall picture looks quite similar ... however, there are two major differences.The first is not surprising, given Embase’s focus on drugs & pharmacology. Embase has significantly greater coverage in this area, both in percentage terms and when measured by the total number of journals covered. The inset shows just a few of the journal titles that are unique to Embase. But perhaps more surprisingly, Embase has greater coverage than MEDLINE of general clinical medicine. As illustrated here, this difference is mainly due to Embase’s coverage of general medical journals from countries around the world.
These differences between Embase and MEDLINE can also be illustrated in searches. For example, a search for articles published in 2011 on aspirin produces nearly 1600 results in MEDLINE.You can compare this with the same search on Embase, which produces over twice as many results.
So, to summarize and extend what I have said so far, Embase focuses on the peer-reviewed literature in three focus areas: drugs and pharmacology, clinical medicine and - increasingly - medical devices.... and Embase is also strong on topics that you would expect to find in any biomedical database, such as public health, basic and applied science, and health policy.
But in addition, Embase covers several “less core” health-related topics, as illustrated here. For example, pollution control was initiated as an Excerpta Medica Abstract Journal in 1971 and continues to this day.And last but not least, with the expansion of Embase to include all of MEDLINE, Embase now has significant coverage in nursing, dentistry and veterinary science – subjects which used to be traditionally under-represented in Embase.
So where does that leave us?Taking a holistic view, Embase today covers almost 8,000 active biomedical journals.Almost 5,400 of these titles are indexed at Embase, meaning that they are indexed directly by Embase indexers. These are shown in the dark blue line at the top.Articles from a further 2,500 journals, shown here in the yellow box, are indexed by MEDLINE, sent to the Embase production site and loaded on Embase after conversion to Embase format. Details of the conversion are given in a white paper from 2011.And the centre box, in green, shows that over 3,000 journals are shared by Embase and MEDLINE – which is not surprising given that both Embase and MEDLINE cover the same broad topic of biomedicine.This leaves nearly 2,400 journals in the blue box on the left that are unique to Embase. The following slides show where they come from.
I’ve already mentioned that Embase and MEDLINE differ in their coverage of biomedical literature from different parts of the world.This slide shows that almost 50% of all Embase journals come from Europe, with another one-third from North America, defined here as the US, Canada and Mexico.
If we compare this with the coverage of MEDLINE on PubMed, you can see that MEDLINE has significantly greater coverage of North American titles, but that this is at the expense of MEDLINE’s coverage of biomedical literature from all other parts of the world.For example, only 6.4% of MEDLINE’s titles are from Asia.That percentage was 9.3% for all of Embase.
These differences are due to the very different distribution of Embase’s unique journals. In fact a full 82% of Embase-unique titles are from outside North America, and - using the same example as before - over 16% of Embase-unique titles are from Asia.On the next slide I’ll show you more details of the coverage of Asian journals in Embase ...
... as you can see, most of the Embase unique coverage (shown in the right hand column) is from Japan, India and China, but there are significant contributions from South Korea, Pakistan, Singapore + several other countries.
A rather different way of viewing Embase’s content is to use the language of the articles indexed.As expected, the vast majority of articles in both Embase and MEDLINE are written in English, although in the case of Embase there are significantly more non-English records.In fact, for almost all non-English languages Embase has more content than MEDLINE. This is quite pronounced for Chinese (shown here near the bottom of the table), but it is just as true for most European languages.
All of this data can be obtained from the list of Embase journals at the Embase info site. As you can see (in two columns near the right), this table includes a list of priority journals (which I will explain in a moment) and shows for which journals Embase includes Articles-in-Press content.
This brings us to the question: how are journals selected for Embase in the first place?A key factor is journal quality, which is judged primarily on the basis of the 3 factors shown here: the existence of a peer review process, the availability of English language articles, and the reputation of the publisher.Each year, as journal samples are requested and reviewed by our editorial team, they are scored for journal quality.In the last quarter of each year, journal quality is weighed together with other factors such as the topic, country of origin, language in order to ensure a good representation of core topics such as drugs and pharmacology; of countries of origin outside North America; and non-English language coverage. These factors are given extra weight in the final selection. Finally, the selected new titles are added to Embase from the beginning of the new year.The priority journal label which I mentioned before is assigned to journals purely on the basis of their quality, and is searchable as a Quick Limit.
As a result of these journal selection policies, Embase has grown significantly over the last few years.For example in 2012, Embase grew by 274 titles compared with the previous year. This is a growth rate of 3.5%, and corresponds well with the reported long term average growth in biomedical journal literature.
The 10 major AiP publishers are: BMJ Publishing Group, BioMed Central, Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, Georg Thieme, Karger, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Nature Publishing Group, Springer, and Wiley Blackwell
All questions are collected, answered and sent to all attendees. They are also added to our Embase FAQs if not already present.
