Management Issues in Test Automation


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Many organizations never achieve the significant benefits that are promised from automated test execution. Surprisingly often, this is not due to technical factors but to management issues. Dot Graham describes the most important management issues you must address for test automation success, and helps you understand and choose the best approaches for your organization—no matter which automation tools you use or your current state of automation. Dot explains how automation affects staffing, who should be responsible for which automation tasks, how managers can best support automation efforts leading to success, and what return on investment means in automated testing and what you can realistically expect. Dot also reviews the key technical issues that can make or break the automation effort. Come away with an example set of automation objectives and measures, and a draft test automation strategy that you can use to plan or improve your own automation.

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Management Issues in Test Automation

  1. 1. TD AM Tutorial 4/30/13 8:30AM Management Issues in Test Automation Presented by: Dorothy Graham Software Test Consultant Brought to you by: 340 Corporate Way, Suite 300, Orange Park, FL 32073 888-268-8770 ∙ 904-278-0524 ∙ ∙
  2. 2. Dorothy Graham In testing for more than thirty years, Dorothy Graham is coauthor of four books—Software Inspection, Software Test Automation, Foundations of Software Testing, and Experiences of Test Automation: Case Studies of Software Test Automation. Dot was a founding member of the ISEB Software Testing Board, a member of the working party that developed the first ISTQB Foundation Syllabus, and served on the boards of conferences and publications in software testing. A popular and entertaining speaker at conferences and seminars worldwide, she has been coming to STAR conferences since the first one in 1992. Dot holds the European Excellence Award in Software Testing. Learn more about Dot at
  3. 3. Management Issues in Test Automation Contents Session 0: Introduction to the tutorial Tutorial objectives What we cover (and don’t cover) today Session 1: Planning and Managing Test Automation Responsibilities Pilot project Test automation objectives (and exercise) Return on Investment (ROI) Session 2: Technical Issues for Managers Testware architecture Scripting, keywords and Domain-Specific Test Language (DSTL) Automating more than execution Session 3: Final Advice, Strategy and Conclusion Final advice Strategy exercise Conclusion Appendix (useful stuff) That’s no reason to automate (Better Software article) Man and Machine, Jonathan Kohl (Better Software) Technical vs non-technical skills in test automation
  4. 4. 0-1 Management Issues in Test Automation Prepared and presented by Dorothy Graham email: Twitter: @DorothyGraham © Dorothy Graham 2013 0-1 Objectives of this tutorial •  help you achieve better success in automation –  independent of any particular tool •  mainly management but a few technical issues –  responsibilities, pilot project –  objectives for automation –  Return on Investment (ROI) –  critical technical issues for managers –  what works in practice (case studies) •  help you plan an effective automation strategy 0-2 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  5. 5. 0-2 Tutorial contents 1) Planning & Managing Test Automation 2) Technical Issues for Managers 3) Final advice and Conclusion 0-3 Shameless commercial plug Part 1: How to do automation - still relevant today, though we plan to update it at some point New book! 0-4 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  6. 6. 0-3 What is today about? (and not about) •  test execution automation (not other tools) •  I will NOT cover: –  demos of tools (time, which one, expo) –  comparative tool info / selecting a tool* •  at the end of the day –  understand management issues –  be aware of critical technical issues –  have your own automation objectives –  plan your own automation strategy * I will email you Ch 10 on request – 0-5 About you •  your Summary and Strategy document –  where are you now with your automation? –  what are your most pressing automation problems? –  why are you here today? •  your objectives for this tutorial 0-6 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  7. 7. 1-Managing Management Issues in Test Automation Planning & Managing Test Automation 1 Managing 2 Technical 3 Conclusion 1-1 Management Issues in Test Automation Managing 1 2 3 Contents Responsibilities Pilot project Test automation objectives Return on Investment (ROI) 1-2 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  8. 8. 1-Managing What is an automated test? •  a test! –  designed by a tester for a purpose •  test is executed –  implemented / constructed to run automatically using a tool –  could be run manually also •  who decides what tests to run? •  who decides how a test is run? 1-3 Existing perceptions of automation skills •  many books & articles don’t mention automation skills –  or assume that they must be acquired by testers •  test automation is technical in some ways •  using the test execution tool directly (script writing) •  designing the testware architecture (framework / regime) •  debugging automation problems –  this work requires technical skill –  most people now realise this (but many still don’t) See article: “Technical vs non-technical skills in test automation” presented by Dorothy Graham 1-4 © Dorothy Graham 2013
  9. 9. 1-Managing Responsibilities Testers •  test the software –  design tests –  select tests for automation •  requires planning / negotiation Automators •  automate tests (requested by testers) •  support automated testing –  allow testers to execute tests –  help testers debug failed tests –  provide additional tools (homegrown) •  execute automated tests –  should not need detailed technical expertise •  analyse failed automated tests –  report bugs found by tests –  problems with the tests may need help from the automation team •  predict –  maintenance effort for software changes –  cost of automating new tests •  improve the automation –  more benefits, less cost 1-5 Test manager’s dilemma •  who should undertake automation work –  not all testers can automate (well) –  not all testers want to automate –  not all automators want to test! •  conflict of responsibilities –  automate tests vs. run tests manually •  get additional resources as automators? –  contractors? borrow a developer? tool vendor? 1-6 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  10. 10. 1-Managing Roles within the automation team •  Testware architect –  designs the overall structure for the automation •  Champion –  “sells” automation to managers and testers •  Tool specialist –  technical aspects, licensing, updates to the tool •  Automated test (& script) developers –  write new keyword scripts as needed –  debug automation problems 1-7 Agile automation: Lisa Crispin –  starting point: buggy code, new functionality needed, whole team regression tests manually –  testable architecture: (open source tools) •  want unit tests automated (TDD), start with new code •  start with GUI smoke tests - regression •  business logic in middle level with FitNesse –  100% regression tests automated in one year •  selected set of smoke tests for coverage of stories –  every 6 mos, engineering sprint on the automation –  key success factors •  management support & communication •  whole team approach, celebration & refactoring presented by Dorothy Graham 1-8 © Dorothy Graham 2013
