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Knowledge is Property- All YOU need to know ABC of Patent Searching

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11 years old presentation submitted as Project work: Golden Mantra to Perform Worldwide Patent Searches
Patent provides the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the patented invention for the term of the patent, usually 20 years from the filing date. A patent is, in effect, a limited property right that the government offers to inventors in exchange for their agreement to share the details of their inventions with the public. Like any other property right, it may be sold, licensed, mortgaged, assigned or transferred, given away, or simply abandoned.
In order to obtain a patent, an applicant must provide a written description of his or her invention in sufficient detail for a person skilled in the art (i.e., the relevant area of technology) to make and use the invention.

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Knowledge is Property- All YOU need to know ABC of Patent Searching

  1. 1. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 1 DEVELOPMENT OF A CENTRALIZED PATENT SEARCH SYSTEM FOR Structural Genomics/Proteomics
  2. 2. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 2 What is a Patent? A form of personal property, which is a grant for 20 years from filing, of the right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, importing or selling the claimed invention in exchange for public disclosure of the technology described and shown in the patent specification. A potentially rich source of intelligence
  3. 3. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 3 Patent •A Patent is a Contract –Between inventor (employer) and government –Inventor –Must disclose all details regarding the invention •Government –grants patent (limited monopoly) if tests are met »Useful, new and non-obvious Patents are granted as an incentive to promote development of new products and create new job potential
  4. 4. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 4 •Inventor’s end of the bargain –Inventor must disclose everything known about the invention •Detailed description must be provided •The best mode must be disclosed –If not, patent can be held invalid •Thus, valid patents are quite detailed
  5. 5. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 5 •Patent Application •Filed in respective Patent Office •Application process can take 2-3 years –Publication after 18 months •Early publication can be requested by filing Form 9 –Application secret until publication or issuance
  6. 6. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 6 Patent Law Mechanics •Patent Application –Thus, delay in publication is at least 18 months –Nevertheless, patent research can still be quite valuable •Defensively –Guard against infringement •Offensively –Discover opportunities
  7. 7. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 7 Patent Research and Analysis Offensive –Patent applications are often filed early in the product development cycle •Early development stage •Often well before product hits market •Even with publication delay, publications can still occur early in the underlying product’s life
  8. 8. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 8 2 Contribution to the Country’s Economy Research & Development + Patent Office Stimulating Innovation and Economic Growth by Protecting Investment Industry & Business Patent Applications
  9. 9. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 9 Criteria for Patentability of an Invention Ø Utility- Usefulness of an invention (specific, substantial, credible use) Ø Novelty (new, “True and first inventor”) Ø Non-obviousness and involves an inventive step (to an ordinary worker in the technology at the time the invention was made) Patents provide protection of inventions, demonstrating the three key characteristics of :-
  10. 10. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 10 Criteria for Patentability of an Invention Patents provide protection of inventions, demonstrating the three key characteristics of :- ØUtility- Usefulness of an invention (specific, substantial, credible use) Ø Novelty (new, “True and first inventor”) Ø Non-obviousness and involves an inventive step (to an ordinary worker in the technology at the time the invention was made)
  11. 11. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 11 Criteria for Patentability of an Invention Patents provide protection of inventions, demonstrating the three key characteristics of :- ØUtility- Usefulness of an invention (specific, substantial, credible use) Ø Novelty (new, “True and first inventor”) ØNon-obviousness and involves an inventive step (to an ordinary worker in the technology at the time the invention was made)
  12. 12. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 12 Criteria for Patentability of an Invention Patents provide protection of inventions, demonstrating the three key characteristics of :- ØUtility- Usefulness of an invention (specific, substantial, credible use) Ø Novelty (new, “True and first inventor”) Ø Non-obviousness and involves an inventive step (to an ordinary worker in the technology at the time the invention was made)
  13. 13. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 13 Criteria for Patentability of an Invention Patents provide protection of inventions, demonstrating the three key characteristics of :- ØUtility- Usefulness of an invention (specific, substantial, credible use) Ø Novelty (new, “True and first inventor”) Ø Non-obviousness and involves an inventive step (to an ordinary worker in the technology at the time the invention was made)
  14. 14. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 14 Structural Genomics/Proteomics: What is Being Patented and Who Owns the Rights?
