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Collaboration without Chaos

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Sometimes software testers overvalue the adherence to the collective wisdom embodied in organizational processes and the mechanical execution of tasks. Overly directive procedures work—to a point—projecting an impression of firm, clear control. But do they generate test results that are valuable to our stakeholders? Is there a way to orchestrate everyone’s creative contributions without inviting disorganized confusion? Is there a model that leverages the knowledge and creativity of the people doing the work, yet exerts reliable control in a non-directive way? Griffin Jones shares just such a model, describing its prescriptive versus discretionary parts and its dynamic and adaptive nature. Task activities are classified into types and control preferences. Griffin explores archetypes of control and their associated underlying values. Leave with an understanding of how you can leverage the wisdom and creativity of your people to make your testing more valuable and actionable.

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Collaboration without Chaos

  1. 1. COLLABORATION WITHOUT www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 1
  2. 2. Introduction • About me • Questions – What does control look, sound, feel like? – What does chaos look, sound, feel like? – What collaboration look, sound, feel like? • Why I care – Regulated and risky products • I have to explain my approach to skeptics – My early formative career experiences • Nuclear Industry and KIMS www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 2
  3. 3. Fast Example Exercise Qualifying Human Experts Qualifying Human Experts Count the number of faces How many faces in each ofyou see? did the following pictures www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 3
  4. 4. Motivation to Create … • Was asked, “How do you delegate control?” – Dissatisfied w/some answers I hear/see from others • “As little as possible”: One big brain, controlling people like machines/puppets • Seems to be about people managing or coping w/their anxiety – My ANS: “Competence, Authority, Responsibility, Experience” • I noticed I had a strong emotional reaction to the Q&A • I prefer – Collaborating with thinking sapient people who test – Giving tactical control of check activities to thinking people • They choose how/when to use tools like automation and scripted procedures, to do what the tools do best – no more. • Tools are made to serve people, not … • Just because I could micro-manage to deal with my anxiety, … www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 4
  5. 5. … this Presentation • Realized that I was being intentional – But some archeology of my process was required • Where did all the pieces come from? • How do they all fit together? • Benefits of a “Grand Unified Model” – “Adaptive Discretionary Control Model” – Creates (for me) a framework for conversation, exploration, and formal explanation • By sharing this, I hope it is helpful to you – Stimulates you to explore your own thoughts – Creates space to allow thinking collaborative testing www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 5
  6. 6. Historical Example: “The Flying Problem” • Powered flight research prior to 1900 – Focus was on Control via • “Inherent Stability” versus “Dynamic Stability” • Why did they make that control choice? – How is the situation similar to testing software? Langley Aerodrome 2 Wright Flyer I www.CongruentCompliance.com 3 April 2013 6
  7. 7. Outline: Collaboration Without Chaos Adaptive Discretionary Control Model • Fit the pieces together from these models: – Feedback Controllers • and the Controller’s Internal Model – Administrative Controls • Prescriptive versus Discretionary Controls – Control Choices • Organizational and Activity Types. How to choose. – OODA Model (Observe/Orient/Decide/Act) • The “Orient” process – “Values” Archetypes • Example “Values” to Orient on – Adaptive Team Model • The three ways to adapt – Summary / Thought Experiment / References / Questions www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 7
  8. 8. Spoiler Alert! Two Big Points, … A. Chaos is the manifestation of inconsistency. – It is a sign that the controller is failing B. To get Collaboration, you need to value it and be consistent – You can’t have collaboration using primarily prescriptive procedures • even if your values are aligned to collaborate – You can’t have collaboration using discretionary procedures • if you values are primarily aligned against collaboration www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 8
  9. 9. Finding the Path through these Models… OODA How Discretionary toControllers Make Model Administrative Controls “Values” Feedback Adaptive Control the Model Adaptive Choices ArchetypesTeamObserve and Control Model Prescriptive ATM Orient Controller’s Internal Model Organization (Inspired by versus Decide and Deckert) Italy Talgam) (Entin, Serfaty, Discretionary (Jerry Weinberg) Act Activity Types (James Reasons) (John Boyd) (Reasons & Perrow) 4 - 10 www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 9
  10. 10. Feedback Controllers 4 www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 10
