SM       Usability and the SDLC       USABILITY BEHAVIORSUsability & User Experience Design
SM   What are Patterns   What are Patterns?                What are Usability Patterns?   • Patterns are a general        ...
SM   Benefits of Using Patterns   • Teaches novices best practices and common approaches   • Captures collective wisdom of...
SM   47 Usability Patterns Identified and   Documented   •    Concept Video                •   Swimlanes                  ...
SM   Mapping the Mess                                                                            Producing the Design     ...
SM       The Usable Design       PLANNING THE DESIGNUsability & User Experience Design
SM   Solution as Product   Things to Consider                                                   Patterns Associated   • Th...
SM   Planning & Strategy   Things to Consider                Patterns Associated   • Why am I doing this?                 ...
SM       The Usable Design       DESIGNING THE DESIGNUsability & User Experience Design
SM   The User   Things to Consider                Patterns Associated   • Who are your users?                        User ...
SM   The Ecosystem   Things to Consider                Patterns Associated   • Where do our users use our                 ...
SM   The Information   Things to Consider                Patterns Associated   • How will I categorize the                ...
SM       The Usable Design       PRODUCING THE DESIGNUsability & User Experience Design
SM   The Design Process   Things to Consider                Patterns Associated   • How will I make this design           ...
SM   The Design Deliverables   Things to Consider                Patterns Associated   • What do I need to actually       ...
SM       The Usable Design       STATISTICS & ANALYTICSUsability & User Experience Design
SM   Analytics & Quantification   Things to Consider                Patterns Associated   • Enough of this touchy feely   ...
SM                      SDLC – “V” Model Relationship                      Planning   Analysis            Design          ...
SM   Card Sort                                                       Card Sort   What:          Activity where a participa...
SM   Design the Box                                              Design the Box   What          Project teams create a box...
SM   Digital Ethnography                               Digital Ethnography   What       In-game or online observation     ...
SM   Kano Analysis                                       Kano Analysis   What          Survey method that          determi...
SM   Personas                                                  Personas   What          A composite character created     ...
SM   Rapid Facilitation                                       Rapid Facilitation   What          Workshop approach that fo...
SM   Alignment Model                                        Alignment Model   What          Diagram that breaks down user ...
SM   Facets                                                  Facets   What          Classification approach that          ...
SM   Page Description Diagram                            Page Description Diagram   What          Comprehensive inventory ...
SM   Process Flow                                       Process Flow   What          Diagram to show process that         ...
SM   Site Map                                             Site Map   What          Diagram to show overall site          s...
SM   Swimlanes                                                  Swimlanes   What          Diagram that shows parallel     ...
SM   Tagging                                                 Tagging   What          Classification approach that relies  ...
SM   Wireframe                                              Wireframe   What          One step past sketching shows       ...
SM   Web Analytics                                         Web Analytics   What          Measurement tool that          an...
SM   Usability Testing                                   Usability Testing   What          Real users test drive a        ...
SM   Taxonomy                                            Taxonomy   What          A hierarchical classification          s...
SM   Ethnography                                           Ethnography   What          Anthropological approach          f...
SM   Wireflow                                                           Wireflow   What          This lovechild of wirefra...
SM   Backcasting                                         Backcasting   What          Planning tool that works          bac...
SM   User Scenario                                           User Scenario   What          Storytelling approach to design...
SM   Experience Map                                      Experience Map   What          Visualization of experience       ...
SM   Paper Prototype                                       Paper Prototype   What          Prototype of a system with     ...
SM   Ecosystem Visualization                             Ecosystem Visualization   What          Model of connections betw...
SM   Search Analytics                                            Search Analytics   What          Log analysis and visuali...
SM   Conversation Sketching                                Conversation Sketching   What          Participatory method for...
SM   Free Listing                                              Free Listing   What          Classification research method...
SM   Design Pattern                                      Design Pattern   What          Repeatable, bite-sized solution   ...
SM   Service Design                                      Service Design   What          Design approach that focuses      ...
SM   Usability Capture Software                            Usability Capture Software   What          Software that record...
SM   Sketchboard                                                    Sketchboard   What          Collaborative sketching te...
SM   Controlled Vocabulary                                  Controlled Vocabulary   What          A set of canonical terms...
SM   A / B Testing                                                     A / B Testing   What          A testing procedure i...
SM   Affinity Diagram                                            Affinity Diagram   What          A method for sorting and...
SM   Collaborative Inspection                              Collaborative Inspection   What          A group usability revi...
SM   Concept Model                                                Concept Model   What          A diagram that visualizes ...
SM   Diary Study                                            Diary Study   What          A data collection method in       ...
SM   Five Sketches™                                                Five Sketches™   What          A structured, group meth...
SM   GOMS                                                                                           GOMS   (Goals, Operato...
SM   Concept Video                                        Concept Video   What          A method for exploring design     ...
SM   Participatory Design                                        Participatory Design   What          An approach to desig...
SM   Scenario Planning                                          Scenario Planning   What          A story-telling method f...
SM   Six Thinking Hats                                             Six Thinking Hats   What          A tactic that helps y...
SM   Heuristic Evaluation                                        Heuristic Evaluation   What          A form of usability ...
SM   Tangible Futures                                            Tangible Futures   What          Artifacts created to rep...
SM   Five Whys                                                  Five Whys   What          A technique used to probe the ro...
SM   Task Analysis                                             Task Analysis   What          A study of the actions and co...
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Usability behaviors: Usability and the SDLC

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A rather long overview of Usability. Mainly taken from elsewhere on the internet. Can be used to see how well you are doing with usability as a behavior your company involves itself in.