  15. 15. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 15 Structural Genomic/Proteomic vCapitalizes upon numerous advances in science and technology to change the appreciation and understanding of biological systems vImpacts heavily on the design of new pharmaceuticals vintegral platform approach for modern drug discovery, alongside high throughput chemistry and screening vMedical incentive for understanding protein structure is great: vdisease can result from defects in a single protein (e.g., Cystic fibrosis and Sickle cell) vdisease can result from proteins having abnormal structure (e.g., Alzheimer's and Mad cow).
  16. 16. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 16 Structural Genomics/Proteomics Subfields Protein Production Cloning, expression (e.g., cell-based and cell-free methodologies), purification and labeling of proteins Biophysical Characterization/Structure Determination NMR, X-ray crystallography Bioinformatic Algorithms and databases for biophysical data comparison, prediction methods, homology/molecular modeling, structure refinement, in silico screening Rational Drug Design Lead target identification and optimization Protein Chip (data array) Pharmacophore
  17. 17. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 17 Patent Analysis Key Search Terms Protein / Polypeptide Target Protein Angstrom Three Dimensional Structure 3-D Protein Structure NMR Tertiary Protein Structure Atomic Coordinate Mimetics Coordinate Protein-ligand Complex Pharmacophore X-ray Crystallography Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Protein Domain Computational Modeling Receptor-Ligand Peptiomimetics Crystalline Form Algorithm RNA Profiling Complex Mass Spectroscopy Fold Space Ribosome in Silico Screening Methods Protein Protein Complex Chaperones Proteosomes Modeling Test Compounds Agonist/ Antagonist Binding Pocket Modeling Physical Properties Computer-assisted Method Protein Chip Protein Sequence Protein Array Amino Acid Fold(s) Computer-readable Storage Medium Binding Domain/Motif Crystal Protein Data Bank or PDB
  18. 18. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 18 Sampling of Structural Genomics/Proteomics Published Applications 20040087500 Method of Constructing 3-D Structure of Transmembrane Protein 20040018560 Crystallized LXR Polypeptide in Complex With Ligand and Screening Methods Employing Same 20040082075 Multi-step NMR for the Identification and Evaluation of Biomolecule-compound Interactions 20040063157 Pharmacophore Recombination for the Identification of Small Molecule Drug Lead Compounds 20040053340 Protein arrays 20030229456 Methods for Predicting Properties of Molecules 20030101005 Crystals and Structures of Perosamine Synthase Homologs 20030023392 Process for Pan-genomic Determination of Macromolecular Atomic Structures 20030180803 Lead Molecule Generation 20020168705 Methods for Producing Proteins Using Cell free Protein Synthesis 20020072861 Crystal structure of antibiotics bound to 30S ribosome and its use 20020072865 Systems for Electronically Managing, Finding, and/or Displaying Biomolecular Interactions
  19. 19. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 19 Representative Assignees in USA Universities California Institute of Technology Boston University The Rockefeller University MIT University of Texas Stanford University The Scripps Research Institute University of Wisconsin (WARF) University of California Yale University Columbia University Rutgers University University of Alabama Companies Amersham International Eli Lilly GlaxoSmithKline Immunex Corp. Oxford Glycosciences Novo Nordisk A/S Photon Research Associates Pharmacia & Upjohn Co. Roche Pfizer Structural Genomix Scriptgen Pharmaceutical Syrrx Vertex Pharmaceuticals BASF Aktiengesellschaft Aventis Chiron
  20. 20. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 20 Structural Genomics: Proteomics, Bioinformatics, HTS, Drug Discovery and Drug Screening Companies GeneFormatics GeneProt GeneTrace Glycofi GPC Biotech Graffinity IncyteGenomics InforMax Ingenuity Inpharmatica Invitrogen LeadScope Lynx Therap. MDS Protana MediChem Res. Merck Res. Labs Amersham Bio. Ariad Pharm. Array BioPharma Inc. Aurora Biosciences BioFocus BioNavigator Celera Genomics Cerep Chem. Diversity Labs ChemOvation Ciphergen Comgenex Direct CompuCyte Compugen Confirmant Eragen Biosciences Euroscreen Moldyn Molecular Mining NEN Life Sci. Neurogen Novagen Pepscan Sys. Predict Inc Progensys Promega ProteEx Proteome Protein Pathways Proteome Sys. ProteomeWorks ProteomTech Quark Biotech Receptor Biology Repligen Structural Genomix Structural Bioinformatic Triad Therapeutics Scriptgen Pharma Syrrx Zeiss Zyomyx …
  21. 21. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 21 U.S. Pat. No. 6,689,595 Pharmacia & Upjohn Co. Filed: August 4, 2000 Issued: February 10, 2004 “Crystallization and structure determination of S. aureus thymidylate kinase” Claims: §A crystal of S. aureus thymidylate kinase comprising atoms arranged in a spatial relationship represented by the structure coordinates listed in FIG. 2. §A method for crystallizing S. aureus thymidylate kinase comprising: preparing purified kinase at a concentration of about 1 mg/ml to about 50 mg/ml; and crystallizing kinase from a solution comprising the purified kinase, about 5 wt. % to ~50 wt. % PEG, ~0.05 M to ~0.5 M MgCl2, and ~0 wt. % to ~20 wt. % DMSO at a pH of ~6 to ~7.