  11. 11. Feedback Controllers - Overview Req. Controller Req. Resources Testing Information Testing Randomness Other Outputs • The system of control must have – – – – an image of the desired state (D) the ability to observe the actual state (A) (Testing Info & Other Outputs) The ability to compare state A and D for differences The ability to act on the system to bring A closer to D. (Resources & Req.) • Control is exercised through Resources and Requirements www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 11
  12. 12. Feedback Controller’s Model ≠? Controller 11 Actual State (A) or Information Desired State (D) or Model Controller Testing Information Testing Other Outputs • The system of control must have – an image of the desired state (D) – the ability to observe the actual state (A) (Testing Info & Other Outputs) – the ability to compare state A and D for differences www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 12
  13. 13. Administrative Controls 5 www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 13
  14. 14. Administrative Controls Feedforward / Prescriptive Feedback / Discretionary Principles, Rules, Procedures Training, Experience, Using Tools OUTPUT Zero Deviation Organizational Standards, Objectives X Output Measures Human Performance Process being Controlled Incidents, Non-Conformance Frequent comparisons of output measures w/org. Principles, Intermittent additions of organizational wisdom to objectives. Deviant performance corrected. Congruent performance stored Rules,Deviant performance corrected. Procedures – as a result of Incidents andrules & procedures. as Non-Conformance. www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 14
  15. 15. Integrating Prescriptive/Discretionary Controls with Resources/Requirements ≠? Controller Prescriptive and Discretionary Administrative Controls Req. Resources Randomness Testing Information Testing Other Outputs www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 15
  16. 16. How to Make a Control Choice 6 www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 16
  17. 17. Determine Control Choice based on Exception / Solution Characteristics of Activity MANY EXCEPTION CASES FEW EXCEPTION CASES EASY SEARCH Tasks routine, repetitive, wellstructured and predictable. Tasks non-routine, but the many exceptional cases are relatively simple to analyze. Pre-programmed prescriptive Requires mixture of SOLUTIONS process control possible by rules prescriptive and discretionary and procedures. performance control. FOR Work routine, but problems are sometimes vague and poorly conventionalized. FOR Requires a mixture of SOLUTIONS prescriptive control by rules and procedures and discretionary performance by the individual. HARD SEARCH Tasks non-routine, poorly structured and unpredictable. Rules and procedures not applicable. Task performance at the discretion of the individual. www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 17
  18. 18. Control Choices for Varieties of Organizations MANY EXCEPTION CASES FEW EXCEPTION CASES EASY SEARCH FOR SOLUTIONS Railways Postal Services Construction Traditional Banking Road Haulage PRESCRIPTIVE Architecture Maintenance and Repair Oil Exploration Police Work Scientific Research Production Lines Nuclear Power Plants Chemical Process Plants Modern Aircraft FOR Advanced Manufacturing SOLUTIONS Anesthesia HARD SEARCH MIXTURE R&D Organizations MIXTURE Project Management Modern Military Operations Investment Banking Macro-economics Crisis Management DISCRETION Recovering from Design Basis Accidents / Issues www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 18
  19. 19. Integrating Control Choice with Administrative Controls ≠? Controller Task: Exception Cases Search for Solutions Prescriptive and Discretionary Administrative Controls Req. Resources Randomness Testing Information Testing Other Outputs • Analyze the organization and task activities to make Control Choices – Exception Cases – Search for Solutions www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 19
  20. 20. The OODA Model 7 www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 20
  21. 21. The OODA Model OBSERVE ORIENT DECIDE ACT Implicit Guidance & Control Unfolding Circumstances OBSERVATIONS HERITAGE, TRADITION, CULTURE, ANALYSIS, EXPERIENCE, NEW INFORMATION DECISION ACTION VALUES Feedback Unfolding Interaction With Environment • OODA is the engine inside the Controller – “Orient” steers you, based on your actual Values. • Is your Orientation compatible with Collaboration? www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 21
  22. 22. Expanding OODA • Observations are – Evolving, Inconsistent, Uncertain, Incomplete, Dependent • Orientation includes – – – – – – Sense making Managing alternative views Sharing implicit knowledge Managing uncertainty and risk Developing courses of action Considering alternative models • Decisions Control O O D A Feedback Interaction With Environment – Process of repeatedly deciding • Observe more, Orient more, or take Action – Managing deliberation, Fusing information, Choosing what to do next www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 22
  23. 23. Integrating OODA with the Controller’s Model Task: Exception Cases Search for Solutions ≠? Prescriptive and Discretionary Controls Controller Req. Resources Randomness Information Testing Other Outputs • OODA Engine • “Orient” Compass – Orient is the most important part - it shapes everything else www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 23
  24. 24. “Values”: Control Orientation Archetypes 8 www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 24