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  • Pattern Name : Card Sort Classification: Information ArchitectureIntent: Often used to guide navigation design, card sorting analysis shows how often participants grouped specific cards together. Discussing why the cards are placed in a particular pile yields deeper insight into user expectations for content.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces): A new section of functionality is being turned on in an application. How are these functions going to be grouped together? What are they going to be called?Applicability: A Taxonomy is needed for a given problem set. The designers working on the problem are not domain experts. Performing a Card Sort will create a Taxonomy. Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants: SMEs, Users, Information ArchitectsCollaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences: The card sorting exercise will not take into account that you might have different classes of users. For example an experienced person with a given business process might sort the cards one way, while a new user to the given process might sort the cards another way. This technique will start to close the gap on open options, but it might also identify that you have several classes of users. It will not identify those classes of users.Implementation:To perform a card sort:1. A person representative of the audience is given a set of index cards with terms already written on them. 2. This person puts the terms into logical groupings, and finds a category name for each grouping. 3. This process is repeated across a population of test subjects. 4. The results are later analyzed to reveal patterns. In an open card sort, participants create their own names for the categories.This helps reveal not only how they mentally classify the cards, but also what terms they use for the categories.Open sorting is generative; it is typically used to discover patterns in how participants classify, which in turn helps generate ideas for organizing information.In a closed card sort, participants are provided with a predetermined set of category names. They then assign the index cards to these fixed categories.This helps reveal the degree to which the participants agree on which cards belong under each category.Closed sorting is evaluative; it is typically used to judge whether a given set of category names provides an effective way to organize a given collection of content.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses: SAP Portal NavigationRelated Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Design the BoxClassification: Project Team ManagementIntent: Forces conversation about what really matters about the project. Constrains conversation to a specific format to boost productivity of discussion. Creates a common, tangible touchstone that communicates shared product vision to many different viewpoints.Also Known As: MerchandisingMotivation (Forces): A team is looking at delivering a set of features. There isn’t a common understanding as to what is important. You can Design the box to get the team on the same page as well as focus the group on what the priorities are. Applicability: Focus is needed early on in a project. This is especially true if the project is going to be long and expensive. Do this early to focus the team. Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants: Stake Holders and Key Project Team Members early in the project.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences: You might oversell the Stake Holders. The other trap is that designer and project team mebers are now forced to sell the project. This is not their core strength. By creating a product you are going backwards from delivering a service. Services are customized products. This technique should only be used if your application is product focused.Implementation:Project teams create a box for the project as if it is going to be sold at retail. Typical box elements include product name, tagline, key benefits, and features. Can also include visual tone and initial preferences for design direction. May create actually physical boxes, or just digital renderings. The “Box” might also be a poster or other sales material.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses: Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Digital EthnographyClassification: User Experience Management: ClassificationIntent:Understand users hopes, needs, priorities and desires when designing for people who use virtual spaces like World of Warcraft, Xbox Live games, or Second Life, or participate in communities with strong activity on forums, photo and video sharing sites.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces): You need to identify usage patterns, environmental variables, and the vocabulary used by a group of potential users. You know you do not want to use a one size fits all approach.Applicability: An application is being put together for a group of people who currently use your online website to pay their bills. This application will allow individuals who use it quicker access to their information. However you want to only give this application to a certain type of user. One who is technologically savvy and who cares about his interactions with the company.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants: Potential Users, EthnographerCollaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:In-game or online observation of user activities and conversation. May also include interviews with participants. Documents activities, context, environment, use of specific vocabulary, and other characteristics of digital experiences.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Kano AnalysisClassification: Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Allows quantitative analysis of feature priority to guide development efforts and specifications. Ensures that organization understands what is valued by users. Less effective for new product categories.Also Known As: Kano ModelMotivation (Forces): You have a need to categorize features by basic must-haves, which features create user satisfaction, and which features delight. Applicability: You have a list of business requirements, however you know that in the current phase of the project, you will not be able to get everything done. You are going to use a Cycle methodology, and you need to know which features the users will want as basic must have’s, which features will excite them, and which are low impact features. In any given release, you will want to include at least one delightful / exciting features. Additionally on your first release you will probably want to include as many basic / must have features. Use Kano Analysis to identify which features are which.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants: Potential Users, SurveyorCollaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences: This tool tells you about user perceptions. Remember this limitation, you might want to measure something else. Implementation: Survey method that determines how people value features and attributes in a known product domain. Shows what features are basic must-haves, which features create user satisfaction, and which features delight.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : PersonasClassification: User Experience Management: ClassificationIntent: Creates empathy for the specific user and avoids self-referential design. Focus on accomplishing specific goals allows the product to satisfy many people with that goal, whether or not they match a specific market segment.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces): You know your users are grouped into several types or kinds. You know that each group will require a different set of use cases. Develop a couple persona’s which describe these basic buckets of users. Applicability: You may use this pattern when you already know the different buckets your users are already divided into. Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants: Project Team, Potential UsersCollaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences: You need to have a large user base to justify the cost of segmenting your user population into separate use cases based on their persona. Implementation: A composite character created to personify a specific segment of users. Includes a name, picture, user quotes and other info with a focus on goals, motivation, and behavior. Based on user research, personas are often paired with representative scenarios.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Rapid FacilitationClassification: Project Team ManagementIntent: Many projects sunk by lack of unity, unclear objectives, business unit infighting, and people trying to solve different problems with the same initiatives. Rapid facilitation mitigates these risks.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces): A new system will be implemented. Each of the different groups using the new system have a different approach to the business process being automated. In addition many of the people doing the design and development work on the application are from one side of the house which has their own way of doing the processes to be addressed by this endeavor. Applicability: You want to use the approach when differing classes of stakeholders have competing and differing ways of framing the problem set at hand. Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants: Project Team, Users, Stakeholders, Project ManagementCollaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences: This approach is only useful if the outcomes derived from the facilitation are agreed to be adopted and followed. It will not solve the problem of a lack of unity if there is no desire to do this.Implementation: Workshop approach that focuses on framing the right problems at the start of a project. Relies on user, business, and market discovery to prepare for intensive sessions with decision makers. Creates touchstones to bridge competing viewpoints and create shared vision. Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Alignment ModelClassification: Information Architecture, Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Provides gap analysis, shows product opportunities, and helps develop task-based information architecture. Serves as a roadmap, and anchors conversations about future features and content in actual user needs instead of individual stakeholder agendas.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces): A system is being developed with a lot of features. Each of these features are aligned to certain user behaviors. My corralling these features into buckets centered on user behavior you can have a single developer or team focus on that limited user experience as opposed to having that group spread all across the application. You can also use this model to begin the process of limiting features or triaging them into separate releases.Applicability: Use this pattern when you have large complex applications that need to be developed that contain a complex feature set.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants: Designer, EngineerCollaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences: This pattern might find you looping back and further refining the design requirements in the business requirements documentation phases. Additionally, as you start aligning requirements and activities to each other, you might find missing requirements.Implementation: Diagram that breaks down user activities into discrete tasks, arranges these activities in columns, and then uses the same columns to align the product features, functions, and content that support these activities. May also align business objectives.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name :FacetsClassification: Information ArchitectureIntent: Facets allow more flexible classification and navigation rather than only finding a specific content item through a fixed path (as in a taxonomy) users can browse by the facets that matter the most to them. Facets are often used to refine search queries as well.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces): You are developing an application focused on several complex objects with require the user to drill down quickly and find the one they need. Facets are a way to describe attributes of an object in a way that is distinguishing to users.Applicability: Shopping carts, Inventory systems, any system with a large object count. Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants: Users, SMEs, Design Team.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation: Classification approach that assigns values for a set of mutually exclusive categories (or facets) to a specific content item in a group of similar objects. For used car listings, such facets would include price, color, make, model, year, mileage, and location.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Page Description DiagramClassification: Project Team Management, User Experience ManagementIntent: Documents the elements of each page without specifying layout. May be used instead of wireframes, or preceding wireframes. Allows greater collaboration between team members responsible for visual design and functional specification.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Process FlowClassification: Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Documents how a person can use the system to accomplish different tasks. Ensures that error conditions and alternate paths are considered.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name :Site MapClassification: Information ArchitectureIntent: Document site structure to ensure that all content is accounted for. Guides navigation design, site index, and content migration. Good for hierarchical organization, less effective visualizing very large sites, facets or tags.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : SwimlanesClassification: Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Ensures alignment and integration of task flow with business process and technical requirements. Allows understanding of all components of a specific process in one document, while allowing clearer separation, responsibility, and delegation.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : TaggingClassification: Information Architecture, User Experience ManagementIntent: Metadata for the masses. Allows users to add any term without complying with a controlled vocabulary. Facilitates pivoting & discovery of similar content with the same tag, or related tags applied to the same content. Complements other classification approaches.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : WireframeClassification: User Experience Management, Technical Requirements Management, Project Team ManagementIntent: Communicate the specifications for individual pages or templates. Also used as prototype for usability testing. Prevents premature conversations about surface issues like color, instead focuses discussion on correct and complete content and functionality.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Web AnalyticsClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: Allows real time view of user behavior on websites. Particularly strong for measuring user intent through search terms, trouble spots where users leave, and conversion goals for marketing and sales.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Usability TestingClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: Understand what works and what doesn’t. Often included in iterative development with each cycle so that the product continually improves. Excels at finding specific interface problems, including layout, labeling, and interaction.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : TaxonomyClassification: Information ArchitectureIntent: Can structure a set of content such as a website by assigning individual taxonomy terms to specific content or pages or vice versa. Works in conjunction with other classification and findability systems like facets, tagging, and search. Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : EthnographyClassification: User Experience Management: ClassificationIntent: Provides rich insights into behavior, experience, and expectations within a system and can reveal unmet needs and opportunities for teams to differentiate their products and services.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : WireflowClassification: Information Architecture, Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Provides comprehensive canonical picture of system interaction in one document. Can see key interactions and relationships at a glance. Caution: very labor-intensive to maintain as the system changes through iterations.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : BackcastingClassification: Project Team ManagementIntent: Teams are better at picturing the future by working backwards from an ideal instead of forwards from the current state of things. Backcasting provides a boost for innovation and planning efforts compared to starting from the status quo.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : User ScenarioClassification: User Experience Management, Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Brings users to life while keeping focus on tasks and behavior. Scenarios can link together to tell the entire story of a product or service. Easy to explore and iterate, scenarios complement personas, and can lead to more detailed use cases.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Experience MapClassification: Business Requirements Management, Continuous ImprovementIntent: A holistic view of experience through time with specific touch points promotes better coordination of cross-channel design and reveals opportunities for new or improved interactions.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Paper PrototypeClassification: Business Requirements Management, Project Team ManagementIntent: Explore many alternative solutions with low costs and little risk. Low fidelity format encourages experimentation, honest critique, rapid iteration. Keeps teams from getting too attached to one solution. Used in early usability testing.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Ecosystem VisualizationClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: Overall ecosystem view illustrates niches, threats, opportunities, and necessary connections. New offerings need to integrate, replicate, or route around ecosystem elements to gain user adoption and market share.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Search AnalyticsClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: Search queries help reveal user intentions on the website, show content that is missing or hard to find, and help teams optimize the information architecture and design of the site to improve findability and provide a better experience.