  11. 11. 1-Managing Automation and agile •  agile automation: apply agile principles to automation –  multidisciplinary team –  automation sprints –  refactor when needed •  fitting automation into agile development –  ideal: automation is part of “done” for each sprint •  Test-Driven Design = write and automate tests first –  alternative: automation in the following sprint -> •  may be better for system level tests See (James Bach) 1-9 Automation in agile/iterative development A manual testing of this release (testers) A B regression testing (automators automate the best tests) A B C run automated tests (testers) A B C D E F 1-10 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  12. 12. 1-Managing Requirements for agile test framework •  Support manual and automated testing –  using the same test construction process •  Support fully manual execution at any time –  requires good naming convention for components •  Support manual + automated execution –  so test can be used before it is 100% automated •  Implement reusable objects •  Allow “stubbing” objects before GUI available Source: Dave Martin,, email Management Issues in Test Automation Managing 1 2 1-11 3 Contents Responsibilities Pilot project Test automation objectives Return on Investment (ROI) 1-12 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  13. 13. 1-Managing A tale of two projects: Ane Clausen –  Project 1: 5 people part-time, within test group •  no objectives, no standards, no experience, unstable •  after 6 months was closed down –  Project 2: 3 people full time, 3-month pilot •  worked on two (easy) insurance products, end to end •  1st month: learn and plan, 2nd & 3rd months: implement •  started with simple, stable, positive tests, easy to do •  close cooperation with business, developers, delivery •  weekly delivery of automated Business Process Tests –  after 6 months, automated all insurance products 1-13 Pilot project •  reasons –  you’re unique –  many variables / unknowns at start •  benefits –  find the best way for you (best practice) –  solve problems once –  establish confidence (based on experience) –  set realistic targets •  objectives –  demonstrate tool value –  gain experience / skills in the use of the tool –  identify changes to existing test process –  set internal standards and conventions –  refine assessment of costs and achievable benefits 1-14 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  14. 14. 1-Managing What to explore in the pilot •  build / implement automated tests (architecture) –  different ways to build stable tests (e.g. 10 – 20) •  maintenance –  different versions of the application –  reduce maintenance for most likely changes •  failure analysis –  support for identifying bugs –  coping with common bugs affecting many automated tests Also: naming conventions, reporting results, measurement 1-15 After the pilot… •  having processes & standards is only the start –  30% on new process –  70% on deployment Source: Eric Van Veenendaal, successful test process improvement •  marketing, training, coaching •  feedback, focus groups, sharing what’s been done •  the (psychological) Change Equation –  change only happens if (x + y + z) > w x = dissatisfaction with the current state y = shared vision of the future z = knowledge of the steps to take to get from here to there w = psychological / emotional cost to change for this person 1-16 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  15. 15. 1-Managing Management Issues in Test Automation Managing 1 2 3 Contents Responsibilities Pilot project Test automation objectives Return on Investment (ROI) 1-17 An automation effort •  is a project –  with goals, responsibilities, and monitoring –  but not just a project – ongoing effort is needed •  not just one effort – different projects –  when acquiring a tool – pilot project –  when anticipated benefits have not materialized –  different projects at different times •  with different objectives •  objectives are important for automation efforts –  where are we going? are we getting there? presented by Dorothy Graham 1-18 © Dorothy Graham 2013
  16. 16. 1-Managing Efficiency and effectiveness better good slow testing Manual testing High good fast testing Automated Efficiency poor fast testing poor slow testing worst greatest benefit Effectiveness not good but common Low 1-19 Good objectives for automation? –  run regression tests evenings and weekends –  give testers a new skill / enhance their image –  run tests tedious and error-prone if run manually –  gain confidence in the system –  reduce the number of defects found by users 1-20 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  17. 17. Test Automation Objectives Exercise Test Automation Objectives Exercise The following are some possible test automation objectives. Evaluate each objective – is it a suitable objective for automation? If not, why not? Which are already in place in your own organisation? Possible test automation objectives Achieve faster performance for the system Good automation objective? (If not, why not) Already in place? NO – this is not an objective for test execution automation, nor is it an objective for performance testing! Performance test tools may help by giving the measurements to see whether the system is faster. Achieve good results and quick payback with no additional resources, effort or time Automate all tests Build a long-lasting automation regime that is easy to maintain Easy to add new automated tests Ensure repeatability of regression tests Ensure that we meet our release deadlines Find more bugs Find defects in less time Free testers from repeated (boring) test execution to spend more time in test design © Dorothy Graham, 2011 STA1110126 Page 1 of 5
  18. 18. Test Automation Objectives Exercise Possible test automation objectives Good automation objective? (If not, why not) Already in place? Improve our testing Reduce elapsed time for testing by x% Reduce the cost and time for test design Reduce the number of test staff Run more tests Run regression tests more often Run tests every night on all PCs Achieve a positive Return on Investment in no more than <x> test interations (where x = ?) Other objectives: © Dorothy Graham, 2011 STA1110126 Page 2 of 5
  19. 19. 1-Managing Reduce test execution time edit tests (maintenance) set-up execute analyse failures clear-up Manual testing Same tests automated More mature automation 1-21 Automate x% of the tests •  are your existing tests worth automating? –  if testing is in chaos, automating gives you faster chaos •  which tests to automate (first)? •  what % of manual tests should be automated? –  “100%” sounds impressive but may not be wise •  what else can be automated –  automation can do things not possible or practical in manual testing! 1-22 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  20. 20. 1-Managing Manual vs automated manual tests automated tests tests not automated yet tests not worth automating tests (& verification) not possible to do manually manual tests automated (% manual) exploratory test automation 1-23 Success = find lots of bugs? •  tests find bugs, not automation •  automation is a mechanism for running tests •  the bug-finding ability of a test is not affected by the manner in which it is executed •  this can be a dangerous objective –  especially for regression automation! 1-24 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  21. 21. 1-Managing When is “find more bugs” a good objective for automation? •  objective is “fewer regression bugs missed” •  when the first run of a given test is automated –  MBT, Exploratory test automation, automated test design –  keyword-driven (e.g. users populate spreadsheet) •  find bugs in parts we wouldn’t have tested? 1-25 Good objectives for test automation •  become measurable quality attributes for automation •  realistic and achievable •  short and long term •  regularly re-visited and revised •  should be different objectives for testing and for automation •  automation should support testing activities 1-26 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  22. 22. 1-Managing Quality attributes for automation •  related to objectives •  measurable (see Tom Gilb’s work) •  examples –  maintenance time for testware –  failure analysis time –  improved support for testers –  coverage of system tested by automation –  increasing EMTE 1-27 EMTE – what is it? •  Equivalent Manual Test Effort –  given a set of automated tests, –  how much effort would it take •  IF those tests were run manually •  note –  you would not actually run these tests manually –  EMTE = what you could have tested manually •  and what you did test automatically –  used to show test automation benefit 1-28 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  23. 23. 1-Managing EMTE – how does it work? a manual test Manual testing Automate the manual testing? the manual test now automated doesn’t make sense – can run them more only time to run the tests 1.5 times 1-29 EMTE – how does it work? (2) Automated testing EMTE 1-30 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  24. 24. 