  25. 25. For Each “Values” Archetype • Who’s contributions valued? • How clear and specific are the expectations and sanctions? • What organizational / team structure is implied? • What are the levels and types of control being exercised? • How is control given, and taken back? • Who is making decisions and how are they made? • How would coordination occur? www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 25
  26. 26. “Values” Archetypes of Control … • The Cloud – The control vision of the inaccessible “Them” 12 • You don’t contribute, I make you conform thru clarity • The Unchanging Book – Control details are spelled out for - FOREVER • We don’t contribute or question, we serve • Justice Potter Stewart 13 – “I know it when I see it” - fulfill my inner vision • I’m in charge, but I won’t give you explicit direction: figure-it-out for yourself www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 14 26
  27. 27. … “Values” Archetypes • Ballroom Dancing – A flowing, living, dynamic control process • The contribution of everyone is valued as we all share and inspire within a shaped context • Lewis and Clark 15 – Control focus on everyone understanding “Meaning and Intent" – The group and individuals 16 • take initiative, are innovative, flexible, able to act independently, and cooperate within a shared context www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 27
  28. 28. Integrating Values into the “Orient” of OODA Task: Exception Cases Search for Solutions ≠? Prescriptive and Discretionary Controls Controller Req. Resources Randomness Information Testing Other Outputs • Values www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 28
  29. 29. Adaptive Team Model 9 www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 29
  30. 30. Adaptive Team Model Operational Conditions Performance TEAM PROCESSES S Stress Ind. / Team Characteristics + Teamwork Taskwork Team Structure STRUCTURAL ADAPTION DECISION-MAKING ADAPTION COORDINATION ADAPTION • • • • 17 Several Team Structures Tempo: Routine, High-Tempo, and Emergency Shared Implicit Knowledge Be sensitive to other member’s workload and performance when high-tempo www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 30
  31. 31. Integrating “Adaptive” into OODA and Controller’s Model Task: Exception Cases ≠? Prescriptive and Discretionary Controls Search for Solutions Controller Req. Resources Randomness Information Testing Other Outputs • Adapting 11, 17 – Structure, Coordination, Decision-Making www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 31
  32. 32. What Management Wants • Show you are thoughtful about the topic • Be able to explain what Collaboration and Control means to you – Describe all the parts to yourself • Verbally, written, drawing, pictures, examples – Check your description versus your experiences – Explain it / have a conversation with a trusted colleague • Revise, refine, adapt – Share more broadly, as appropriate – Make it yours www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 32
  33. 33. Summary Adaptive Discretionary Control Model 10 www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 33
  34. 34. A Question, … • Why do controllers seem to over-constrain the actions and options of people doing the testing tasks – when not warranted? – Managing controller’s anxiety and self-preservation? Enables blame? – It is simpler to manage, less effort for the controller? – Misaligned values? – Models are frozen, can’t adapt? – Models exclude sharing or collaboration? – Misunderstanding task space control requirements? – Failure to train the people? – It creates abundant evidence of task activity? www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 34
  35. 35. Two Big Points, … A. Chaos is the manifestation of inconsistency. – It is a sign that the controller is failing B. To get Collaboration, you need to value it and be consistent – You can’t have collaboration using primarily prescriptive procedures • even if your values are aligned to collaborate – You can’t have collaboration using discretionary procedures • if you values are primarily aligned against collaboration www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 35
  36. 36. Ten Summary Points … 1. Understand feedback controllers (Weinberg) 2. Control is exercised through resources and requirements (Weinberg) 3. Prescriptive and discretionary controls (Reasons) are part of the resources and requirements (Weinberg) 4. Control method (Reasons) choice should be based on the exception and solution characteristics of the task (Reasons and Perrow) 5. Controller’s have an internal model to compare to observations (Weinberg) 6. The controller (Weinberg) is driven by the engine of the OODA model (Boyd) www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 36
  37. 37. … Ten Summary Points 7. The most important part of OODA is “Orient”. That is where your values are stored and accessed. (Boyd) 8. Different archetypes of values (Jones [and Talgam]) influence and color the options available to “Orient” in OODA (Boyd). Some archetypes foster collaboration, others discourage it. 9. The OODA model (Boyd) adapts through the process described by the Adaptive Team Model - structure, coordination, decision-making (Serfaty) 10. When OODA (Boyd) and ATM (Serfaty) are healthy [e.g., Values are aligned (Jones)] there are multiple optional models available to the controller (Weinberg) www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 37
  38. 38. Questions ≠? Prescriptive and Discretionary Controls Task: Exception Cases Search for Solutions Controller Req. Resources Randomness Information Testing Other Outputs Adaptive Discretionary Control Model www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 39