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Conversation SketchingClassification: Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Provides a framework for participants to articulate their ideas. Explores underlying motivations that drive feature suggestions. Looking at root causes offers more opportunities for real solutions than simply adopting requested features.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Free ListingClassification: Information ArchitectureIntent: Alternative to card sorting, shows what terms have strongest associations within the category for participants. Debriefing with participants afterwards can reveal patterns, preferences, and expectations related to content categories.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Design PatternClassification: Technical Requirements Management, Project Team ManagementIntent: Avoids re-inventing the wheel. Improves re-use and consistency of solutions while capturing knowledge and best practice from multiple teams in a structured, modular format that makes it easy to reference and find for future projects.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Service DesignClassification: Project Team ManagementIntent: Applies many of the tools from product design to creating human-centered services. Lower barrier to entry for innovation for services compared to mature product categories. Uncovers new markets for business and new value for users.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Usability Capture SoftwareClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: Turns an ordinary PC and webcam into a usability lab. Provides lower cost options for bolstering the impact of study findings by showing video of users struggling with specific issues. Remote capability allows for usability testing from across the street or across the continent.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.http://www.techsmith.com/morae.asp
  • Pattern Name : SketchboardClassification: Business Requirements Management, Technical Requirements ManagementIntent: Design the big picture of a site or application without getting bogged down in incremental detail like wireframes can. Collaborative low-fi format keeps project criteria at hand to build common ground. Large paper background offers "roll up and go" portability to take the work to others on the team.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Controlled VocabularyClassification: User Experience Management, Project Team Management, Information ArchitectureIntent: Guides uniform use of descriptive vocabulary in an organization to facilitate findability and make metadata more consistent. Works in tandem with other classification tools like tags and facets.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns: Tags, Facets
  • Pattern Name : A/B TestingClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: Can be valuable in refining elements on a web page. Altering the size, placement, or color of a single element, or the wording of a single phrase can have dramatic effects. A / B Testing measures the results of these changes. Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Affinity DiagramClassification: Information ArchitectureIntent: Participants can experiment with different arrangements to see which makes the most sense. Affinity Diagramming helps to expose crucial relationships and patterns in data that may not be initially apparent.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Collaborative InspectionClassification: Business Requirements Management, Technical Requirements Management, Project Team ManagementIntent: Because many points of view are represented, collaborative inspections can be more thorough and efficient than expert reviews. Collaborative sessions also allow for discussions between stakeholders that might reveal deeper insights. Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants: Stakeholders, designers, developers, domain experts, and end users Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Concept ModelClassification: Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Can help to explain how a series of complex, interrelated ideas correspond to one another. Builds an understanding of a body of knowledge, and helps to uncover misunderstandings. Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Diary StudyClassification: Business Requirements Management, Continuous ImprovementIntent: Can help to unearth motivations and processes that participants would be unable to articulate in more conventional interviews. Gives participants the opportunity to reflect on what they do over time, and why they do it & something many don’t do on a regular basis.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants: End Users.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Five Sketches™Classification: Business Requirements Management, Technical Requirements ManagementIntent: This is a simple method for engaging developers and other 'non-designers' in discussion. It's a fast way to explore multiple solutions, facilitate discussion, and build consensus.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation: Given a specific problem statement, each participant separately sketches five solutions, then shares, combines and adds to those sketches several times before any analysis begins. After identifying many solutions together, each participant sketches what they think is a good solution. Those sketches are critiqued—the team considers developer concerns, usability standards, and market requirements—and then resketched to help select a single way forward.Since each participants brings many ideas, and since the team also iterates and combines the ideas, there’s no “ownership” of ideas. This diffuses the tendency for each person to defend “their” idea, and makes it easier to respond to design critiques. Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : GOMSClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: Quantitatively, GOMS gives good predictions of performance time and learning. Qualitatively, a GOMS model is a description of the knowledge needed to perform a given task, essentially describing the content needed for task-oriented documentation.Also Known As: CMN-GOMS Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences: These methodologies do not address unpredictability on your users. The techniques are very explicit about basic movement operations, but are generally less rigid with basic cognitive actions. It is a fact that slips cannot be prevented, but none of the GOMS models allow for any type of error. Further, all of the techniques work under the assumption that a user will know what to do at any given point - so they apply only to expert users, not novices.Functionality of the system is not considered, only the usability. If functionality were considered, the evaluation could make recommendations as to which functions should be performed by the system (i.e. mouse snap). User personalities, habits or physical restrictions (for example disabilities) are not accounted for in any of the GOMS models. All users are assumed to be exactly the same. Recently some extensions of GOMS were developed, that allow to formulate GOMS models describing the interaction behavior of disabled usersImplementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Concept VideoClassification: Project Team Management, User Experience ManagementIntent: Some prototyping methods concentrate on the granular details of a design — what functions and controls to include, and how to lay them out. Because concept videos tell stories and avoid minutiae, they are better suited to explaining a new vision.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Participatory DesignClassification: Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Participatory Design sessions enable people with different expertise and skills to contribute equally. Can be an efficient way to get a wide range of input. May enhance user buy-in by making them feel more included, and giving them a greater sense of ownership.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns: Collaborative Inspection
