MAP Rothkopf, K. (2007). Pissarro: Creating The Impressionists Landscape. Baltimore: Philip Wilson Publishers, Ltd These are some of the sites around Paris where Pissarro painted 1855-57: moved to France 1858: Set up studio in Paris 1863: Moved to La Varenne-saint-Hillaire, near Marne river 1866: Moved to L’Hermitage, a small hamlet in Pontoise 1869: Moved to Louveciennes, a suburb of Paris 1870: Franco-Prussian war began 7/19. Dec.-moved to London 1871: Returned to Louveciennes; house wrecked by soldiers 1872: Moved back to Pontoise 1874: Visited Piette at Montfoucault; earliest peasant paintings 1882: Left Pontoise for Eragny and stayed until death
HAYMAKERS AT ERAGNY -Camille Pissarro, 1889 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 28 1/4 x 23 1/2” (73 x 60 cm). Private collection (PV729) This embodies the time-consuming limitations of Neo-Impressionism Pissarro and his family left Pontoise finally on December 1, 1882 They initially settled in a small village called Osny They then left for Eragny, where he lived until his death in 1903
THE HARVEST -Camille Pissarro, 1882 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Tempera. 26 x 46 7/8” (67 x 120 cm). The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo (PV1358) This is a detail of the last painting Notice the vibrant brushwork Pissarro wanted the image to look as if it was made from paint! He did not want it to appear polished or refined Rather, his technique was the modernist’s ‘truth to materials’ aesthetic
HAYMAKING IN ERAGNY -Camille Pissarro, 1901 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. Oil on canvas. 21 1/4” x 23 1/2”. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa He developed a pictorial account of people as he gazed on them There was no contortion, distortion, emphasis, or embellishment
HAYSTACK --Camille Pissarro, Pontoise, 1873 Rewald, J. (1963) Pissarro. NY: Abrams Pontoise is a crossroad of paths, roads, walks, bridges, and railways The next year, 1875, he worked in Pontoise He continued to work in Pontoise and in Montfoucault His spatial units open onto broad vistas in Pontoise This painting is of the haystack as the center of that crossroads
HARVEST --Camille Pissarro, Montfoucault, 1876 Rewald, J. (1963) Pissarro. NY: Abrams Painting done only two years after the 1st Impressionist exhibition The next year, 1875, he worked in Pontoise Participates in founding of a new association of artists, L’Union He spent the fall at Piette’s in Montfoucault He must’ve witnessed the harvest at that time In 1876, he showed 12 works in the 2 nd Impressionist exhibition He continued to work in Pontoise and in Montfoucault He worked in Montfoucault for 10 years:1872-82 His spatial units Pissarro there are smaller They less frequently open onto broad vistas than those of Pontoise Montfoucault was a tiny hamlet, with approximately 50 inhabitants It consisted of 2 or 3 farms and some 5 or 6 houses It is virtually on the border between Brittany and Normandy The nearest town is 12 to 15 miles Such a sense of distance and isolation pervades his works there His figures in Montfoucault paintings are static they stay where they are Montfoucault was a place from which there is nowhere else to go
SIESTA -Camille Pissarro, Eragny, 1899 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 25 14 x 31 1/2” (65 x 81 cm) Archives Durand Ruel (PV1078) Notice how his color is heightened in this work His brushstrokes are shorted as he explores Neo-Impressionism There is a pervading luminosity The reclining woman is enclosed and sheltered The foliage and haystack seem to encompass her figure The picnic basket balances the dark foliage It leads your eye in a circular exploration of the painting This kind of formal analysis accompanied the modernist aesthetic
HAYMAKERS RESTING -Camille Pissarro, 1891 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 25 3/4 x 32” (66 x 82 cm) Marion Koogler McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, Texas Bequest åof Marion Koogler McNay Pissarro’s work may be reminiscent of Millet’s painting Yet, he opposed in vehement terms Millet’s Sentimentality moral embellishment nostalgia, and mythologies Degas captured the essential distinction: “ Millet? Yes, his sower sows for Humanity Pissarro’s peasants work for their bread.” Even Pissarro noticed this and wrote: they are all throwing Millet at my head, but Millet was biblical! For a Hebrew, there is not much of that in me. It’s curious!”