1-Managing EMTE example •  example –  automated tests take 2 hours –  if those same tests were run manually, 4 days •  frequency –  automated tests run every day for 2 weeks (including once at the weekend), 11 times •  calculation –  EMTE = 1-31 Management Issues in Test Automation Managing 1 2 3 Contents Responsibilities Pilot project Test automation objectives Return on Investment (ROI) 1-32 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  25. 25. 1-Managing Is this Return on Investment (ROI)? •  •  •  •  •  tests are run more often tests take less time to run it takes less human effort to run tests we can test (cover) more of the system we can run the equivalent of days / weeks of manual testing in a few minutes / hours •  faster time to market ROI = (benefit – cost) cost these are (good) benefits but are not ROI 1-33 How important is ROI? •  ROI can be dangerous –  easiest way to measure: tester time –  may give impression that tools replace people •  “automation is an enabler for success, not a cost reduction tool” •  Yoram Mizrachi, “Planning a mobile test automation strategy that works, ATI magazine, July 2012 •  many achieve lasting success without measuring ROI (depends on your context) –  need to be aware of benefits (and publicize them) 1-34 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  26. 26. 1-Managing An example comparative benefits chart 80 70 60 50 40 man aut 30 20 10 0 exec speed 14 x faster times run data variety tester work 5 x more often 4 x more data 12 x less effort ROI spreadsheet – email me for a copy 1-35 Why measure automation ROI? •  to justify and confirm starting automation –  business case for purchase/investment decision, to confirm ROI has been achieved e.g. after pilot –  both compare manual vs automated testing •  to monitor on-going automation –  for increased efficiency, continuous improvement –  build time, maintenance time, failure analysis time, refactoring time •  on-going costs – what are the benefits? 1-36 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  27. 27. 1-Managing MBT @ ESA: Stefan Mohacsi, Armin Beer –  home-grown tool interfaced to commercial tools •  Model-Based Testing and Test Case Generation •  layers of abstraction for maintainability –  define model before software is ready •  capture and assign GUI objects later •  developers build in testability –  ROI calculations •  invest 460 hours in automation infrastructure •  break-even after 4 test cycles 1-37 Example ROI graph using MBT 1400 1200 1000 People Hours 800 Manual hrs Automated hrs 600 400 200 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Source: Stefan Mohacsi & Armin Beer presented by Dorothy Graham 1-38 © Dorothy Graham 2013
  28. 28. 1-Managing Database testing: Henri van de Scheur –  tool developed in-house (now open source) •  agreed requirements with relevant people up front •  9 months, 4 developers in Java (right people) •  good architecture, start with quick wins –  flexible configuration, good reporting, metrics used to improve –  results: 2400 times more efficient •  from: 20 people run 40 tests on 6 platforms in 4 days •  to: 1 person runs 200 tests on 10 platforms in 1 day •  quick dev tests, nightly regression, release tests •  life cycle of automated tests •  little maintenance, machines used 24x7, better quality 1-39 Large S Africa bank: Michael Snyman •  was project-based, too late, lessons not learned –  “our shelves were littered with tools..” •  2006: automation project, resourced, goals –  formal automation process •  ROI after 3 years –  US$4m on testing project, automation $850K –  savings $8m, ROI 900% •  20 testers for 4 weeks to 2 in 1 week –  automation ROI justified the testing project •  only initiative that was measured accurately presented by Dorothy Graham 1-40 © Dorothy Graham 2013
  29. 29. 1-Managing Example ROI graph Savings % vs Tests 100% 50% 0% 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 -50% -100% -150% -200% monthly weekly daily Source: Lars Wahlberg, Chapter 18 in “Experiences of Test Automation” 1-41 Sample ‘starter kit’ for metrics for test automation (and testing) •  some measure of benefit –  e.g. EMTE or coverage •  average time to automate a test (or set of related tests) •  total effort spent on maintaining automated tests (expressed as an average per test) •  also measure testing, e.g. Defect Detection Percentage (DDP) – test effectiveness –  more info on DDP on my web site & blog 1-42 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  30. 30. 1-Managing Recommendations •  don’t measure everything! •  choose three or four measures –  applicable to your most important objectives •  monitor for a few months –  see what you learn •  change measures if they don’t give useful information 1-43 Managing 1 2 3 Management Issues in Test Automation Summary: key points •  •  •  •  •  Assign responsibility for automation (and testing) Use a pilot project to explore the best ways of doing things Know your automation objectives Measure what’s important to you Show ROI from automation 1-44 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  31. 31. 1-Managing Good objectives for automation? (answers) –  run regression tests evenings and weekends not a good objective, unless they are worthwhile tests! –  give testers a new skill / enhance their image not a good objective, could be a useful by-product –  run tests tedious and error-prone if run manually good objective –  gain confidence in the system an objective for testing, but automated regression tests help achieve it –  reduce the number of defects found by users not a good objective for automation, good objective for testing! 1-45 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  32. 32. Test Automation Objectives Solution Test Automation Objectives Solution We have given some ideas as to which objectives are good and why the others are not. Good automation objective? (If not, why not) Possible test automation objectives Achieve faster performance for the system NO – this is not an objective for test execution automation, nor is it an objective for performance testing! Performance test tools may help by giving the measurements to see whether the system is faster. Achieve good results and quick payback with no additional resources, effort or time NO – this is totally unrealistic – expecting a miracle with no investment! Automate all tests NO – automating ALL tests is not realistic nor sensible. Automate only those tests that are worth automating. Build a long-lasting automation regime that is easy to maintain YES – this is an excellent objective for test automation, and it is measurable. Easy to add new automated tests YES. with a good automation regime, it can be easier to add a new automated test than to run that test manually. Ensure repeatability of regression tests YES. The tools will run the same test in the same way every time. Ensure that we meet our release deadlines NO. Automation may help to run some tests that are required before release, but there are many more factors that go into a release decision. Find more bugs NO. Automation just runs tests. It is the tests that find the bugs, whether they are run manually or are automated. Find defects in less time Not really. Some types of defects (regression bugs) will be found more quickly by automated tests, but it may actually take longer to analyse the failures found. Free testers from repeated (boring) test YES. This is a good objective for test execution execution to spend more time in test automation. design © Dorothy Graham, 2011 STA110126 Page 3 of 5
  33. 33. Test Automation Objectives Solution Good automation objective? (If not, why not) Possible test automation objectives Improve our testing NO. Better testing practices and better use of techniques will improve testing. Reduce elapsed time for testing by x% NO. Elapsed time depends on many factors, and not much on whether tests are automated (see further explanation in the slides). Reduce the cost and time for test design NO. Test design is independent from automation – the time spent in design is not affected by how those tests are executed. Reduce the number of test staff NO. You will need more staff to implement the automation, not less. It can make existing staff more productive by spending more time on test design. Run more tests YES but only long term. Short term, you may actually run fewer tests because of the effort taken to automate them. Run regression tests more often YES – this is what the test execution tools do best. Run tests every night on all PCs NO. It may look impressive, but what tests are being run? Are they useful? If not, this is a waste of electricity. Achieve a positive Return on Investment in no more than <6> test interations YES. This is a good objective, if the number of iterations is a reasonable number (e.g. 6). Other objectives: © Dorothy Graham, 2011 STA110126 Page 4 of 5