  • Pattern Name : Scenario PlanningClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: Many planning techniques focus on current data and fail to address the unpredictability of future events. Divergent stories help to increase our understanding of our operating environment, and expose our basic assumptions about how the world works.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Six Thinking HatsClassification: Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Can enable better decisions by encouraging individuals or teams to abandon old habits and think in new or unfamiliar ways. Can provide insight into the full complexity of a decision, and highlight issues or opportunities which might otherwise go unnoticed.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Heuristic EvaluationClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: Provides quick, inexpensive usability feedback. Can be a good method early in a development process, as it concentrates on the basics, ensuring that an interface is fundamentally sound before more in-depth testing with real users.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Tangible FuturesClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: Artifacts can be more effective in communicating future trends than text-heavy reports. Their concrete nature may provoke people to think about what they really believe, and about how technology interacts with social, economic, and cultural factors.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Five WhysClassification: Continuous ImprovementIntent: It's not uncommon for a project to focus on the symptoms of a problem, rather than exposing the underlying causes. By asking why, and why, and why again, we gain insight that allows us to address real problems in a way that will make a real difference.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability:Situations in which this pattern is usable; the context for the pattern.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Pattern Name : Task AnalysisClassification: Business Requirements ManagementIntent: Provides deep insight into the steps needed to complete a task. Task Analysis also helps in understanding the mental model formed by people performing the task.Also Known As:Other names for the pattern.Motivation (Forces):A scenario consisting of a problem and a context in which this pattern can be used.Applicability: Task Analysis is helpful when trying to understand a system and its information flows.Structure:A graphical representation of the pattern. Class diagrams and Interaction diagrams may be used for this purpose.Participants:A listing of the classes and objects used in the pattern and their roles in the design.Collaboration:A description of how classes and objects used in the pattern interact with each other.Consequences:A description of the results, side effects, and trade offs caused by using the pattern.Implementation:A description of an implementation of the pattern; the solution part of the pattern.Sample Code:An illustration of how the pattern can be used in a programming languageKnown Uses:Examples of real usages of the pattern.Related Patterns:Other patterns that have some relationship with the pattern; discussion of the differences between the pattern and similar patterns.
  • Usability behaviors: Usability and the SDLC

    1. 1. SM Usability and the SDLC USABILITY BEHAVIORSUsability & User Experience Design
    2. 2. SM What are Patterns What are Patterns? What are Usability Patterns? • Patterns are a general • Usability / Interaction reusable solutions to a Design Patterns are a way commonly occurring to capture optimal solutions problem to common usability or accessibility problems in a specific context.Usability & User Experience Design
    3. 3. SM Benefits of Using Patterns • Teaches novices best practices and common approaches • Captures collective wisdom of designers across many uses and scenarios • Reduces misunderstandings that arise from different vocabulary via a common language • Makes best practices the "path of least resistance" • Eliminates waste "reinventing the wheel" • Ensures a consistent and predictable experienceUsability & User Experience Design
    4. 4. SM 47 Usability Patterns Identified and Documented • Concept Video • Swimlanes • Paper Prototype • Design the Box • Task Analysis • Site Map • Tangible Futures • Affinity Diagram • Sketchboard • Backcasting • Alignment Model • Wireflow • Five Whys • Card Sort • Wireframe • Scenario Planning • Controlled Vocabulary • A/B Testing • Six Thinking Hats • Facets • GOMS • Diary Study • Free Listing • Heuristic Evaluation • Digital Ethnography • Tagging • Kano Analysis • Ethnography • Taxonomy • Search Analytics • Personas • Collaborative Inspection • Usability Capture Software • Service Design • Conversation Sketching • Usability Testing • User Scenario • Five Sketches™ • Web Analytics • Concept Model • Participatory Design • Ecosystem Visualization • Rapid Facilitation • Experience Map • Design Pattern • Process Flow • Page Description DiagramUsability & User Experience Design
    5. 5. SM Mapping the Mess Producing the Design Design the Design Planning the Design Solution as The User The Design Product The Process Planning & Ecosystem The Design Strategy The Deliverables Information Analytics & QuantificationUsability & User Experience Design
    6. 6. SM The Usable Design PLANNING THE DESIGNUsability & User Experience Design
    7. 7. SM Solution as Product Things to Consider Patterns Associated • Think of your solution as a Solution as Product Concept Video product sold in a store • Think of the finished Design the Box product and how it makes the user feel Tangible Futures Note: This is usually done at the Executive Level for the portfolio / company as a whole.Usability & User Experience Design
    8. 8. SM Planning & Strategy Things to Consider Patterns Associated • Why am I doing this? Planning & Strategy Five Whys • What do I need to worry about? Backcasting • How will I get it all done? Scenario Planning • What should I plan for? Six Thinking HatsUsability & User Experience Design
    9. 9. SM The Usable Design DESIGNING THE DESIGNUsability & User Experience Design
    10. 10. SM The User Things to Consider Patterns Associated • Who are your users? User Scenario The User • What makes them tick? Diary Study • How are they similar? Personas • How are they different? Ethnography Digital Ethnography Service DesignUsability & User Experience Design
    11. 11. SM The Ecosystem Things to Consider Patterns Associated • Where do our users use our Concept Model The Ecosystem software? Ecosystem Visualization • What other pieces of Experience Map software will the user use? Task Analysis • How do I move from one user to another? Process Flow • How do I move from one Swimlanes process to another?Usability & User Experience Design
    12. 12. SM The Information Things to Consider Patterns Associated • How will I categorize the Facets The Information data I’m showing to my Card Sort users? Taxonomy • How will I organize the menus? Tagging • How will I group things? Affinity Diagram • How will I communicate Alignment Model clearly to my users? Free Listing Controlled VocabularyUsability & User Experience Design
    13. 13. SM The Usable Design PRODUCING THE DESIGNUsability & User Experience Design
    14. 14. SM The Design Process Things to Consider Patterns Associated • How will I make this design Participatory Design The Design Process work? Rapid Facilitation • How will it all flow Collaborative Inspection together? Conversation Sketching • How will I make sure everyone’s ideas are Five Sketches™ addressed?Usability & User Experience Design
    15. 15. SM The Design Deliverables Things to Consider Patterns Associated • What do I need to actually Wireflow The Design Deliverables deliver to my developers? Page Description • How do I consolidate all the Diagram decisions I’ve made into a Design Pattern physical deliverable? Sketchboard • How do I document my decisions about the design? Paper Prototype Wireframe Site MapUsability & User Experience Design
    16. 16. SM The Usable Design STATISTICS & ANALYTICSUsability & User Experience Design
    17. 17. SM Analytics & Quantification Things to Consider Patterns Associated • Enough of this touchy feely Heuristic Evaluation Quantification Analytics & stuff give me the numbers! Usability Capture • How can I prove what I Software need to do? A/B Testing • How do I know which Kano Analysis design is better? Web Analytics Search Analytics Usability Testing GOMSUsability & User Experience Design
    18. 18. SM SDLC – “V” Model Relationship Planning Analysis Design Construction Test User Acceptance Test Plan Design the DesignPlanning the Design Producing the Design Acceptance BRD Test SRD System Test Plan System & PLA Test Logical Integration Integration Test Plan Design Test Physical UT Plan Unit Design Test Construct Analytics & Quantification Usability & User Experience Design
    19. 19. SM Card Sort Card Sort What: Activity where a participant sorts labeled cards into similar groups. May be an open sort, where piles are created based on only on perceived similarity of cards, or a closed sort where piles are grouped according to provided categories. Why: Often used to guide navigation design, card sorting analysis Used By: shows how often participants grouped specific cards together. Discussing why the cards are placed in a particular pile yields deeper insight into user expectations for content. http://www.flickr.com/photos/nedrichards/Usability & User Experience Design
    20. 20. SM Design the Box Design the Box What Project teams create a box for the project as if it is going to be sold at retail. Typical box elements include product name, tagline, key benefits, and features. Can also include visual tone and initial preferences for design direction. May create actually physical boxes, or just digital renderings. The “Box” might also be a poster or other sales material. Why Forces conversation about what really matters about the project. Constrains conversation to a specific format to boost productivity of discussion. Used By: Creates a common, tangible touchstone that communicates shared product vision to many different viewpoints.Usability & User Experience Design
