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Strategic 8

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Strategic 8

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Strategic 8

  1. 1. Slide 8.1 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 8.1 Strategic Choices 8: International Strategy
  2. 2. Slide 8.2 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Learning outcomes • Assess the internationalisation potential of different markets. • Identify sources of competitive advantage in international strategy, through both global sourcing and exploitation of local factors. • Distinguish between four main types of international strategy. • Rank markets for entry or expansion, taking into account attractiveness, cultural and other forms of distance and competitor retaliation threats. • Assess the relative merits of different market entry modes, including joint ventures, licensing and foreign direct investment.
  3. 3. Slide 8.3 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 International strategy framework Figure 8.1 International strategy framework
  4. 4. Slide 8.4 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 International v global strategy • International strategy refers to a range of options for operating outside an organisation’s country of origin. • Global strategy involves high coordination of extensive activities dispersed geographically in many countries around the world. N.B. Global strategy is just one kind of international strategy.
  5. 5. Slide 8.5 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Internationalisation drivers Figure 8.2 Drivers of internationalisation Source: Adapted from G. Yip, Total Global Strategy II, Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2003, Chapter 2
  6. 6. Slide 8.6 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Location advantages: Porter’s diamond (1) • Porter’s Diamond – explains why some locations tend to produce firms with sustained competitive advantages in some industries more than others. The four drivers in Porter’s Diamond stem from: local factor conditions local demand conditions local related and supporting industries local firm strategy structure and rivalry.
  7. 7. Slide 8.7 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Location advantages: Porter’s diamond (2) Figure 8.3 Porter’s Diamond – the determinants of national advantages Source: Adapted with permission of The Free Press, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., from The Competitive Advantage of Nations by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 1990, 1998 by Michael E. Porter. All rights reserved
  8. 8. Slide 8.8 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Global sourcing Global sourcing refers to purchasing services and components from the most appropriate suppliers around the world regardless of their location. The advantages include: Cost advantages include labour costs, transportation and communications costs, taxation and investment incentives. Unique local capabilities. National market characteristics and reputation.
  9. 9. Slide 8.9 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 The global–local dilemma The global–local dilemma relates to the extent to which products and services may be standardised across national boundaries or need to be adapted to meet the requirements of specific national markets.
  10. 10. Slide 8.10 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 International strategies Figure 8.4 Four international strategies Source: Adapted ‘Changing patterns of international competition’, pp. 9–39, Figure 5 (Porter, M. 1987). Copyright © 1987, by The Regents of the University of California. Reprinted from the California Management Review, vol. 28, no. 2. By permission of The Regents. cmr berkeley.edu. All right reserved. This article is for personal viewing by individuals accessing this website. It is not to be copied, reproduced or otherwise disseminated without written permission from the California Management Review. By viewing this document, you here by agree to these terms. For permission or reprints, contact: cmr@haas. berkeley.edu electronic formats.
  11. 11. Slide 8.11 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Market characteristics Four elements of the PESTEL framework are particularly important in comparing countries for entry: Political. Political environments vary widely between countries and can alter rapidly. Economic. Key comparators are levels of Gross Domestic Product and disposable income which indicate the potential size of the market. Social. Factors like population characteristics and lifestyle as well as cultural differences. Legal. Countries vary widely in their legal regime.
  12. 12. Slide 8.12 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 The CAGE framework Cultural distance Administrative and political distance Geographic distance Economic/ wealth distance
  13. 13. Slide 8.13 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 International cross-cultural comparison Figure 8.5 International cross-cultural comparison Source: M. Javidan, P. Dorman, M. de Luque and R. House, ‘In the eye of the beholder: cross-cultural lessons in leadership from Project GLOBE’, Academy of Management Perspectives, February 2006, pp. 67–90 (Figure 4: USA vs China, p. 82). (GLOBE stands for ‘Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness’.)
  14. 14. Slide 8.14 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Assessing country markets Country markets can be assessed according to three criteria: Market attractiveness to the new entrant The likelihood and extent of defenders’ reaction Defenders’ clout – the relative power of defenders to fight back.
  15. 15. Slide 8.15 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 International competitor retaliation Figure 8.6 International competitor retaliation Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. Exhibit adapted from ‘Global gamesmanship’ by I. MacMillan, S. van Putter and R. McGrath, May 2003. Copyright © 2003 by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved
  16. 16. Slide 8.16 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 The staged international expansion model The staged international expansion model proposes a sequential process whereby companies gradually increase their commitment to newly entered markets, as they build market knowledge and capabilities. This is challenged by two phenomena: ‘Born-global’ firms - new small firms that internationalise rapidly (usually in new technologies) Emerging-country multinationals - building unique capabilities in the home market but exploiting them in international markets very quickly.
  17. 17. Slide 8.17 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Modes of entry Exporting Joint ventures and alliances Licensing Foreign direct investment
  18. 18. Slide 8.18 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Modes of international market entry Figure 8.7 Modes of international market entry
  19. 19. Slide 8.19 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Exporting Advantages • No need for operational facilities in host country • Economies of scale in the home country • Internet can facilitate exporting marketing opportunities Disadvantages • Lose any location advantages in the host country • Dependence on export intermediaries • Exposure to trade barriers • Transportation costs
  20. 20. Slide 8.20 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Joint ventures and alliances Advantages • Shared investment risk • Complementary resources • Maybe required for market entry Disadvantages • Difficult to find good partner • Relationship management • Loss of competitive advantage • Difficult to integrate and coordinate
  21. 21. Slide 8.21 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Licensing Advantages • Contractual source of income • Limited economic and financial exposure Disadvantages • Difficult to identify good partner • Loss of competitive advantage • Limited benefits from host nation
  22. 22. Slide 8.22 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Foreign direct investment Advantages • Full control • Integration and coordination possible • Rapid market entry through acquisitions • Greenfield investments are possible and may be subsidised Disadvantages • Substantial investment and commitment • Acquisitions may create integration/ coordination issues • Greenfield investments are time consuming and unpredictable
  23. 23. Slide 8.23 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Internationalisation and performance Inverted U-curve – complexity may erode the advantages of internationalisation Service sector disadvantages – internationalisation may only work well for manufacturing firms Internationalisation and product diversity
  24. 24. Slide 8.24 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Roles in an international portfolio Figure 8.8 Subsidiary roles in multinational firms Source: Reprinted by premission of Harvard Business School Press. From Managing across Borders: The Transnational Solution by C.A. Bartlett and S. Ghoshal. Boston, MA 1989, pp. 105–11. Copyright © 1989 by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved
  25. 25. Slide 8.25 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Summary (1) • Internationalisation potential in any particular market is determined by Yip’s four drivers: market, cost, government and competitors’ strategies. • Sources of advantage in international strategy can be drawn from both global sourcing through the international value network and national sources of advantage, as captured in Porter’s Diamond. • There are four main types of international strategy, varying according to extent of coordination and geographical configuration: simple export, complex export, multidomestic and global.
  26. 26. Slide 8.26 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Summary (2) • Market selection for international entry or expansion should be based on attractiveness, multidimensional measures of distance and expectations of competitor retaliation. • Modes of entry into new markets include export, licensing and franchising, joint ventures and overseas subsidiaries. • Internationalisation has an uncertain relationship to financial performance, with an inverted U-curve warning against over-internationalisation. • Subsidiaries in an international firm can be managed by portfolio methods just like businesses in a diversified firm.

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