  34. 34. Test Automation Objectives Solution Test Automation Objectives: Selection and Measurement On this page, record the test objectives that would be most appropriate for your organisation (and why), and how you will measure them (what to measure and how to measure it). I suggest that you include at least one about showing Return on Investment. If you currently have automation objectives in place in your organisation that are not good ones, make sure that they are removed and replaced by the better ones below! Proposed test automation objective (with justification) What to measure and how to measure it Add any comments or thoughts here or on the back of this page. © Dorothy Graham, 2011 STA110126 Page 5 of 5
  35. 35. 2-Technical Management Issues in Test Automation Technical Issues for Managers 1 Managing 2 Technical 3 Conclusion 2-1 Technical 1 2 Management Issues in Test Automation 3 Contents Testware architecture Scripting, keywords and DSTL Automating more than execution 2-2 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  36. 36. 2-Technical Testware architecture testware  architecture   Testers     write  tests  (in  DSTL)   abstraction here: easier to write automated tests  widely used High Level Keywords structured   testware   Test Automator(s) Structured Scripts Test  Execu/on  Tool   runs  scripts   abstraction here: easier to maintain, and change tools  long life 2-3 Easy way out: use the tool’s architecture •  tool will have its own way of organising tests –  where to put things (for the convenience of the tool!) –  will “lock you in” to that tool – good for vendors! •  a better way (gives independence from tools) –  organise your tests to suit you –  as part of pre-processing, copy files to where the tool needs (expects) to find them –  as part of post-processing, copy back to where you want things to live 2-4 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  37. 37. 2-Technical Tool-specific script ratio Testers     Testers     Not Toolspecific Tool-specific scripts Test  Execu/on  Tool   High maintenance and/or tooldependence Test  Execu/on  Tool   2-5 Key issues •  scale –  the number of scripts, data files, results files, benchmark files, etc. will be large and growing •  shared scripts and data –  efficient automation demands reuse of scripts and data through sharing, not multiple copies •  multiple versions –  as the software changes so too will some tests but the old tests may still be required •  multiple environments / platforms 2-6 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  38. 38. 2-Technical Terms - Testware artefacts Testware Test Materials Test Results Products inputs By-Products scripts doc (specifications) data env utilities expected results logs actual results status differences differences summary summary 2-7 Benefits of standard approach •  tools can assume knowledge (architecture) –  they need less information; are easier to use; fewer errors will be made •  can automate many tasks –  checking (completeness, interdependencies); documentation (summaries, reports); browsing •  portability of tests –  between people, projects, organisations, etc. •  shorter learning curve 2-8 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  39. 39. 2-Technical Technical 1 2 Management Issues in Test Automation 3 Contents Testware architecture Scripting, keywords and DSTL Automating more than execution 2-9 Levels of scripting •  capture replay  high maintenance costs •  structured scripts use programming constructs –  modular, calling structure, loops, IF statements –  few scripts affected by software changes •  data-driven: control scripts process SSs/ DBs –  easy to add new similar tests •  keyword-driven / DSTL / Framework –  one control script proccess actions and data –  including verification actions 2-10 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  40. 40. 2-Technical Data-driven example ADD MOVE DELETE For each record ReadDataFile(RECORD) Case (Column(RECORD)) countries Sweden Data file: TestCase2 USA FILE Europe Norway For each TESTCASE OpenDataFile(TESTCASEn) ReadDataFile(RECORD) Data file: TestCase1 FILE Control script ADD 4,1 MOVE DELETE France Germany FILE: OpenFile(INPUTFILE) ADD: AddItem(ITEM) 2 7 1,3 2,2 1 5,3 MOVE: MoveItem(FROM, TO) DELETE: DeleteItem(ITEM) ….. Next record Next TESTCASE 2-11 About keywords •  single control script (Interactive Test Environment) –  improvements to this benefit all tests (ROI) –  extracts high-level instructions from scripts •  ‘test definition’ –  independent of tool scripting language –  a language tailored to testers’ requirements •  software design •  application domain •  business processes •  more tests, fewer scripts 2-12 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  41. 41. 2-Technical Comparison of data files data-driven approach keyword approach FILE ADD MOVE DELETE SAVE Europe France Italy 1,3 2,2 1 5,2 Test2 which is easier to read/understand? ScribbleOpen Europe AddToList France Italy MoveItem 1 to 3 MoveItem 2 to 2 DeleteItem 1 MoveItem 5 to 2 SaveAs Test2 what happens when the test becomes large and complex? this looks more like a test 2-13 Execution-tool-independent framework script script libraries libraries some tests run manually framework tool independent presented by Dorothy Graham Another Test Tool tool dependent sut test procedures /definitions Test Test Tool Tool software under test software under test tool independent scripting language 2-14 © Dorothy Graham 2013
  42. 42. 2-Technical Technical 1 2 Management Issues in Test Automation 3 Contents Testware architecture Scripting, keywords and DSTL Automating more than execution 2-15 Automated tests/automated testing Automated tests Automated testing Select / identify test cases to run Set-up test environment: •  create test environment •  load test data Repeat for each test case: •  set-up test pre-requisites •  execute •  compare results •  log results •  analyse test failures •  report defect(s) •  clear-up after test case Select / identify test cases to run Set-up test environment: •  create test environment •  load test data Repeat for each test case: •  set-up test pre-requisites •  execute •  compare results •  log results •  clear-up after test case Clear-up test environment: •  delete unwanted data •  save important data Clear-up test environment: •  delete unwanted data •  save important data Summarise results Manual process presented by Dorothy Graham Summarise results Analyse test failures Report defects Automated process 2-16 © Dorothy Graham 2013
  43. 43. 2-Technical Two types of comparison •  dynamic comparison –  done during test execution –  performed by the test tool –  can be used to direct the progress of the test •  e.g. if this fails, do that instead –  fail information written to test log (usually) •  post-execution comparison –  done after the test execution has completed –  good for comparing files or databases –  can be separated from test execution –  can have different levels of comparison •  e.g. compare in detail if all high level comparisons pass 2-17 Sensitive versus specific(robust) test Test is supposed to change only this field Specific test verifies this field only Test outcome Unexpected change occurs Sensitive test verifies the entire outcome 2-18 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  44. 44. 2-Technical Too much sensitivity = redundancy Three tests, each changes a different field If all tests are specific, the unexpected change is missed Test outcome Unexpected change occurs for every test If all tests are sensitive, they all show the unexpected change 2-19 Comparison is not simple –  your expected results (“golden version”) –  masking/filtering (e.g. date test is run) •  may take significant effort to compare what you want and exclude what you don’t –  different order of output –  false fail (should pass) •  e.g. bitmap comparison on images, can eat time –  false pass (should fail) •  gives unjustified confidence (“zombie tests”) –  make your automated tests red until proved green 2-20 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  45. 45. 2-Technical Outside the box: Jonathan Kohl –  task automation (throw-away scripts) •  entering data sets to 2 browsers (verify by watching) •  install builds, copy test data –  support manual exploratory testing –  testing under the GUI to the database (“side door”) –  don’t believe everything you see •  1000s of automated tests pass too quickly •  monitoring tools to see what was happening •  “if there’s no error message, it must be ok” –  defects didn’t make it to the test harness –  overloaded system ignored data that was wrong 2-21 DSTL structured Dis sc po s rip able ts testware architecture execution comparison s litie d Uti ta loa da eg loosen your oracles ETA, monkeys presented by Dorothy Graham Automation + st po g & n Pre cessi pro Me tric e.g s EM . TE 2-22 © Dorothy Graham 2013