    21. 21. SM Digital Ethnography Digital Ethnography What In-game or online observation of user activities and conversation. May also include interviews with participants. Documents activities, context, environment, use of specific vocabulary, and other characteristics of digital experiences. Why Understand users hopes, needs, priorities and desires when designing for people who use virtual spaces like World of Used By: Warcraft, Xbox Live games, or Second Life, or participate in communities with strong activity on forums, photo and video sharing sites. http://www.flickr.com/photos/bettinatizzy/Usability & User Experience Design
    22. 22. SM Kano Analysis Kano Analysis What Survey method that determines how people value features and attributes in a known product domain. Shows what features are basic must- haves, which features create user satisfaction, and which features delight. Why Allows quantitative analysis of feature priority to guide development efforts and Used By: specifications. Ensures that organization understands what is valued by users. Less effective for new product categoriesUsability & User Experience Design
    23. 23. SM Personas Personas What A composite character created to personify a specific segment of users. Includes a name, picture, user quotes and other info with a focus on goals, motivation, and behavior. Based on user research, personas are often paired with representative scenarios. Why Creates empathy for the specific user and avoids self- Used By: referential design. Focus on accomplishing specific goals allows the product to satisfy many people with that goal, whether or not they match a specific market segment. http://www.flickr.com/photos/brycej/Usability & User Experience Design
    24. 24. SM Rapid Facilitation Rapid Facilitation What Workshop approach that focuses on framing the right problems at the start of a project. Relies on user, business, and market discovery to prepare for intensive sessions with decision makers. Creates touchstones to bridge competing viewpoints and create shared vision. Why Many projects sunk by lack of unity, unclear objectives, business unit Used By: infighting, and people trying to solve different problems with the same initiatives. Rapid facilitation mitigates these risks. http://www.flickr.com/photos/hectoralejandro/Usability & User Experience Design
    25. 25. SM Alignment Model Alignment Model What Diagram that breaks down user activities into discrete tasks, arranges these activities in columns, and then uses the same columns to align the product features, functions, and content that support these activities. May also align business objectives. Why Provides gap analysis, shows product opportunities, and helps develop task-based information Used By: architecture. Serves as a roadmap, and anchors conversations about future features and content in actual user needs instead of individual stakeholder agendas. http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/Usability & User Experience Design
    26. 26. SM Facets Facets What Classification approach that assigns values for a set of mutually exclusive categories (or facets) to a specific content item in a group of similar objects. For used car listings, such facets would include price, color, make, model, year, mileage, and location. Why Facets allow more flexible classification and navigation rather than only finding a specific Used By: content item through a fixed path (as in a taxonomy) users can browse by the facets that matter the most to them. Facets are often used to refine search queries as well.Usability & User Experience Design
    27. 27. SM Page Description Diagram Page Description Diagram What Comprehensive inventory of all design elements, content, and interface components on a page, arranged in three columns of high, medium, and low priority. Each element is described, and may include a sketch or design for individual components. Why Documents the elements of each page without specifying layout. May be used instead of wireframes, or preceding Used By: wireframes. Allows greater collaboration between team members responsible for visual design and functional specification.Usability & User Experience Design
    28. 28. SM Process Flow Process Flow What Diagram to show process that includes conditions, branching, and logic. Focus on defining possible user behavior and corresponding business rules. Why Documents how a person can use the system to accomplish different tasks. Ensures that error conditions and alternate Used By: paths are considered.Usability & User Experience Design
    29. 29. SM Site Map Site Map What Diagram to show overall site structure and relationships of content. For large sites may document patterns of organization that are applied across similar sections, instead of accounting for every single page. Why Document site structure to ensure that all content is accounted for. Guides Used By: navigation design, site index, and content migration. Good for hierarchical organization, less effective visualizing very large sites, facets or tags.Usability & User Experience Design
    30. 30. SM Swimlanes Swimlanes What Diagram that shows parallel streams for user, business, and technical process flows. May also include a storyboard stream. Arranged for each core product scenario or activity. Provides foundation for use cases Why Ensures alignment and integration of task flow with business process and technical Used By: requirements. Allows understanding of all components of a specific process in one document, while allowing clearer separation, responsibility, and delegation. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mastermaq/Usability & User Experience Design
    31. 31. SM Tagging Tagging What Classification approach that relies on users adding freeform keywords to content. Used on popular sites such as Flickr, Del.icio.us, and 43Things. Often displayed using a tag cloud that scales the font size of a tag with its popularity. Why Metadata for the masses. Allows users to add any term without complying with a controlled vocabulary. Facilitates pivoting & Used By: discovery of similar content with the same tag, or related tags applied to the same content. Complements other classification approaches.Usability & User Experience Design
    32. 32. SM Wireframe Wireframe What One step past sketching shows the layout of an interface screen. Describes each element and behavior. Focus is on layout, labels, and interactions. Avoids finished design elements such as color and photos, instead using placeholders for images, and sometimes copy. Why Communicate the specifications for individual pages or templates. Also used as prototype for Used By: usability testing. Prevents premature conversations about surface issues like color, instead focuses discussion on correct and complete content and functionality.Usability & User Experience Design
    33. 33. SM Web Analytics Web Analytics What Measurement tool that analyzes user behavior based on logs of activity on a website. Includes information such as entry and exit pages, most popular pages, paths through the site, links from other sites, and search terms. Why Allows real time view of user behavior on websites. Particularly strong for Used By: measuring user intent through search terms, trouble spots where users leave, and conversion goals for marketing and sales.Usability & User Experience Design
    34. 34. SM Usability Testing Usability Testing What Real users test drive a prototype or production system. Usually one-on-one, with a participant and moderator, the participant thinks out loud as they complete representative tasks. Typically 6-8 participants per user segment. Why Understand what works and what doesn’t. Often included in Used By: iterative development with each cycle so that the product continually improves. Excels at finding specific interface problems, including layout, labeling, and interaction. http://www.flickr.com/photos/l-i-n-k/Usability & User Experience Design
    35. 35. SM Taxonomy Taxonomy What A hierarchical classification scheme that relates broader parent terms to narrower child terms. Often created as part of a thesaurus that also shows related terms and preferred terms. Why Can structure a set of content such as a website by assigning individual taxonomy terms to specific content or pages or Used By: vice versa. Works in conjunction with other classification and findability systems like facets, tagging, and search.Usability & User Experience Design
    36. 36. SM Ethnography Ethnography What Anthropological approach focused on individual and group behavior in context. Uses contextual observation, interviews, diaries, and artifact collection to investigate customs, rituals, and myths. Why Provides rich insights into behavior, experience, and expectations within a system Used By: and can reveal unmet needs and opportunities for teams to differentiate their products and services.Usability & User Experience Design
    37. 37. SM Wireflow Wireflow What This lovechild of wireframes and flowcharts visualizes interaction within a system by laying out the screens of an application in one large document and drawing the connections between related screen elements. Why Provides comprehensive canonical picture of system interaction in one document. Can see key interactions and relationships at a glance. Caution: very labor-intensive to maintain as the system changes through iterations. Used By: Resources Wireflows come from the Flow Map work of Richard Fulcher, Bryce Glass, and Matt Leacock while at AOL. http://www.leacock.com/deliverables/index.htmlUsability & User Experience Design