We have come to the end of our Embase webinar. Thank you for attending and thank you Ian for this fascinating overview of Embase content sources and policies. As well as deep dives into Embase, we also offer Introductory webinars and the next one is scheduled for June 20th. You will receive a link to the webinar calendar in a follow-up email and please feel free to register for as many Embase webinars as you wish. And of course send it to your colleagues. When you leave the session, a survey will pop up. Please fill out what your thoughts are regarding this webinar and so help us to improve future webinars. Besides this you will receive the Q&A by e-mail shortly and we will place the recording of this session on the Elsevier training desk website and Embase YouTube channel. Many thanks again, good luck with further exploring Embase and we hope to meet you again soon.
Embase content & coverage Embase 1947 - 2012 Scope now extends over many niches in biomedicine Multiple perspectives highlight different aspects of Embase
Agenda• Scope and coverage• Embase focus areas• Journal content 2012• Journals by country & language• Journal selection policy
Evolution of Embase (1947-2012) Excerpta Medica Abstract Journals (1947/8) - 15 abstract journal titles, growing to more than 40 - abstract journals (not citation indexes) - controlled indexing (later branded as “Emtree”) EMBASE database online (1974) - first commercial offering via Lockheed Dialog - now available on multiple online platforms EMBASE becomes Embase (2009) - additional MEDLINE content licensed from NLM - online availability extended back to 1947 - original abstracts (1947-1974) become available as Embase Classic
Embase scope and coverage (2012) Other topics 28% Including public health, basic biomedical science and topics included from MEDLINE
Embase vs MEDLINE scopeSimilar overall pattern of coverage... but with two major differences1. Pharmacology & toxicology Embase: 11.2% (889 titles) MEDLINE: 8.3% (465 titles) Clinical Medicine Insights: Therapeutics New Zealand African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Nigeria Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia Spain Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi Turkey Arhiv za Farmaciju Serbia2. General clinical medicine Salud(i)Ciencia Argentina Salus Venezuela Embase: 10.5% (835 titles) Sapporo Medical journal Japan Scientia Medica Brazil MEDLINE: 8.9% (495 titles) Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences Iran
Embase focus areas Peer-reviewed literature in biomedical science - Drug therapy and research, including pharmacology, toxicology, pharmaceutics and pharmacoeconomics - Clinical and experimental (human) medicine, including psychiatry and mental health - Biomedical engineering + medical devices - Public health, including occupational and environmental health - Basic and applied biological science relevant to human medicine, e.g. physiology, biotechnology and forensic science - Health policy and management
Embase content - additional topics Embase traditionally includes much literature in health-related topics such as: - Complementary and alternative medicine 89 journal titles in Embase e.g. Osteopathische Medizin (Urban und Fischer) - Substance dependence and abuse traditional topics initiated - Pollution control relevant to human medicine as EM abstract journals In addition, with the expansion to include all of MEDLINE, Embase now has extensive coverage of: - Nursing 270 titles - Dentistry 183 titles - Veterinary science 123 titles
Embase (active) journals in 2012Embase: now covers 7960 journals (20 March 2012)Indexed at Embase (5396 titles) Indexed by MEDLINE (e.g on PubMed) (5592 titles) 2368 journals 3028 journals 2564 journals* Indexed at Embase Indexed at Embase Indexed by MEDLINE Unique to Embase Also covered by MEDLINE Also in MEDLINESearch: Search: Search: [embase]/lim AND [medline]/lim NOT [embase]/lim [medline]/lim [embase]/lim * Converted to Embase format as described in the “Coverage of MEDLINE in Embase” white paper (May 2011)
Embase journals by country(all 7,960 titles in 2012) RoW * Asia 7.2% Europe 9.3% 49.7% 33.8% North America * RoW = Rest of the World (esp. Australia & New Zealand, Africa, South America)
MEDLINE journals (on PubMed)(5,592 titles* in 2012) Asia RoW 4.6% Europe 6.4% 48.5% 40.5% North America * As defined within Embase, with some titles merged
Embase unique journals(2,368 titles not in MEDLINE) RoW 13.2% Europe Asia 16.2% 52.7% 17.9% North America 82% of Embase-unique titles are from outside N. America
Asian journal coverage in Embase Country Embase MEDLINE Embase unique Japan 223 159 64 India 197 45 152 China 143 89 54 South Korea 50 20 30 Pakistan 35 5 30 Singapore 31 12 19 Taiwan 17 7 10 Bangladesh 11 3 8 Hong Kong 10 3 7 Malaysia 9 4 5 Nepal 6 5 1 Thailand 5 4 1 Indonesia 2 1 1 Sri Lanka 2 1 1 Philippines 1 1
Article language Language Embase (2010) * MEDLINE (2010) *** English 824,587 (89%) ** 661,667 (92%) Non-English 11% 8% German 17,320 7,004 French 13,552 8,827 Spanish 12,519 7,311 Portuguese 5,303 4,004 Italian 3,146 1,672 Turkish 3,646 675 Chinese 23,757 11,523 Japanese 7,820 5,655 * [embase]/lim OR [medline]/lim AND /py AND english:la ** also excluding conference abstracts *** [medline]/lim AND /py AND english:la
Embase List of Journals *Active Embase journal titles Print Indexed at Priority Articles Indexed by e-ISSN Publisher Country(20 March 2012) ISSN Embase journal in Press MedlineJournal of interpersonal Sage United 08862605 15526518 Yesviolence Publications StatesJournal of interprofessional Informa United 13561820 14699567 Yescare Healthcare KingdomJournal of Interventional Springer 1383875X 15728595 Netherlands Yes Yes Yes YesCardiac Electrophysiology NetherlandsJournal of Interventional Blackwell United 08964327 15408183 Yes Yes Yes YesCardiology Publishing Inc StatesJournal of Interventional Landes United 21541280 21541299 YesGastroenterology Bioscience StatesJournal of Interventional Decker 19160518 19160518 Canada YesOncology Publishing * Full list available from: http://www.embase.com/info/what-is-embase/coverage
Journal selection policy Journal quality Judged primarily by 3 factors: - editorial board / peer review process - articles written in English language - publication by one of ca. 100 major publishers Journal selection process Q1-Q3: journal samples are reviewed & scored for quality Q4: selection is based on quality, topic, country/language Q1 : selected new journal content is added to Embase Priority journals - journal quality indicator, not an indicator of processing speed - searchable as a Quick Limit (see Advanced Search) - Embase currently has 2233 priority journals
PollThe following slides were used to answer 3poll topics: oRecords in Embase compared to MEDLINE oHow to search for AiP, In Process and conference abstracts oEmbase workflow and currencyThe audience voted to show indicatetheir preferences.
