FAMILY, PEERS, AND
• Pattern of emotional turmoil characteristic of a minority of
adolescents that may involve conflict with family, alienation from
adult society, reckless behaviour, and rejection of adult values.
• Contrary to popular belief, most adolescents are not ticking time
bombs. Those raised in homes with a positive family atmosphere
tend to come through adolescence with no serious problems.
Changing Time Use and Changing
• One way to measure changes in adolescents’ relationship with the important
people in their lives is to see how they spend their discretionary time.
• Cultural Variations in time use reflect varying cultural needs, values, and
• Ethnicity may affect family connectedness
Adolescents and Parents
• Relationships with parents during adolescence – the degree of
conflict and openness of communication – are grounded largely in
the emotional closeness developed in childhood; and adolescent
relationships with parents, in turn, set the stage for the quality of
the relationship with a partner in adulthood.
•Individuation and Family Conflict Individuation
Individuation - Adolescents struggle for autonomy and personal
- The process of forming a stable personality. As a
person individuates, he gains a clearer sense of self
that is separate from parents and others around him.
Adolescent and Peers
• Adolescents spend more time with peers. Although 1-to-1
friendships still continue, cliques – structured groups of friends who
do things together – become more important.
• A larger type of grouping, the crowd, is not based on personal
interactions but on reputation, image, or identity. Crowd
membership is a social construction, a set of labels by which young
people divide the social map based on
neighborhood, ethnicity, socio-economic status or factors.
The IT crowd
(“IT” or Mean Girls)
• Romantic Relationships are a central part of most adolescents’
social worlds. It tends to become more intense and more intimate
• Early adolescents think primarily about how
a romantic relationship may affect their
status in a peer group.
• Middle adolescents have at least one
exclusive partner lasting for several months
or a year and the effect of the choice of
partner on peer status tends to become less
• In late adolescence, romantic relationships
begin to serve the full gamut of emotional
needs that such relationships can serve and
then only in relatively long-term