    38. 38. SM Backcasting Backcasting What Planning tool that works backwards from an ideal scenario to visualize necessary actions, outcomes, and underlying assumptions. Why Teams are better at picturing the future by working backwards from an ideal instead of forwards from the current state of things. Used By: Backcasting provides a boost for innovation and planning efforts compared to starting from the status quo.Usability & User Experience Design
    39. 39. SM User Scenario User Scenario What Storytelling approach to design that captures user motivations and actions in short, focused, narrative form. Each scenario captures the moment for a particular set of actions focused on meeting a specific need for a user. Typically written, sometimes captured through pictures or video. Why Brings users to life while keeping focus on tasks and behavior. Used By: Scenarios can link together to tell the entire story of a product or service. Easy to explore and iterate, scenarios complement personas, and can lead to more detailed use cases.Usability & User Experience Design
    40. 40. SM Experience Map Experience Map What Visualization of experience across locations, time, and channels. Captures interactions between touch points. Little industry consensus on exact format or content. Why A holistic view of experience through time with specific touch points promotes better coordination of cross-channel Used By: design and reveals opportunities for new or improved interactions. http://www.flickr.com/photos/sethandalexa/Usability & User Experience Design
    41. 41. SM Paper Prototype Paper Prototype What Prototype of a system with screens sketched using markers, sheets of paper, stickies, transparencies, and other simple materials. Why Explore many alternative solutions with low costs and little risk. Low fidelity format encourages experimentation, honest critique, rapid iteration. Used By: Keeps teams from getting too attached to one solution. Used in early usability testing http://www.flickr.com/photos/cesarastudillo/Usability & User Experience Design
    42. 42. SM Ecosystem Visualization Ecosystem Visualization What Model of connections between elements of the whole system that an offering lives in, including products, services, competitors , partners, contributors, and channels. Why Overall ecosystem view illustrates niches, threats, opportunities, Used By: and necessary connections. New offerings need to integrate, replicate, or route around ecosystem elements to gain user adoption and market share. http://www.flickr.com/photos/7855449@N02/Usability & User Experience Design
    43. 43. SM Search Analytics Search Analytics What Log analysis and visualization of search queries of active websites, for both incoming search terms from search engines and for users searching using internal site search. Why Search queries help reveal user intentions on the website, show content that is missing or hard to find, and help teams Used By: optimize the information SCE.com architecture and design of the Edison.com site to improve findability and provide a better experience.Usability & User Experience Design
    44. 44. SM Conversation Sketching Conversation Sketching What Participatory method for workshop participants to iteratively sketch their thoughts about possible solutions, discuss reasons for drawing a particular solution, and then sketch revised versions. May iterate several times to explore different approaches and work towards a common vision. Why Provides a framework for participants to articulate their Used By: ideas. Explores underlying motivations that drive feature suggestions. Looking at root causes offers more opportunities for real solutions than simply adopting requested features. http://www.flickr.com/photos/philhawksworth/Usability & User Experience Design
    45. 45. SM Free Listing Free Listing What Classification research method. Participants write down as many terms related to a given category or topic within a restricted timeframe. These terms are then analyzed for co- occurrence and ordering across participants. Why Alternative to card sorting, shows what terms have strongest associations within Used By: the category for participants. Debriefing with participants afterwards can reveal patterns, preferences, and expectations related to content categories. http://www.flickr.com/photos/lucamascaro/Usability & User Experience Design
    46. 46. SM Design Pattern Design Pattern What Repeatable, bite-sized solution for a known design problem. Shows context with usage scenarios and examples of pattern in practice. Taken collectively, multiple patterns form the basis for a pattern language used to create consistent solutions. Why Avoids re-inventing the wheel. Improves re-use and consistency of solutions while capturing Used By: knowledge and best practice from multiple teams in a structured, modular format that makes it easy to reference and find for future projects.Usability & User Experience Design
    47. 47. SM Service Design Service Design What Design approach that focuses on service offerings. Considers touch points across channels, interactions at those points, and the connections between them. Also integrates complementary products in a service ecosystem. Why Applies many of the tools from product design to creating human-centered services. Used By: Lower barrier to entry for innovation for services compared to mature product categories. Uncovers new markets for business and new value for users.Usability & User Experience Design
    48. 48. SM Usability Capture Software Usability Capture Software What Software that records video and other data from usability testing sessions and provides tools to analyze data and create video highlight reels of test findings. May use local computer or remote screen sharing over a broadband connection. Why Turns an ordinary PC and webcam into a usability lab. Provides lower cost options for bolstering the impact of study Used By: findings by showing video of users struggling with specific issues. Remote capability allows for usability testing from across the street or across the continent.Usability & User Experience Design
    49. 49. SM Sketchboard Sketchboard What Collaborative sketching technique layering may design options onto one very large sheet of paper. Starts by posting criteria like discovery findings and then sketching and arranging potential solutions nearby--first as thumbnail sketches and then as detailed screens. Why Design the big picture of a site or application without getting bogged down in incremental detail like wireframes can. Collaborative low-fi format keeps project criteria at hand to build common ground. Large paper background offers "roll up and go" portability to take the work to others Used By: on the team. Resources Sketchboards are a technique pioneered by Brandon Schauer and Leah Buley at Adaptive Path. http://www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/ess ays/archives/000863.php http://www.flickr.com/photos/indiyoung/Usability & User Experience Design
    50. 50. SM Controlled Vocabulary Controlled Vocabulary What A set of canonical terms used to describe content. Typically includes preferred terms. Often the foundation for a full- fledged thesaurus and taxonomy. Why Guides uniform use of descriptive vocabulary in an organization to facilitate findability and make metadata Used By: more consistent. Works in tandem with other classification tools like tags and facets.Usability & User Experience Design
    51. 51. SM A / B Testing A / B Testing What A testing procedure in which two (or more) different designs are evaluated in order to see which one is the most effective. Alternate designs are served to different users on the live website. Why Can be valuable in refining elements on a web page. Altering the size, placement, or color of a single element, or the wording of a single phrase can have dramatic effects. A / B Testing measures the results of these changes. Resources A/B testing is covered in depth in the book Always Be Testing: The Complete Guide to Google Website Used By: Optimizer by Bryan Eisenberg and John Quarto-von Tivadar. http://www.testingtoolbox.com/ You can also check out the free A/B testing tool Google Optimizer. https://www.google.com/analytics/siteo pt/preview http://www.flickr.com/photos/danielwaisberg/Usability & User Experience Design
    52. 52. SM Affinity Diagram Affinity Diagram What A method for sorting and making sense of data. Data points can be recorded on sticky notes (the UX practitioners Swiss army knife) and sorted into logical groups. Could be employed as an individual or group exercise. Why Participants can experiment with different arrangements to see which makes the most sense. Affinity Diagramming helps to expose crucial relationships and patterns in data that may not be initially apparent. Resources Affinity diagram tutorial from Mind Tools. Used By: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/art icle/newTMC_86.htm Beyer & Holtzblatts book Contextual Design also talks about affinity diagrams. http://www.flickr.com/photos/kowitz/Usability & User Experience Design
    53. 53. SM Collaborative Inspection Collaborative Inspection What A group usability review that includes stakeholders, designers, develop ers, domain experts, and end users. Sessions involve walking through key tasks or screens, and are moderated by a lead reviewer, recorder, time keeper, and continuity inspector. Why Because many points of view are represented, collaborative inspections can be more Used By: thorough and efficient than expert reviews. Collaborative sessions also allow for discussions between stakeholders that might reveal deeper insights. http://www.flickr.com/photos/uk_parliament/Usability & User Experience Design
