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Strategy 13

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Strategy 13

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Strategy 13

  1. 1. Slide 13.1 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 13.1 Strategy in Action 13: Organising for Success
  2. 2. Slide 13.2 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Learning outcomes • Identify key challenges in organising for success, including ensuring control, managing knowledge, coping with change and responding to internationalisation. • Analyse main organisation structural types in terms of strengths and weaknesses. • Recognise key issues in designing organisational control systems (such as planning and performance targeting systems). • Recognise how the three strands of strategy, structure and systems should reinforce each other in organisational configurations and the managerial dilemmas involved.
  3. 3. Slide 13.3 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Structures and systems • Structures give people formally defined roles, responsibilities and lines of reporting with regard to strategy. • Systems support and control people as they carry out structurally defined roles and responsibilities. • Configurations are the mutually supporting elements that make up an organisation’s design.
  4. 4. Slide 13.4 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Organisational configurations Figure 13.1 Organisational configurations: strategy, structure and systems
  5. 5. Slide 13.5 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Structural types Functional Multidivisional Matrix Multinational/ Transnational Project-based
  6. 6. Slide 13.6 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 The functional structure The functional structure divides responsibilities according to the organisation’s primary specialist roles such as production, research and sales.
  7. 7. Slide 13.7 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 A functional structure
  8. 8. Slide 13.8 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Functional structures Advantages • Chief executive in touch with all operations. • Reduces/simplifies control mechanisms. • Clear definition of responsibilities. • Specialists at senior and middle management levels. Disadvantages • Senior managers overburdened with routine matters. • Senior managers neglect strategic issues. • Difficult to cope with diversity. • Coordination between functions is difficult. • Failure to adapt.
  9. 9. Slide 13.9 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 The multidivisional structure The multidivisional structure is built up of separate divisions on the basis of products, services or geographical areas.
  10. 10. Slide 13.10 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 A multidivisional structure
  11. 11. Slide 13.11 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Multidivisional structures Advantages • Flexible (add or divest divisions). • Control by performance. • Ownership of strategy. • Specialisation of competences. • Training in strategic view. Disadvantages • Duplication of central and divisional functions. • Fragmentation and non-cooperation. • Danger of loss of central control.
  12. 12. Slide 13.12 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 The matrix structure The matrix structure combines different structural dimensions simultaneously, for example product divisions and geographical territories or product divisions and functional specialisms.
  13. 13. Slide 13.13 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Matrix structures (1) Figure 13.4 Two examples of matrix structures
  14. 14. Slide 13.14 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Matrix structures (2) Figure 13.4 Two examples of matrix structures (Continued)
  15. 15. Slide 13.15 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Matrix structures Advantages • Integrated knowledge. • Flexible. • Allows for dual dimensions. Disadvantages • Length of time to take decisions. • Unclear job and task responsibilities. • Unclear cost and profit responsibilities. • High degrees of conflict.
  16. 16. Slide 13.16 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Multinational structures Figure 13.5 Multinational structures Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business School Press. From Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Corporation, 2nd edition by C.A. Bartlett and S. Ghoshal, Boston, MA, 1998. Copyright © 1998 by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved
  17. 17. Slide 13.17 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Transnational structures The transnational structure combines local responsiveness with high global coordination. Key Advantages include:  Knowledge-sharing.  Specialisation.  Network management.
  18. 18. Slide 13.18 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Project-based structures A project-based structure is one where teams are created, undertake the work (e.g. internal or external contracts) and are then dissolved.
  19. 19. Slide 13.19 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Comparison of structures Table 13.1 Comparison of structures
  20. 20. Slide 13.20 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Design tests for checking structural solutions  Market-Advantage.  Parenting Advantage.  People.  Feasibility.  Specialised Cultures.  Difficult Links.  Redundant Hierarchy.  Accountability.  Flexibility.
  21. 21. Slide 13.21 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Types of control systems Table 13.2 Types of control systems
  22. 22. Slide 13.22 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Types of control systems • Direct supervision – direct control of strategic decisions by one or a few individuals, typically focused on the effort of employees. • Cultural systems aim to standardise norms of behaviour within an organisation in line with particular objectives. • Performance targets focus on the outputs of an organisation (or its parts) such as product quality, revenues or profits. • Internal market systems – a formal system of a) ‘contracting’ for resources or inputs and b) for supplying outputs to other parts of an organisation.
  23. 23. Slide 13.23 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Balanced scorecards Balanced scorecards set performance targets according to a range of perspectives, not only financial. Typically combine four specific perspectives:  financial,  customer,  internal and  innovation and learning.
  24. 24. Slide 13.24 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Strategy maps Strategy maps link different performance targets into a mutually supportive causal chain supporting strategic objectives.
  25. 25. Slide 13.25 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 A strategy map Figure 13.6 A strategy map Source: Exhibit 1, R. Lawson, W. Stratton and T. Hatch (2005), ‘Achieving strategy with Scorecarding’, Journal of Corporate Accounting and Finance, March–April, 62–8: p. 64
  26. 26. Slide 13.26 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Planning systems Planning systems plan and control the allocation of resources and monitor their utilisation.
  27. 27. Slide 13.27 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Strategy styles Figure 13.7 Strategy styles Source: Adapted from M. Goold and A. Campbell, Strategies and Styles, Blackwell, 1989, Figure 3.1, p. 39
  28. 28. Slide 13.28 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Configurations Configurations are the set of organisational design elements that interlink together in order to support the intended strategy.
  29. 29. Slide 13.29 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 McKinsey 7-S framework Figure 13.8 The McKinsey 7 Ss Source: R. Waterman, T. Peters and J. Phillips, ‘Structure is not organization’, Business Horizons, June 1980, pp. 14–26: p. 18
  30. 30. Slide 13.30 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Configuration dilemmas Figure 13.9 Some dilemmas in organising for success
  31. 31. Slide 13.31 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Summary • Successful organising means responding to the key challenges facing the organisation. This chapter has stressed control, change, knowledge and internationalisation. • There are many structural types (e.g. functional, divisional, matrix, transnational and project). Each type has its own strengths and weaknesses and responds differently to the challenges of control, change, knowledge and internationalisation. • There is a range of different organisational systems to facilitate and control strategy. These focus on either inputs or outputs and can be direct or indirect. • The separate organisational elements, summarised in the McKinsey 7-S framework, should come together to form a coherent reinforcing configuration. But these reinforcing cycles also raise dilemmas that can be managed by subdividing, combining and reorganising.

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