  46. 46. 2-Technical Technical 1 2 3 Management Issues in Test Automation Summary: key points •  •  Structure your automation testware to suit you Use the highest level of scripting that you need •  •  e.g. keyword / Domain-Specific Test Language Automate more than execution 2-23 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  47. 47. 3-Conclusion Management Issues in Test Automation Final Advice and Conclusion 1 Managing 2 Technical 3 Conclusion 2-1 Conclusion 1 2 Management Issues in Test Automation 3 Contents Final advice Your strategy Conclusion 2-2 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  48. 48. 3-Conclusion Dealing with high level management •  management support –  building good automation takes time and effort –  set realistic expectations •  benefits and ROI –  make benefits visible (charts on the walls) –  metrics for automation •  to justify it, compare to manual test costs over iterations •  on-going continuous improvement –  build cost, maintenance cost, failure analysis cost –  coverage of system tested 2-3 Dealing with developers •  critical aspect for successful automation –  automation is development •  may need help from developers •  automation needs development standards to work –  testability is critical for automatability –  why should they work to new standards if there is “nothing in it for them”? –  seek ways to cooperate and help each other •  run tests for them –  in different environments –  rapid feedback from smoke tests •  help them design better tests? 2-4 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  49. 49. 3-Conclusion Standards and technical factors •  standards for the testware architecture –  where to put things –  what to name things –  how to do things •  but allow exceptions if needed •  new technology can be great –  but only if the context is appropriate for it (e.g. Model-Based Testing) •  use automation “outside the box” 2-5 On-going automation •  you are never finished –  don’t “stand still” - schedule regular review and refactoring of the automation –  change tools, hardware when needed –  re-structure if your current approach is causing problems •  regular “pruning” of tests –  don’t have “tenured” test suites •  check for overlap, removed features •  each test should earn its place 2-6 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  50. 50. 3-Conclusion Information and web sites –  Automated Testing Institute (and magazine) • –  SQE (Software Quality Engineering • •  Linda Hayes automation course •  Hans Buwalda’s tutorial –  Randy Rice: presentation on Free and Cheap tools and automation course • (search on “free tools”) –  FreeTest Conference (Trondheim, Norway) • –  LinkedIn has a test automation group 2-7 Conclusion 1 2 Management Issues in Test Automation 3 Contents Final advice Your strategy Conclusion 2-8 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  51. 51. 3-Conclusion What next? •  we have looked at a number of ideas about test automation today •  what is your situation? –  what are the most important things for you now? –  where do you want to go? –  how will you get there? •  make a start on your test automation strategy now –  adapt it to your own situation tomorrow 2-9 Strategy exercise •  your automation strategy / action plan –  review your objectives for today (p1) –  review your “take-aways” so far (p2) –  identify the top 3 changes you want to make to your automation (top of p3) –  note your plans now on p3 2-10 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  52. 52. 3-Conclusion Conclusion 1 2 3 Management Issues in Test Automation Summary: key points •  Management issues: •  •  Technical issues: •  •  •  staffing, pilot, objectives, Return on Investment (ROI) testware architecture, scripting, others Final advice Your Objectives and Strategy 2-11 any more questions? please email me! Thank you for coming today I hope this was / will be useful for you All the best in your automation! 2-12 presented by Dorothy Graham © Dorothy Graham 2013
  54. 54. “Why automate?” This seems such an easy question to answer; yet many people don’t achieve the success they hoped for. If you are aiming in the wrong direction, you will not hit your target! This article explains why some testing objectives don’t work for automation, even though they may be very sensible goals for testing in general. We take a look at what makes a good test automation objective; then we examine six commonly held—but misguided— objectives for test execution automation, explaining the good ideas behind them, where they fail, and how these objectives can be modified for successful test automation. Good Objectives for Test Automation A good objective for test automation should have a number of characteristics. First of all, it should be measurable so that you can tell whether or not you have achieved it. Objectives for test automation should support testing activities but should not be the same as the objectives for testing. Testing and automation are different and distinct activities. Objectives should be realistic and achievable; otherwise, you will set yourself up for failure. It is better to have smaller-scale goals that can be met than far-reaching goals that seem impossible. Of course, many small steps can take you a long way! Automation objectives should be both short and long term. The shortterm goals should focus on what can be achieved in the next month or quarter. The long-term goals focus on where you want to be in a year or two. Objectives should be regularly revised in the light of experience. Misguided Objectives for Test Automation Objective 1: Find More Bugs Good ideas behind this objective: • Testing should find bugs, so automated testing should find them quicker. • Since tests are run quicker, we can run more tests and find even more bugs. • We can test more of the system so we should also find bugs in the parts we weren’t able to test manually. Basing the success of automation on finding bugs—especially the automation of regression tests—is not a good thing to do for several reasons. First, it is the quality of the tests that determines whether or not bugs are found, and this has very little, if anything, to do with automation. Second, if tests are first run manually, any bugs will be found then, and they may be fixed by the time the automated tests are run. Finally, it sets an expectation that the main purpose of test automation is to find bugs, but this is not the case: A repeated test is much less likely to find a new bug than a new test. If the software is really good, automation may be seen as a waste of time and resources. Regression testing looks for unexpected, detrimental side effects in unchanged software. This typically involves running a lot of tests, many of which will not find any defects. This is ideal ground for test automation as it can significantly reduce the burden of this repetitive work, freeing the testers to focus on running manual tests where more defects are likely to be. It is the testing that finds bugs—not the automation. It is the testers who may be able to find more bugs, if the automation frees them from mundane repetitive work. The number of bugs found is a misleading measure for automation in any case. A better measure would be the percentage of regression bugs found (compared to a currently known total). This is known as the defect detection percentage (DDP). See the StickyNotes for more information. Sometimes this objective is phrased in a slightly different way: “Improve the quality of the software.” But identifying bugs does nothing to improve software—it