  22. 22. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 22 U.S. Pat. No. 6,631,329 Yale University Filed: July 31, 2000 Issued: October 7, 2003 “Use of the crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase in antibiotic design” Claims: A method of preparing a crystal of a complex comprising isoleucyl- tRNA synthetase (IRS) from S. aureus complexed with mupirocin and tRNAile comprising: …….. The crystal of claim 6, wherein the crystal comprises an atomic structure characterized by the coordinates deposited at the Protein Data bank with accession number PDB ID: 1FFY. A method of identifying an agent that interacts with isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IRS) from S. aureus and tRNAile comprising: (a) obtaining a crystal of a complex comprising IRS, tRNAile and mupirocin; … (c) using the atomic coordinates and one or more molecular modeling techniques to identify an agent that interacts with the IRS and tRNAile…
  23. 23. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 23 U.S. Pat. App. 20030158671 Structural Genomix, Inc. Filed: July 15, 2005 “Systems and methods for predicting active site residues in a protein” Claim: A method for selecting a plurality of candidate active site positions in a target sequence, the method comprising: aligning each query sequence in a plurality of query sequences to said target sequence to form a set of aligned query sequences; choosing a subset of aligned query sequences from said set of aligned query sequences, each aligned query sequence in said subset of aligned query sequences satisfying a predetermined criterion; identifying substitution types for each residue position in said target sequence….
  24. 24. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 24 Eli Lilly and Co. Filed: January 28, 1998 Published: October 7, 2003 “Penicillin binding protein from Streptococcus pneumoniae” Claims: An isolated Penicillin Binding Protein Nv (PBP-Nv) from Streptococcus pneumoniae having the amino acid sequence which is a SEQ ID NO:2. A method for identifying compounds that bind a Streptococcus pneumoniae PBP-Nv, comprising the steps of: a) admixing: i) a substantially pure PBP wherein said PBP is PBP-Nv or PBP-Nvs; and ii) a suitable test compound; b) measuring by any suitable means a binding by said compound to said PBP. A method for identifying compounds that inhibit the transglycosylase activity of a PBP-Nv……..
  25. 25. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 25 U.S. Pat. No. 6,734,175 Pfizer Inc. Filed: July 24, 2002 Issued: May 11, 2004 “Treatments for obesity and methods for identifiying compounds useful for treating obesity” Claim: A method of treating sexual dysfunction, diabetes, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, Syndrome X, adrenal dysfunction, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, hyperlipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or substance abuse, …. administering to a patient, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound that attenuates the binding of agouti-related protein to melanocortin receptors, but does not attenuate the binding of alpha- melanocyte stimulating hormone to melanocortin receptors in combination with a compound that is a melanocortin receptor agonist, wherin said compound that attenuates … is 8,16-bis-(4- nitro-phenyl) -5,6,8,8a,13,14,16,16a-octahydro- [1,2,4,5,]tetrazino[6,1-a']diisoquinoline.