THE GLEANERS -Camille Pissarro, 1887-9 Thomson, R. (1990). Camille Pissarro . NY: New Amsterdam Books Oil on canvas. 65.5 x 81 cm. Kunstmuseum, Basel (Dr. H.C. Emile Dreyfus Foundation) Notice that the gleaners here are all women This style was at the height of Pissarro’s Neo-Impressionism From a Modernists’ perspective, note the repetition of curves in: Baskets, Sheaves of Wheat, Spine of leaning women, Headscarves Was Pissarro remembering a Biblical story? He recognized his need for key pictures He wanted to make a contribution on his own terms to painting He also wanted to respond to market pressures for significant work It had to be of a quality appropriate for exhibition status THE GLEANERS was his major painting to result from this plan It found a buyer quickly Of course, there were deductions for commission and framing Pissarro only made 650 francs As a practice, gleaning was dying out It was the traditional charity allowed to the rural poor They could collect any remaining corn after the harvest This is a harmonious, light-filled painting It celebrate woman’s ‘natural’ place in the landscape It offers an ideal of a classless community This accorded with his anarchist ideology
THE FLOCK OF SHEEP --Camille Pissarro, Eragny, 1888 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 18 X 21 1/2” (82 X 65 CM). Private collection, France å This new understanding will be neither idealistic nor materialistic neither religious nor socialistic neither literary nor factual neither symbolist nor realist He accepted no representational or illustrative program at all that would hobble or circumscribe his SENSATION Pissarro’s figures are simple and sincere They are not on show No pretense animates their action or their pictorial representation They have nothing to say They are withdrawn or absorbed by their own reverie or chores Pissarro gave repeated voice to a dream: “ I believe that there will be another generation who will be more sincere, more studious, and less malign, who will achieve the dream.” Was he making a “PROPHECY?” Where did he learn the ability to be optimistic about the future? Pissarro noted the importance of the dream in anarchist thinking: “ It must be said that even though it is utopian, it is at any rate a beautiful dream and we often have examples of utopias that have turned real, nothing stops us from believing that one day this will be possible, unless man sinks and returns to total barbarity.”
BIBLICAL CITATION: Genesis 20:6 Lieber, D. (2001). (Ed.) Etz Hayim. NY: The Jewish Publication Society. Genesis 20: 6 And God said to him in the dream, “I knew…….
BIBLICAL CITATION: Numbers 11:25 Lieber, D. (2001). (Ed.) Etz Hayim. NY: The Jewish Publication Society. Numbers 11:25 Then the LORD came down in a cloud and spoke to him; He drew upon the spirit that was on him……..
WOMAN WITH A GOAT -Camille Pissarro, 1881 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 32 X 25 1/4” (82 X 65 CM). Private collection, France (PV546) From the mid-1860s to the early 1880s, Pissarro painted in Pontoise He liked the visual tensions and polarities offered there From the 1880s onward his works followed three main directions: Figure paintings rural land urban districts
BIBLICAL CITATION : Exodus 32: 9 The LORD further said to Moses, “I see that this is a stiff-necked people.
TURKEY GIRL -Camille Pissarro, 1884 Thomson, R. (1990). Camille Pissarro . NY: New Amsterdam Books. As an artist, he was enmeshed with his social and cultural formation He was immersed in the momentum and tensions of his French society His challenge was to images about this changing world These paintings must articulate his set of values “ SENSATION” was a key word for Pissarro He said that ‘the SENSATIONS revive in September and October’ “ SYNTHESIS” was another important part of his working vocabulary It meant a little ‘craziness’ (Yiddish: Mischegas!) His political ideology was determinedly individualistic It was partly formed in reaction to his family’s attitudes His ideology finally crystallized into a commitment to anarchism That is based on a belief in the innate goodness of human nature Humans were corrupted by overbearing social organization
PEAR TREES IN BLOOM AT ERAGNY, MORNING -Camille Pissarro, 1886 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 21 x 251/4” (54 x 65 cm) Isetan Museum. Tokyo (PV697) In 12 years, Pissarro’s painting style changed dramatically After 1880, Pissarro wanted to paint large-scale figure pictures They were already a feature of his Montfoucault works His dealer Durand-Ruel, suggested that he not paint figures He wanted Pissarro to paint ‘attractive landscapes’ Durand-Ruel thought they were easier to sell
THE PORK BUTCHER -Camille Pissarro,1883 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 25 1/4 x 21 1/4” (66x 54 cm) The Tate Gallery, London (PV615) From 1882--he essentially lived in the same village, Eragny It was here that he created the largest bulk of his work The market theme was archetypical of his later years Yet, it was first developed in Caracas Note how the viewer has to look ‘through’ the meat stand This approach is called a ‘slice of life’ In fact, the table on the right is ‘sliced’ by the artist’s view
POTATO MARKET, BOULDEVARD DES FOSSES -Camille Pissarro, Pontoise, 1882 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Gouache. 10 x 8” (26 x 20 cm). Private collection (PV 1365) His first major figure paintings were created in Paris That was shortly after his arrival from the West Indies. His work made use of a phenomenal imagination an unusually rich, innovative visual mind a vast curiosity about techniques of all sorts a profound poetic sensitivity an unquenchable passion for painting A strongly defined set of intellectual positions (WHERE DID ALL THAT COME FROM? THE ONLY ANSWER IS: NATURE AND NURTURE!)