is the fixing of bugs that improves the software, and this is a development task. If finding more bugs is something that you want to do, make it an objective for measuring the value of testing, not for measuring the value of automation. Better automation objective: Help ters find more regression bugs (so fewer regression failures occur in operation). This could be measured by increased DDP for regression bugs, together with a rating from the testers about how well the automation has supported their objectives. Objective 2: Run Regression Tests Overnight and on Weekends Good ideas behind this objective: • We have unused resources (evenings and weekends). • We could run automated tests “while we sleep.” At first glance, this seems an excellent objective for test execution automation, and it does have some good points. Once you have a good set of automated regression tests, it is a good idea to run the tests unattended overnight and on weekends, but resource use is not the most important thing. What about the value of the tests that are being run? If the regression tests that would be run “off peak” are really valuable tests, giving confidence that the main areas of the system are still working correctly, then this is useful. But the focus needs to be on supporting good testing. It is too easy to meet this stated objective by just running any test, whether it is worth running or not. For example, if you ran the same one test over and over again every night and every weekend, you would have achieved the goal as stated, but it is a total waste of time and electricity. In fact, we have heard of someone who did just this! (We think he left the company soon after.) Of course, automated tests can be run much more often, and you may want some evidence of the increased test execution. One way to measure this is using equivalent manual test effort (EMTE). For all automated tests, estimate how long it would have taken to run those tests manually (even though you have no intention of doing so). Then each time the test is run automatically, add that EMTE to your running total. Better automation objective: Run the most important or most useful tests, employing under-used computer resources when possible. This could be partially JULY/AUGUST 2009 BETTER SOFTWARE 33
  55. 55. measured by the increased use of resources and by EMTE, but should also include a measure of the value of the tests run, for example, the top 25 percent of the current priority list of most important tests (priority determined by the testers for each test cycle). Objective 3: Reduce Testing Staff Good ideas behind this objective: • We are spending money on the tool, so we should be able to save elsewhere. • We want to reduce costs overall, and staff costs are high. This is an objective that seems to be quite popular with managers. Some managers may go even further and think that the tool will do the testing for them, so they don’t need the testers—this is just wrong. Perhaps managers also think that a tool won’t be as argumentative as a tester! It is rare that staffing levels are reduced when test automation is introduced; on the contrary, more staff are usually needed, since we now need people with test script development skills in addition to people with testing skills. You wouldn’t want to let four testers go and then find that you need eight test automators to maintain their tests! Automation supports testing activities; it does not usurp them. Tools cannot make intelligent decisions about which tests to run, when, and how often. This is a task for humans able to assess the current situation and make the best use of the available time and resources. Furthermore, automated testing is not automatic testing. There is much work for people to do in building the automated tests, analyzing the results, and maintaining the testware. Having tests automated does—or at least should—make life better for testers. The most tedious and boring tasks are the ones that are most amenable for automation, since the computer will happily do repetitive tasks more consistently and without complaining. Automation can make test execution more efficient, but it is the testers who make the tests themselves effective. We have yet to see a tool that can think up tests as well as a human being can! 34 BETTER SOFTWARE JULY/AUGUST 2009 The objective as stated is a management objective, not an appropriate objective for automation. A better management objective is “Ensure that everyone is performing tasks they are good at.” This is not an automation objective either, nor is “Reducing the cost of testing.” These could be valid objectives, but they are related to management, not automation. Better automation objective: The total cost of the automation effort should be significantly less than the total testing effort saved by the automation. This could be partially measured by an increase in tests run or coverage achieved per hour of human effort. Objective 4: Reduce Elapsed Time for Testing Good ideas behind this objective: • Reduce deadline pressure—any way we can save time is good. • Testing is a bottleneck, so faster testing will help overall. • We want to be quicker to market. This one seems very sensible at first and sometimes it is even quantified— “Reduce elapsed time by X%”—which sounds even more impressive. However, this objective can be dangerous because of confusion between “testing” and “test execution.” The first problem with this objective is that there are much easier ways to achieve it: run fewer tests, omit long tests, or cut regression testing. These are not good ideas, but they would achieve the objective as stated. The second problem with this objective is its generality. Reducing the elapsed time for “testing” gives the impression we are talking about reducing the elapsed time for testing as a whole. However, test execution automation tools are focused on the execution of the tests (the clue is in the name!) not the whole of testing. The total elapsed time for testing may be reduced only if the test execution time is reduced sufficiently to make an impact on the whole. What typically happens, though, is that the tests are run more frequently or more tests are run. This can result in more bugs being found (a good thing), that take time to fix (a fact of life), and increase the need to run the tests again (an unavoidable consequence). The third problem is that there are many factors other than execution that contribute to the overall elapsed time for testing: How long does it take to set up the automated run and clear up after it? How long does it take to recognize a test failure and find out what is actually wrong (test fault, software fault, environment problem)? When you are testing manually, you know the context—you know what you have done just before the bug occurs and what you were doing in the previous ten minutes. When a tool identifies a bug, it just tells you about the actual discrepancy at that time. Whoever analyzes the bug has to put together the context for the bug before he or she can really identify the bug. In figures 1 and 2, the blocks represent the relative effort for the different activities involved in testing. In manual testing, there is time taken for editing tests, maintenance, set up of tests, executing the tests (the largest component of manual testing), analyzing failures, and clearing up after tests have completed. In figure 1, when those same tests are automated, we see the illusion that automating test execution will save us a lot of time, since the relative time for execution is dramatically reduced. However, figure 2 shows us the true picture— total elapsed time for testing may actually increase, even though the time for test execution has been reduced. When test automation is more mature, then the total elapsed time for all of the testing activities may decrease below what it was initially for manual testing. Note that this is not to scale; the effects may be greater than we have illustrated. We now can see that the total elapsed time for testing depends on too many things that are outside the control or influence of the test automator. The main thing that causes increased testing time is the quality of the software—the number of bugs that are already there. The more bugs there are, the more often a test fails, the more bug reports need to be written up, and the more retesting and regression testing are needed. This has nothing to do with whether or not the tests are automated or manual, and the quality of the software