  26. 26. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 26 DEFINITION OF “PATENT” AS PER INDIAN LAW According to The Patents Act, 1970: "Patent" means a patent for any invention granted under this Act "Invention" means a new product or process involving an-inventive step and capable of industrial application; "Inventive step" means a feature of an invention that involves technical advance as compared to the existing knowledge or having economic significance or both and that makes the invention not obvious to a person skilled in the art; “Capable of industrial application", in relation to an invention, means that the invention is capable of being made or used in an industry;
  27. 27. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 27 Prior art or state of the art (the latter term sometimes has other meanings as well) is all information that has been made available to the public in any form before a given date. If an invention has been described in prior art, a patent on that invention is not valid. PRIOR ART
  28. 28. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 28 Prior art searches or novelty searches are often conducted before filing a patent application or after filing to find one or more publications that predate the filing date of an issued patent or pending patent application. A prior art search helps an inventor determine if the invention is novel before committing the resources necessary to obtain a patent. This type of search is called a novelty search. Prior art searches may also be used to invalidate existing patents (these searches are called "validity searches" or "invalidity searches") by showing that the patent office erred in the issuance of a patent because the patent holder is not the first inventor. PRIOR ART SEARCHES
  29. 29. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 29 SEARCH ENGINES AVAILABLE IN USA U.S. Patent Office Full Text Database Delphion Intellectual Property Network IP-Discover - free for students and non-profits SurfIP.com - search many databases at once MicroPatent Software Patent Institute DNA Patent Database U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Biotech Patents
  30. 30. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 30 WIPO Patent Database PCT Gazette Search PCT Registrations German Patents Japanese Patent Info SEARCH ENGINES AVAILABLE WORLDWIDE
  31. 31. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 31 USPTO
  32. 32. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 32 PATENT SEARCH
  33. 33. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 33 HOW TO SEARCH PATENT
  34. 34. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 34 RESULT OF PATENT SEARCH
  35. 35. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 35 WIPO DATABASE
  36. 36. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 36 WIPO
  37. 37. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 37 PATENT SEARCH
  38. 38. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 38 CANADA PATENT DATABASE
  39. 39. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 39 CANADIAN PATENTS DATABASE
  40. 40. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 40 DATABASE SEARCH
  41. 41. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 41 INDIAN PATENT DATABASE
  42. 42. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 42 NEED FOR A GLOBAL PATENT DATABASE FUNCTIONS: - i. TO LINK ALL AVAILABLE DATABASES ii. TO COMPARE SELECTED PATENTS iii. TO PROVIDE SERVICES AT REASONABLE COSTS
  43. 43. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 43 PatentINsight pro- Synchronizing IP Strategy To Corporate Strategy Patent Insight Pro is built to complement every stage of Patent Search and Analytics process. The 4 stages as we see them are: 1. Patent Search and Set Creation, 2. Patent Data Cleanup and Grouping, 3. Patent Mapping & Analytics, 4. Report Generation and Presentation.
  44. 44. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 44 LANGUAGES USED: - HTML- For designing and linking WebPages JAVASCRIPT- For programming of commands SQL- For building databases Vb.net- For linking WebPages and command buttons Ado.net- For linking SQL Databases with Workstation
  45. 45. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 45 SQL 2000 ( STRUCTURAL QUERY LANGUAGE) • It is a database management system • It is created and stored in server • It consist of two types of languages – DDL – DML
  46. 46. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 46 DDL( Data Definition Language) • CREATE- It is used to create a new table • ALTER- It is used to make changes in the existing table – ADD( To add new columns) – DROP( To remove a particular column) – ALTER (To modify a particular column) • TRUNCATE- It is used to clear the records • DROP- It is used to remove the table permanently
  47. 47. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 47 DML(Data Manipulation Language) • INSERT- It is used to enter a new record • UPDATE- It is used for the up gradation of a specific record already available • E.g.- update homo_sapiens set chro_no=‘5’ Where gene=‘skin_color’ • DELETE- It is used to delete a particular entry • SELECT- It is used to display to record of the table
  48. 48. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 48 Human Genome Databases • Include these databases (naming scheme - <species tag>_<database type>): – homo_sapiens_core_9_30 (41 tables) homo_sapiens_disease_9_30 homo_sapiens_est_9_30 homo_sapiens_estgene_9_30 homo_sapiens_haplotype_9_30 homo_sapiens_lite_9_30a homo_sapiens_maps_9_30 homo_sapiens_sanger_9_30 homo_sapiens_snp_9_30a homo_sapiens_cancer_9_30
  49. 49. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 49 Programming with SQL2000 Databases To retrieve data from SQL2000 databases into program memory, you can: v Use ADO.NET with Microsoft .NET languages such as C#
  50. 50. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 50 SQL SERVER
  51. 51. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 51 HOW TO CREATE A TABLE?
  52. 52. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 52 HOW TO INSERT DATA IN THE TABLE?
  53. 53. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 53 QUERY ANALYSER
  54. 54. MADE BY - PRITY KHASTGIR 54 Side View of a Distributed Application Client ANY COMPUTER Middle Ware INTERNET(IP) NETWORK Middle Ware Server E.g. Mainframe Computer Server
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