CONTENTS Unique Identification Number & Its Purpose AADHAAR Project Authentication UID System UID Agencies Challenges Involved in Implementation UID Numbering Scheme Entity IDs Domain analysis Business rules E-R Diagram & Relational Schema Risks & Database Threats and Attacks involved in UID Project Implementation
UNIQUE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is an agency of the Government of India responsible for implementing the AADHAAR scheme, a unique identification project. It was established in February 2009, and will own and operate the Unique Identification Number database. The authority aims to provide a unique id number to all Indians. The authority will maintain a database of residents containing biometric and other data.
PURPOSE OF UIDAI The objective of the project is to determine uniqueness of all individuals within the territory of India. It will only issue a number which will be delivered to the concerned persons address. The UIDAI proposes to provide online authentication using demographic and biometric data.
AADHHAR NUMBER The Unique Identification (AADHAAR) Number, which identifies a resident, will give individuals the means to clearly establish their identity to public and private agencies across the country. AADHAAR Number is provided during the initiation process called enrolment where a resident‟s demographic and biometric information are collected . Uniqueness of the provided data is established through a process called de-duplication.
AADHAAR AUTHENTICATION AADHAAR “authentication” means the process wherein AADHAAR Number, along with other attributes, including biometrics, are submitted to the Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR) for its verification on the basis of information or data or documents available with it. UIDAI will provide an online service to support this process. AADHAAR authentication service only responds with a “yes/no” and no personal identity information is returned as part of the response.
AADHAAR authentication will provide several ways in which a resident can authenticate themselves using the system. At a high level, authentication can be „Demographic Authentication‟ and/or „Biometric Authentication‟. But, in all forms of authentication the AADHAAR Number needs to be submitted so that this operation is reduced to a 1:1 match. During the authentication transaction, the resident‟s record is first selected using the AADHAAR Number and then the demographic/biometric inputs are matched against the stored data which was provided by the resident during enrolment process or during subsequent updates.
NUMBERING SCHEMEThe Version Number:o Some digits may be reserved for specific applications. This is an implicit form of a version number embedded into the numbering scheme.o We recommend the following reservations: 0- numbers (a1 = 0) could be used as an “escape” for future extensions to the length of the number. Number Generation:o The numbers are generated in a random, non-repeating se- quence.o The algorithm chosen to generate IDs should not be made public and should be considered a national secret.
Lifetime: Individual UID is assigned once, at inception, and remain the same for the lifetime of the person, and for a specified number of years beyond. At this point there is no consideration of reusing numbers. Entity ID’s: We expect that entity ID numbers (1- numbers) will have different rules for periods of validity and retirement. The Checksum: There are several schemes possible .The recommend ed scheme is the Verhoeff scheme.
ENTITY ID Institutions like Government departments, schools and even companies can benefit by using a UID like Identifier – this is called an Entity ID. Since the UID will potentially be used as a primary identifier in several transactions in the financial, health, food distribution, job creation schemes and transactions it is important to assign an entity ID to the service delivery organization. For instance a financial trans-action to transfer money might take the form: TransferMoney(From_UID, To_UID, Amount); Where the From_UID could be an entity UID of the block level NREGA entity and the To_UID can be that of the resident to who the amount is being transferred. This symme-tric treatment of both to and from fields simplifies the end-to- end system.
DOMAIN ANALYSIS• The demographic and biometric fields linked to the Aadhaar number and stored in the CIDR would consequently, need to be regularly updated to ensure that the information it stores is both accurate and relevant for authenticating agencies.• The data fields held in the CIDR include mandatory demographic and biometric fields which are central to identity management, as well as additional, optional fields available for ease in communicating with the Resident, and for enabling better service delivery.
The UIDAI intends to set up modes through which residents can requestfor data updates.Registrar enrolment centres:• Most Registrars for the Aadhaar number intend to retain long-term enrolment centres .• These centres would have the enrolment client and devices required for carrying out enrolments, which can also be used for updation purposes.• These centres would also carry out processes such as document verification and handling, as well as verifying Introducer details, which are required for the complete updation solution.
National level common updation agency:• The UIDAI can work with the Registrars such as the National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) where Residents can update their records not just through theUIDAI, but also other service agencies.• The networks of these agencies would be used for recording information update requests.
BUSINESS RULES At the start of the process, the Resident arrives at the centre with his/her Aadhaar letter or his/her Aadhaar number. He/she fills up an updation request form detailing the specific demographic/biometric information that needs to be updated. If the information being updated requires supporting documentation, the resident may first have to get documents verified from the Verifying Official. The Resident then provides the Operator at the centre with the verified documents, or with the Introducer who verifies that the updated information is accurate.
The Operator performing the updation checks the Resident‟s Aadhaar letter. When the Resident provides the updated information, the operator verifies the information matches any documentary evidence/introducer provided. The Operator enters the Resident‟s information into the software client updating the demographic or biometric information as required. Both Operator and Resident verify the accuracy of the data that is entered. The Operator then captures the Resident‟s biometrics to confirm his/her authenticity as well as the Residents sign-off on the update.
The updated information is transferred to the CIDR . Once it reaches the database, the information is updated in the CIDR, and the information on the update is then communicated to the Resident.
RISKS INVOLVED Adoption risk A critical mass is required for the participation of service providers Political risk Support from state and local governments is critical Enrollment risk Enough touch points in rural areas and enrolling 60,000 newborns every day Risk of scale Administration and storage of ~1B records Technology risk Authentication, de-duplication and data obsolescence Privacy and security risk Biometric data security Sustainability risk Maintaining the initial momentum over a longer term
RISKS IN VARIOUS STAGES Collection Data leakage Scenarios across various Registrars and Enrollment agencies: • Intentional or unintentional compromises • Logical or physical security compromise • Third party attacks Integrity and accountability of Registrars and enrollment agencies Reliance on multiple vendors increases vulnerabilities
RISKS IN VARIOUS STAGES ( CONT..) Transmission Need for secured communication channels: VPN, SSL- VPN, MPLS clouds Encryption of the data: strong encryption required for securing biometrics Key Management: departmental interactions, coordination Non-Repudiation: attack vectors like a man-in-the- middle attack
RISKS IN VARIOUS STAGES ( CONT..) Storage Management of roughly 10,000 TB of sensitive information spread across the country, in addition to storage in CIDR Accountability of users : data base administrators, network administrators, application owners, third party employees Accountability and assurance of people working with registrars and sub-registrars
CONCLUSION Unique Identification System will be beneficiary to the citizens as it is a unique number which contains basic information of every person. After the ID will be issued there is no need to carry driving license, voter cards, pan card, etc for any govt. or private work. But to some extent it is harmful to the general public as all the data related to them is stored on computers and can be misused by hackers if the multiple security strategies will not be adopted.
The UID authority in specific should make sure that they have the highest standards of integrity, openness, transparency and process in all stages of UID System. The UID project should not become compulsory until there is an established judicial overview to ensure that the privacy rights of citizens are not unlawfully violated.