  56. 56. is the responsibility of the developers, not the testers or the test automators. Finally, how much time is spent maintaining the automated tests? Depending on the test infrastructure, architecture, or framework, this could add considerably to the elapsed time for testing. Maintenance of the automated tests for later versions of the software can consume a lot of effort that also will detract from the savings made in test execution. This is particularly problematic when the automation is poorly implemented, without thought for maintenance issues when designing the testware architecture. We may achieve our goal with the first release of software, but later versions may fail to repeat the success and may even become worse. Here is how the automator and tester should work together: The tester may request automated support for things that are difficult or time consuming, for example, a comparison or ensuring that files are in the right place before a test runs. The automator would then provide utilities or ways to do them. But the automator, by observing what the tester is doing, may suggest other things that could be supported and “sell” additional tool support to the tester. The rationale is to make life easier for the tester and to make the testing faster, thus reducing elapsed time. Better automation objective: Reduce the elapsed time for all tool-supported Figure 1 Figure 2 testing activities. This is an ongoing objective for automation, seeking to improve both manual and existing automated testing. It could be measured by elapsed time for specified testing activities, such as maintenance time or failure analysis time. Objective 5: Run More Tests Good ideas behind this objective: • Testing more of the software gives better coverage. • Testing is good, so more testing must be better. More is not better! Good testing is not found in the number of tests run, but in the value of the tests that are run. In fact, the fewer tests for the same value, the better. It is definitely the quality of the tests that counts, not the quantity. Automating a lot of poor tests gives you maintenance overhead with little return. Automating the best tests (however many that is) gives you value for the time and money spent in automating them. If we do want to run more tests, we need to be careful when choosing which additional tests to run. It may be easier to automate tests for one area of the software than for another. However, if it is more valuable to have automated tests for this second area than the first, then automating a few of the more difficult tests is better than automating many of the easier (and less useful) tests. A raw count of the number of automated tests is a fairly useless way of gauging the contribution of automation to testing. For example, suppose testers decide there is a particular set of tests that they would like to automate. The real value of automation is not that the tests are automated but the number of times they are run. It is possible that the testers make the wrong choice and end up with a set of automated tests that they hardly ever use. This is not the fault of the automation, but of the testers’ choice of which tests to automate. It is important that automation is responsive, flexible, and able to automate different tests quickly as needed. Although we try to plan which tests to automate and when, we should always start automating the most important tests first. Once we are running the tests, JULY/AUGUST 2009 BETTER SOFTWARE 35
  57. 57. the testers may discover new information that shows that different tests should be automated rather than the ones that had been planned. The automation regime needs to be able to cope with a change of direction without having to start again from the beginning. During the journey to effective test automation, it may take far longer to automate a test than to run that test manually. Hence, trying to automate may lead, in the short term at least, to running fewer tests, and this may be OK. Better automation objective: Automate the optimum number of the most useful and valuable tests, as identified by the testers. This could be measured as the number or percentage automated out of the valuable tests identified. Objective 6: Automate X% of Testing Good ideas behind this objective: • We should measure the progress of our automation effort. • We should measure the quality of our automation. This objective is often seen as “Automate 100 percent of testing.” In this form, it looks very decisive and macho! The aim of this objective is to ensure that a significant proportion of existing manual tests is automated, but this may not be the best idea. A more important and fundamental point is to ask about the quality of the tests that you already have, rather than how many of them should be automated. The answer might be none—let’s have better tests first! If they are poor tests that don’t do anything for you, automating them still doesn’t do anything for you (but faster!). As Dorothy Graham has often been quoted, “Automated chaos is just faster chaos.” If the objective is to automate 50 percent of the tests, will the right 50 percent be automated? The answer to this will depend on who is making the decisions and what criteria they apply. Ideally, the decision should be made through negotiation between the testers and the automators. This negotiation should weigh the cost of automating individual tests or sets of tests, and the potential costs of maintaining the tests, against the value 36 BETTER SOFTWARE JULY/AUGUST 2009 Figure 3 of automating those tests. We’ve heard of one automated test taking two weeks to build when running the test manually took only thirty minutes—and it was only run once a month. It is difficult to see how the cost of automating this test will ever be repaid! What percentage of tests could be automated? First, eliminate those tests that are actually impossible or totally impractical to automate. For example, a test that consists of assessing whether the screen colors work well together is not a good candidate for automation. Automating 2 percent of your most important and often-repeated tests may give more benefit than automating 50 percent of tests that don’t provide much value. Measuring the percentage of manual tests that have been automated also leaves out a potentially greater benefit of automation—there are tests that can be done automatically that are impossible or totally impractical to do manually. In figure 3 we see that the best automation includes tests that don’t make sense as manual tests and does not include tests that make sense only as manual tests. Automation provides tool support for testing; it should not simply automate tests. For example, a utility could be developed by the automators to make comparing results easier for the testers. This does not automate any tests but may be a great help to the testers, save them a lot of time, and make things much easier for them. This is good automation support. Better automation objective: Automation should provide valuable support to testing. This could be measured by how often the testers used what was provided by the automators, including automated tests run and utilities and other support. It could also be measured by how useful the testers rated the various types of support provided by the automation team. Another objective could be: The number of additional verifications made that couldn’t be checked manually. This could be related to the number of tests, in the form of a ratio that should be increasing. What are your objectives for test execution automation? Are they good ones? If not, this may seriously impact the success of your automation efforts. Don’t confuse objectives for testing with objectives for automation. Choose more appropriate objectives and measure the extent to which you are achieving them, and you will be able to show how your automation efforts benefit your organization. {end} Sticky Notes For more on the following topics go to n n Dorothy Graham’s blog on DDP and test automation Software Test Automation
  58. 58. --- 20 BETTER SOFTWARE DECEMBER 2007 ,