Records in Embase All-in TOTAL in Embase 25,153,489 records * Of which: Indexed at Embase 15,771,895 records Delivered by MEDLINE 9,381,594 records (MeSH terms mapped to Emtree) Other data: MEDLINE on PubMed 19,673,026 records Embase-unique on Embase 5,585,597 records Embase Classic (1947-1974) ** 1,820,335 records * Results on 13 May 2012; excludes Articles in Press / In-process ** Available with Embase as part of Embase.com
Additional Embase content All-in TOTAL in Embase 25,153,489 records * Of which: Conferences (2009 - present) 2,420 conferences Conference abstracts (2009 - present) 718,694 abstracts Pre-indexed data: Articles in Press 105,073 records In Process records 13,315 records * Results on 13 May 2012; excludes Articles in Press / In-process
Embase List of Conferences * Conference Name (Embase entry date Conference ConferenceYear Source Abst Entry Date up to 31 March 2012) Location Date Neuropathology and Applied 113th Meeting of the British London, United 2012-01-11 to2012 78 07-Feb-12 Neurobiology (2012) 38 SUPPL. 1 Neuropathological Society Kingdom 2012-01-13 Neurourology and Urodynamics 2012 Annual Winter Meeting of the Society New Orleans, LA, 2012-02-28 to2012 182 12-Mar-12 (2012) 31:2 for Urodynamics and Female Urology United States 2012-03-03 6th World Congress - World Institute of Miami Beach, FL, 2012-02-04 to2012 Pain Practice (2012) 12 SUPPL. 1 740 03-Feb-12 Pain United States 2012-02-06 Parkinsonism and Related WFN 19th World Congress on Parkinsons 2011-12-11 to2012 Shanghai, China 908 04-Jan-12 Disorders (2012) 18 SUPPL. 2 Disease and Related Disorders 2011-12-14 Pediatrics International (2012) 54 10th International Kawasaki Disease 2012-02-07 to2012 Kyoto, Japan 289 29-Feb-12 SUPPL. 1 Symposium - "From Genetics to Clinics" 2012-02-10 Peritoneal Dialysis International San Antonio, TX, 2012-02-26 to2012 32nd Annual Dialysis Conference 96 29-Mar-12 (2012) 32 SUPPL. 1 United States 2012-02-28 Psycho-Oncology (2012) 21 9th Annual Conference of the American Miami, FL, 2012-02-23 to2012 232 21-Feb-12 SUPPL. 1 Psychosocial Oncology Society, APOS United States 2012-02-25 Reproduction, Fertility and Annual Conference of the International Phoenix, AZ, 2012-01-07 to2012 240 28-Dec-11 Development (2012) 24:1 Embryo Transfer Society, IETS 2012 United States 2012-01-10 Reproduction, Fertility and Phoenix, AZ, 2012-01-07 to2012 DABE Symposium 2012 12 28-Dec-11 Development (2012) 24:1 United States 2012-01-07 Rheumatology (2012) 51 SUPPL. 2012-01-25 to2012 Excellence in Rheumatology 2012 Madrid, Spain 146 21-Feb-12 1 2012-01-28* Full list available on: http://www.embase.com/info/what-is-embase/conference-coverage
Embase workflow Articles Journal issue (pre-pub) (published) (160K records) (300K records) <1 week <2 weeks update update Articles in In process Fully indexed Press (AiPs) records (IPs) <1 week records 1m records 260K records 420K records Deduplication MEDLINE + conversion (>700K records) articles <1 week single step 250K records Journal (supp.) Conference (published) abstracts
Embase currency (2009-2012)5.0 Weeks ahead (Embase vs MEDLINE on PubMed)4.03.02.01.00.01.0 Data for 6 journals tracked2.0 from 2009 – present *3.04.0 Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar 2009 2010 2011 * BMJ, JAMA, New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Nature, Science
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