  39. 39. Direct References … • Feedback Controllers and the Controller’s Internal Model – Gerald (Jerry) Weinberg • “Responding To Significant Software Events”, See Appendix D: Control Models (~ $10) – http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/QSM_vol_2.html • Administrative Controls – Prescriptive/Feedforward & Discretionary/Feedback Controls – James Reasons • “Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents”: Chapter 4, “The Human Contribution” page 61 to 64 – http://www.amazon.com/Managing-Risks-Organizational-AccidentsReason/dp/1840141050 www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 40
  40. 40. … Direct References … • Control Choices – Organization and Activity Types; Number of Exception Cases , Search for Solutions – James Reasons • “Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents”: Chapter 4, “The Human Contribution” page 64 to 68 – http://www.amazon.com/Managing-Risks-Organizational-AccidentsReason/dp/1840141050 • OODA Model - Observe, Orient, Decide, Act – David Ullman • ““OO-OO-OO!” The Sound of a Broken OODA Loop” (free) – http://www.crosstalkonline.org/storage/issuearchives/2007/200704/200704-Ullman.pdf www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 41
  41. 41. … Direct References • Values Archetypes – Italy Talgam • “Lead like the great conductors”, TED Talk (free) • Adaptive Team Model - Adaptive: Structure, Coordination, Decision-Making – Entin, Serfaty, Deckert • “Adaptive Team Model” from “Team Coordination Training” from Chapter 9 of “Making Decisions Under Stress” by Cannon-Bowers and Salas – http://psycnet.apa.org/books/10278/008 • Entin “The Effects of Leader Role and Task Load on Team Performance and Process in an AWACS Environment”, (free) page 4 – http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA468045 www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 42
  42. 42. Indirect References … • James Bullock, Marie Benesh, Gerald M. Weinberg – Roundtable on Project Management (~$8) • • Tom Coach – • “The Bishop’s Boy’s: A Life of Wilbur and Orville Wright”, chapter 12, 19, and 20 Sidney Dekker – Ten Questions About Human Error – A New View of Human Factors and System Safety (~$15) • • Systemantics: How Systems Work and Especially How They Fail (~$3) • “On Nurturing Creativity” and “having “ a genius. TED Talk (free) • High Performance Operations (~$30) • http://www.amazon.com/High-Performance-Operations-Compliance-Competitive/dp/0132779889 Don Gray – “Managing in Mayberry: An examination of three distinct leadership styles” (free) • • http://www.ted.com/talks/elizabeth_gilbert_on_genius.html Hillel Glazer – • http://www.amazon.com/Systemantics-Systems-Work-Especially-They/dp/0812906748 Elizabeth Gilbert – • http://www.amazon.com/Questions-About-Human-Error-Transportation/dp/0805847456 John Gall – • http://www.amazon.com/Roundtable-Project-Management-Dialogues-ebook/dp/B005CX919Q http://www.donaldegray.com/managing-in-mayberry-an-examination-of-three-distinct-leadership-styles/ Erih Hollnagel – The ETTO Principle: Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-off (~$30) • http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0754676781/ref=olp_product_details?ie=UTF8&me=&seller= www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 43
  43. 43. … Indirect References • Robert Mager and Peter Pipe – Analyzing Performance Problems: or You Really Oughta Wanna (~$10) • • Roger Nierenberg – Maestro: A Surprising Story About Leading By Listening (~$5) • • http://www.amazon.com/Maestro-Surprising-Story-Leading-Listening/dp/1591842883 Steve Smith – • http://www.amazon.com/Analyzing-Performance-Problems-Really-Wanna-How/dp/1879618176 “Coaching Your Personal Board of Directors” Workshop Session Gerald (Jerry) Weinberg – “Quality Software Management: Volume 1 - Systems Thinking”, chapter 1 to 7 • – “How Software Is Built” (~ $10) • – http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/QSM_vol_1.html “Why Software Gets in Trouble” (~ $10) • – http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/QSM_vol_1.html http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/QSM_vol_1.html “How To Observe Software Systems” (~ $10) • http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/QSM_vol_1.html – “An Introduction to General System Thinking” (~ $10) – “Passive Regulation: General Systems Design Principles (General Systems Thinking)” (~ $10) • • – http://www.geraldmweinberg.com/Site/General_Systems.html http://www.amazon.com/Passive-Regulation-Principles-Thinking-ebook/dp/B0054E3AMM#reader_B0054E3AMM “Active Regulation: General Systems Design Principles (General Systems Thinking)” (~ $10) • http://www.amazon.com/Active-Regulation-Principles-Thinking-ebook/dp/B0054E7ECY www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 44