TWO YOUNG PEASANT WOMEN --Camille Pissarro, 1892 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro . New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 35 1/4 x 47 7/8” (89 x 165 cm) The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Gift of Mr. And Mrs. Charles Wrightsman, 1973. (PV 792) Formal analysis of this work provides some intriguing choices Both figures are vertical and face each other This keeps the eye of the viewer in the space between the two The right figure’s verticality is repeated and emphasized The long handled tool she holds draws attention to her posture The open space between the two is divided horizontally by the patch of grass It is divided again on a diagonal by the cast Shadow Rows of plants are also shown on a diagonal to draw the viewer’s eye in Note other instances of repetition, variation, and contrast
POULTRY MARKET -Camille Pissarro, Gisors, 1889 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Gouache and tempera. 18 x 15: (46 x 38 cm). Private collection, New York (PV 1453) This is an interesting painting to analyze First, notice the two figures in the foreground Their bodies are almost an identical repeat—for emphasis! However, their clothing and angle of head are slightly different This is for another design element: Variation! In between these two main figures is the contrast of a 3rd and 4th figure They face one another, though on different planes This makes for dynamic eye movement for the viewer The middle ground consists of many small figures Their extension is visually stopped by the horizontal buildings Fascinating analysis, eh?
THE MARKET AT GISORS -Camille Pissarro , 1899 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Tempera. 20 1/4 x 24 1/8” (52 x 63 cm0. Private Collection (PV1433) Once again, we see a similar compositional arrangement The two largest figures are in the foreground In between them are two standing (contrast) figures Middle ground is populated by a mass of humanity Background and angular awning stop the viewer’s visual movement Patterned clothing (stripes, checks) provide visual interest Although this painting documents a time and place It also stands as an entity unto itself
BIBLICAL CITATION:Psalm 51: 12 Danziger, R.H. (2002). The ArtScroll Tehillim . New York: Mesorah Publications A pure heart create for me, O God, and a steadfast spirit renew within me.
GISORS MARKET -Camille Pissarro, 1894 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. NY: Harry Abrams Pissarro wrote in 1893: “ Happy are those who see beauty in the modest spots where others see nothing. Everything is beautiful, the whole secret lies in knowing how to interpret”….Camille Pissarro, 1893
Camille Pissarro wrote: “ Painting, art in general, enchants me. It is my life. What else matters? When you put all your soul into a work, all that is noble in you, you cannot fail to find a kindred soul who understands you, and you do not need a host of such spirits. Is that not all an artist should wish for?” Was Pissarro committed to ‘REPAIRING THE WORLD?” This Jewish tradition (Pirke Avot-Ethics of the Fathers) requires you to be the best that YOU can be!
Artof Pissarro3 0121104 Website
Part three: Harvests and Markets MYRNA TECK, PH.D. INDEPENDENT SCHOLAR The Art of
Painting, art in general, enchants me. It is my life. What else matters? When you put all your soul into a work, all that is noble in you, you cannot fail to find a kindred soul who understands you, and you do not need a host of such spirits. Is that not all an artist should wish for? (Letters to his son, Lucien) November 20, 1883
it is said that the love of Art cannot be TAUGHT , IT can only be CAUGHT!
So I hope I’ve made The Art of Contagious to you today!