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Internet of Things: Comparison of Protocols & Standards


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Slides comparing three key protocols for Internet of Things - ZigBee, Z-Wave and Bluetooth

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Internet of Things: Comparison of Protocols & Standards

  1. 1. Internet of Things Comparison of Connectivity & Protocols, Wireless Sensor Technologies ZigBee, Z-Wave & Bluetooth ! Version 0.9 May 2014 ! Ashu Joshi, 1
  2. 2. Overview • For ‘things’ to get connected (i.e. to the Internet) - they need a physical connectivity medium - and at the simplest level this medium can either be Wired or Wireless • Internet connectivity implies being addressable by an Internet Protocol (IP) Address (IPv4 or IPv6) - which is possible when you have an ‘IP Stack’ (software that provides the networking layers) • The OSI model defines the various layers of networking (or connectivity), and the IEEE defines various standards at the lower levels of networking interface • Some media / interfaces allow for an IP stack, and some don’t • Those that don’t will need to rely on a ‘gateway’ or a ‘device’ that provides a ‘translation’ between IP and Non-IP • A “thing” connected to the Internet will be addressable using an IP Address or a URL: • Either directly - if the thing has an IP stack • Or indirectly if it is not connected natively to the IP network 2
  3. 3. “Popular” Wireless Connectivity Standards
  4. 4. Z-Wave Protocol Stack • Industry de-facto standard • Single Source, Sigma Designs acquired Zen-Sys • Advantage – Everything just works - Chips for devices & controllers are all from Sigma • Support for full Mesh Network • Operates in the sub-1GHz band; impervious to interference from Wi-Fi and other wireless technologies in the 2.4-GHz range (Bluetooth, ZigBee, etc.) • Designed specifically for control and status apps, supports data rates of up to 100kbps, with AES125 encryption, IPV6, and multi-channel operation • MAC and PHY are described by ITU-T G.9959 specification • Full interoperability through layer 5 with backwards compatibility to all versions. • As of 2013: • Z-Wave alliance had 250 members • 900 Z-Wave products certified 4
  5. 5. IEEE Standards 5 IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN) IEEE 802.15 Personal Area Network (PAN) IEEE 802.16 Wireless Broadband Access IEEE 802.22 Wireless Regional Area Networks WiFi 802.11a/b/g/n 802.11ah (sub-GHz) 802.15.1 Bluetooth 802.15.4 Low Rate WPAN (2003-2006-2011) 802.15.4e-2012 MAC Enhancement 802.15.4f PHY for RFID 802.15.4g-2012 amendment Smart Utility Networks 802.15.4c Sub-GHz PHY for China 15.4m Study Group TV White Space amendment 802.15.6 Body Area Networking 802.15.7 Visible Light Communications
  6. 6. ZigBee Pro and ZigBee IP Protocol Stack • ZigBee Pro is the third iteration of the standard preceded by ZigBee 2004, and ZigBee 2006 Versions. Is fully backward compatible. • Wireless Network • Low-power wireless mesh network • Builds on or leverages the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for the Data, Link and Physical Layer specifications • Supports Global 2.4GHz band, and region specific sub-GHz bands such as 868 or 915 MHz • ZB Pro: Supports “Application Profiles” that give it ‘vertical-specific’ flavor - see block diagram for the profiles • ZigBee IP is latest version, mapping IPv6 stack (6LoWPAN) to the 802.15.4 and introducing the Smart Energy Profile 2.0 (SEP 2.0) Adapted from PHY MAC Network Application Standard ZBA ZHC ZHA ZLL ZRS ZSE ZTS ZigBee Pro IEEE 802.15.4 15.4 Sub GHz Region Specific 15.4 Sub GHz Region Specific ZBA: ZigBee Building Automation ZHC: ZigBee Healthcare ZHA: ZigBee Home Automation ZLL: ZigBee Light Link ZRS: ZigBee Retail Services ZSE: ZigBee Smart Energy ZTS: ZigBee Telecom Services ZigBee Smart Energy 2.0 ZigBee IP 6
  7. 7. Bluetooth • Design goal • Cable replacement • Low cost • Low power • Small size • For mobile devices • Standard: IEEE 802.15.1 • Classes • Class 1 (100mW, 100m range) • Class 2 (2.5mW, 10m range) • Class 3 (1mW, 1m range) • RF • ISM band between 2.4-2.485GHz • Frequency hopping over 79 channels, 1600 hops/second 7 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Dual!Mode! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Classic! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Single!Mode! Version Data rate Feature 1.2 721 kb/s 2.0 + EDR 3 Mb/s Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) 3.0 + HS 24 Mb/s High-Speed 4.0 1 Mb/s (BLE) Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
  8. 8. Bluetooth vs. BT Low Energy 8
  9. 9. Networking Layer Comparison 9 TCP Ethernet PHY Ethernet MAC IP UDP ICMP HTTP, RTP, FTP, etc. TCP/IP Protocol Stack Physical Data Link Network Transport Application IEEE802.15.4 PHY IEEE802.15.4 MAC IPv6 with 6LoWPAN UDP ICMP HTTP 6LoWPAN Proprietary PHY Proprietary MAC Transfer Layer Device & Command Classes Routing Layer Z-Wave IEEE802.15.4 PHY IEEE802.15.4 MAC NWK Layer Application Profile(s) Application Support SL ZigBee
  10. 10. Ashu Joshi Thanks! 10 Product names, logos, brands and other trademarks referred to within this presentation are the property of their respective trademark holders