  44. 44. References – Images Credits … 1. Cover Image http://www.ams-photography.com/ 2. Langley Aerodrome http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LangleyAerodromeFlown.jpg This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. 3. Wright Flyer I http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:First_flight2.jpg This media file is in the public domain in the United States. 4. Fall Road http://images.forestwander.com/wp-content/original/2011_10/fall-wilderness-road.jpg The use of Free Nature Pictures is permitted for personal or commercial use as long as credit is given to www.ForestWander.com 5. Orange Country Road http://images.forestwander.com/wp-content/original/2010_10/country-roads-take-me-home.jpg The use of Free Nature Pictures is permitted for personal or commercial use as long as credit is given to www.ForestWander.com 6. Walking Trail http://images.forestwander.com/wp-content/original/2010_03/spring-sunshine-walking-trail.jpg The use of Free Nature Pictures is permitted for personal or commercial use as long as credit is given to www.ForestWander.com 7. Half Dome http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HalfDomeTraffic.jpeg I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. 8. Plank Walk http://www.flickr.com/photos/feen/2642583576/sizes/l/in/photostream/ Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic. Some rights reserved by Aaron D. Feen 9. Ice Climbing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eisklettern_kl_engstligenfall.jpg This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license by Schweiz . 10. Grand Canyon http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/40/GrandCanyonWinter2008.JPG I, Pescaiolo, the copyright holder of this work, release this work into the public domain. www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 45
  45. 45. … References – Images Credits … 11. Airplane takeoff http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Qantas_a380_vh-oqa_takeoff_heathrow_arp.jpg The copyright holder of this work, release this work into the public domain. 12. Cloud http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cloud_in_nepal.jpg I, Krish Dulal, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. 13. Book http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bucheinband.15.Jh.r.Inkunabel.jpg This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. 14. Potter Stewart http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:US_Supreme_Court_Justice_Potter_Stewart_-_1976_official_portrait.jpg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States Federal Government under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code. See Copyright. 15. Ballroom Dance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ballroom_dance_exhibition.jpg This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license. 16. Lewis and Clark http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lewis_and_Clark_1954_Issue-3c.jpg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States Federal Government under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code. 17. Coins / Change http://www.ams-photography.com/ 18. Violin http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Violinconsruction3.JPG Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. 19. Border Collie http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BC_eye.jpg Ditto 20. Tic-Tac-Toe http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tic_tac_toe.svg This file is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 46
  46. 46. … References – Images Credits: Slide 3 Squid http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Squid_komodo.jpg This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Starfish http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Red-knobbed.starfish.arp.jpg This work has been released into the public domain by its author, Arpingstone. This applies worldwide. In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: Arpingstone grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law. Ant http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meat_eater_ant_feeding_on_honey02.jpg Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 only as published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License. Under the CC-BY-NC: you are free to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt this work provided that correct attribution is provided. Attribution must be provided in a prominent location to "Fir0002/Flagstaffotos". Portrait http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:JuanGris.Portrait_of_Picasso.jpg This is a faithful photographic reproduction of an original two-dimensional work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason: Public domain This work is in the public domain in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 80 years or less. You must also include a United States public domain tag to indicate why this work is in the public domain in the United States. Note that Mexico has a term of 100 years and does not implement the rule of the shorter term, so this image may not be in the public domain in Mexico. Côte d'Ivoire has a general copyright term of 99 years, but it does implement the rule of the shorter term. Viking http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Martian_face_viking.jpg This file is in the public domain because it was created by NASA. NASA copyright policy states that "NASA material is not protected by copyright unless noted". Clock http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pareidolia_3.jpg Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. Flower Painting http://www.jokelibrary.net/words/test_faces5.html Five Profiles - drawn by unknown. www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 47
  47. 47. Thank you for attending this session Please fill out the evaluation form Griffin Jones Collaborating with people to enable projects to become agile, innovative, and compliant Griffin.Jones@CongruentCompliance.com www.CongruentCompliance.com April 2013 48

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