    54. 54. SM Concept Model Concept Model What A diagram that visualizes relationships between different concepts. Nodes containing concepts are linked with labeled lines and arrows in order to explain how they are associated. Why Can help to explain how a series of complex, interrelated ideas correspond to one another. Builds an understanding of a body of knowledge, and helps to uncover misunderstandings. Resources Dan Brown gives a great explanation of Concept Models in this UIE article and also devotes an entire chapter to them in his book Communicating Design. http://www.uie.com/articles/concept_m odels Used By: http://www.communicatingdesign.com/ The diagram on the card is the work of Bryce Glass. http://soldierant.net/archives/2005/10/f lickr_user_mod.htmlUsability & User Experience Design
    55. 55. SM Diary Study Diary Study What A data collection method in which participants record their actions and thoughts in a journal over several days or weeks. Diary Studies may be structured (based on specific, pre-defined tasks) or they may be unstructured (nonspecific and participant driven). Why Can help to unearth motivations and processes that participants would be unable to articulate in Used By: more conventional interviews. Gives participants the opportunity to reflect on what they do over time, and why they do it & something many don’t do on a regular basis. http://www.flickr.com/photos/bryce/Usability & User Experience Design
    56. 56. SM Five Sketches™ Five Sketches™ What A structured, group method for exploring and analyzing design solutions. Focusing on a specific problem statement, each participant sketches five solutions. Ideas are shared, combined and iterated. Further analysis and resketching helps in selecting a single way forward. Why This is a simple method for engaging developers and other non-designers in discussion. Its a fast way to explore multiple solutions, facilitate discussion, and build consensus. Resources Used By: Five Sketches™ was formalized and trademarked by Jerome Ryckborst, who offers his insight along with a lot of info on the actual approach at www.FiveSketches.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/rohdesign/Usability & User Experience Design
    57. 57. SM GOMS GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods & Selection Rules) (Goals, Operators, Methods & Selection Rules) What An HCI task analysis method that reduces a users interaction to its most basic actions. Operators (steps that a user performs) combine to form Methods, which are used to achieve Goals. Selection Rules determine the proper Method, when more than one could be used. Why Quantitatively, GOMS gives good predictions of performance time and learning. Qualitatively, a GOMS model is a description of the knowledge needed to perform a given task, essentially describing the Used By: content needed for task-oriented documentation. Resources: Jef Raskin describes GOMS in Chapter 4 of his book The Humane Interface.Usability & User Experience Design
    58. 58. SM Concept Video Concept Video What A method for exploring design possibilities by making short films about how people might use a technology in the future. Concept videos often focus on the context and benefits of use, rather than on specific interaction details. Why Some prototyping methods concentrate on the granular details of a design — what Used By: functions and controls to include, and how to lay them out. Because concept videos tell stories and avoid minutiae, they are better suited to explaining a new vision.Usability & User Experience Design
    59. 59. SM Participatory Design Participatory Design What An approach to design that actively involves stakeholders in the design process. Exercises help the group to explore the problem space, current and ideal experiences, and ways of achieving the ideal. Why Participatory Design sessions enable people with different expertise and skills to contribute equally. Can be an efficient way to get a wide range of input. May enhance user buy-in by making them feel more included, and giving them a greater sense of ownership. Used By: Resources Liz Sanders is a seminal figure in participatory design and generative research. http://www.maketools.com/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/brycej/Usability & User Experience Design
    60. 60. SM Scenario Planning Scenario Planning What A story-telling method for learning about and planning for the future. Allows teams to explore a range of circumstances that could impact future decisions, and encourages exploration of unexpected possibilities. Why Many planning techniques focus on current data and fail to address the unpredictability of future events. Divergent stories help to increase our understanding of our operating environment, and expose our basic assumptions about how the world Used By: works. Resources Global Business Network is the leading scenario planning consultancy. http://www.gbn.com/consulting/artic le_details.php?id=24 http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystalcampbell/Usability & User Experience Design
    61. 61. SM Six Thinking Hats Six Thinking Hats What A tactic that helps you look at decisions from a number of different perspectives. The white hat focuses on data; the red on emotion; the black on caution; the yellow on optimism; the green on creativity; and the blue on process. Why Can enable better decisions by encouraging individuals or teams to abandon old habits and think in new or unfamiliar ways. Can provide insight into the full complexity of a decision, and highlight issues or opportunities which might otherwise go unnoticed. Resources Lateral thinking pioneer Edward de Bono created the Six Thinking Hats method. http://www.edwdebono.com/ Used By: An explination from Mind Tools. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/articl e/newTED_07.htm http://www.flickr.com/photos/daijihirata/Usability & User Experience Design
    62. 62. SM Heuristic Evaluation Heuristic Evaluation What A form of usability inspection where specialists assess how well an interface complies with recognized usability principles (heuristics). Usually two or three experts review a system, noting and ranking problems. Why Provides quick, inexpensive usability feedback. Can be a good method early in a development process, as it concentrates on the basics, ensuring that an interface is fundamentally sound before more in-depth testing with real users. Resources Rolf Molich and Jakob Nielsen created heuristic evaluation in 1990 as part of Used By: an effort to lower the costs of usability evaluation. Jakob has quite a few articles on it; this one is a good start. http://www.useit.com/papers/heurist ic/heuristic_evaluation.htmlUsability & User Experience Design
    63. 63. SM Tangible Futures Tangible Futures What Artifacts created to represent the state of affairs at a future point in time. Examples might include press releases, movie posters, newspaper articles, or product package designs. Why Artifacts can be more effective in communicating future trends than text-heavy reports. Their concrete nature may provoke people to think about what they really believe, and about how technology interacts with social, economic, and cultural factors. Resources Victor Lombardi published a series of blog posts about this approach starting in 2006, and continues to Used By: write about concept design and tangible futures today. The image Victor’s website: http://noisebetweenstations.com/per sonal/weblogs/?cat=131Usability & User Experience Design
    64. 64. SM Five Whys Five Whys What A technique used to probe the root causes of a problem. Popularized by Toyota in the 1970s, this strategy involves looking at any problem and asking: "Why?" and "What caused this problem?" The answer to the first "why" prompts another "why" and then another, and so on. Why x 5 Its not uncommon for a project to focus on the symptoms of a problem, rather than exposing the underlying causes. By asking why, and why, and why again, we gain insight that allows us to address real problems in a way that will make a real difference. Used By: Resources Formalized by Toyota in the 1970s, Five Whys was popularized by Six Sigma. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5_Whys http://software.isixsigma.com/library/ content/c020610a.aspUsability & User Experience Design
    65. 65. SM Task Analysis Task Analysis What A study of the actions and cognitive processes required in order for a person to complete a given task. Task Analysis is helpful when trying to understand a system and its information flows. Why Provides deep insight into the steps needed to complete a task. Task Analysis also helps in understanding the mental model formed by people performing the task. Resources Task analysis is a large component of creating Indi Young style Mental Models http://www.rosenfeldmedia.com/boo Used By: ks/mental-models/ Todd Warfel of Messagefirst also has a Task Analysis Grid. http://www.messagefirst.com/ http://toddwarfel.com/archives/the- task-analysis-grid/Usability & User Experience Design

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