  59. 59. Technical versus non-technical skills in test automation Dorothy Graham Software Testing Consultant SUMMARY In this paper, I discuss the role of the testers and test automators in test automation. Technical skills are needed by test automators, but testers who do not have technical skills should not be prohibited from writing and running automated tests. Keywords Tester, test automator, test automation, skills. 1. INTRODUCTION Test automation is a popular topic in software testing, and an area where a number of organizations have had good success. Tests that may take days to run manually can be executed in hours, running overnight and at weekends, with greater accuracy and repeatability. Tests can be run more often, giving immediate feedback for new builds. Yet despite the obvious potential, many organizations are still struggling to achieve good benefits from automation. I believe that one reason for this is the role of the “test automator”. There is a common misperception that testers should take on this role. This paper explains why this may not be the best solution. It is popular for testers to be encouraged to develop programming skills. For example at EuroStar 2012, a keynote speaker advised all testers to learn to code. I don’t agree with this, and this paper, originally written for the CAST conference 2010, explains why. 2. TERMS I will start by defining the terms I use in this paper. Test automation: the computer-assisted running of software tests, i.e. the automation of test execution. Test automator: A person who builds and maintains the testware associated with automated tests. [4] Tester: A person who identifies test conditions, designs test cases and verifies test results. A tester may also build and execute tests and compare test results. [4] Testware: The artifacts required to plan, design and execute tests, such as documentation, scripts, inputs, expected outcomes, set-up and clear-up procedures, files, databases, environments, and any additional software or utilities used in testing. [4] © Dorothy Graham, 2013 Page 1 of 5
  60. 60. 3. TEST AUTOMATION SKILLS 3.1 Existing perceptions The automation of test execution is a popular application of computer technology to itself. There are a number of books about test automation. [1,2,3,4,7,8,10,11,12] Many of them do not appear to mention skills needed (or it was not obvious if they did). There is a general perception that testers must be or become technical, i.e. programmers, if they are to become involved in automation, although there are a few exceptions that mention a distinction between testers and automators. Linda Hayes in her useful booklet on automation [7] says: “… developing test scripts is essentially a form of programming; for this role, a more technical background is needed.” She distinguishes between “Test Developers” i.e. testers, and “Script Developers”, which is part of the role of a test automator. Dustin et al in [3] says: “When people think of AST [Automated Software Testing], they often think the skill set required is one of a ‘tester’, and that any manual tester can pick up and learn how to use an automated testing tool. Although the skills [of a tester] … are still needed to implement AST, a complement of skills similar to the broad range of skill sets needed to develop the software product itself is needed.” (p 225) A paper by Mosaic [13] mentions three roles: “Manual Test Engineer”, “Automation Test Engineer” and “Lead Automator”. In this model, the design of tests (i.e. the tester’s role) is done by both test engineers; the automation work (i.e. test automator’s role) is done by the lead automator and automation test engineer. The key distinction is who designs the tests, which in my view is best done by the tester, but collaborating with the test automator for tests that are to be automated. 3.2 Is test automation a technical task? The answer to this question depends on what you include as part of “test automation”. If you view it as the direct use of a test execution tool, i.e. writing, editing and running scripts written in the tool’s scripting language, then it is a technical task, and programming (i.e. scripting) skills are needed. Another technical aspect of test automation is the design of the testware architecture – the structure and relationship of all of the items of testware that comprise the artefacts required for automated tests to successfully run. The design of the testware architecture is a critical aspect for successful test automation, and the skills needed for this include technical expertise, as well as knowledge of how the tests are to be used. The person who designs the testware architecture may be called a test automator, test architect, or lead automator. 3.3 Constructing automated tests is not entirely a technical process The construction of the automation architecture, and the scripts and other testware that will be used to run automated tests is a technical task, but automated testing is not just the structure of the architecture and scripts. The whole purpose of test automation is to make it possible to run tests with minimal human involvement in test execution (and comparison). There is a need for testers to be able to use automated tests, both to write tests to be run automatically, and to run those tests and view the results. The tests that are to be automated could be technical tests, such as those written by developers as part of Test-Driven Development or unit or integration testing, © Dorothy Graham, 2013 Page 2 of 5
  61. 61. but system and acceptance tests can also be automated, and the testers who write those tests are not always technical (i.e. software developers). The content of the test needs to be determined, but this is a task that is done by a tester; the implementation of the test is what is done by the automator. 4. TESTERS TO AUTOMATORS? 4.1 Testers become automators? I have seen it work well to have a team of manual testers embarking on an automation project, where all (or nearly all) of the testers effectively become programmers, i.e. test programmers, or scripters. At a former colleague’s company, five out of the team of six testers went on the tool vendor’s training course and became familiar with the tool’s scripting language. One tester decided he didn’t want to become technical, so he concentrated on manual testing, but the others all became good test automators. There were two interesting side-effects of the testers’ newly acquired skillset. First, they had a lot more sympathy for the developers, as they now understood first-hand the frustrations of trying to get the computer to do what you wanted it to do. Second, they found that the developers treated them with a bit more respect, as they now also had some development skills. This led to a better relationship between the developers and testers. Another example where it worked very well to have all of the testers become automators is described in a chapter by Lisa Crispin [2] in our forthcoming book. An agile team of 9 to 12 people were all involved in doing manual regression testing, so were highly motivated to automate 20% of their work, and everyone became involved in the automation. 4.2 A separate team of test automators? I have seen other organizations where a separate team is set up to automate tests, leaving the testers free to concentrate on designing tests and running manual tests. As the automation team gets going, they automate tests nominated by the testers, freeing the testers from having to do those tests manually. The automation team provides a service to the testers, designing the testware architecture and structure of the tests, and assisting where needed when problems are encountered with the automated tests. For example, if an automated test fails, it could be because of a software fault (in which case the tester would have found a bug), but it could fail for a technical reason such as a problem with the environment, a missing testware item (i.e. a bug in the automated testware), or a problem with the tool itself. The tester, not being technical, will need technical assistance to identify the source of the problem. So we have the situation where test automation does require technical skills, but we have testers who do not have those skills – can this really work? Yes it can, but it needs two key separations or layers of abstraction. 5. AUTOMATION SUCCESS NEEDS LAYERS OF ABSTRACTION 5.1 Technical Layer Technical aspects are very important for test automation. A good testware architecture will have two layers of abstraction [6]. The technical layer will implement good software development practices for the testware, separating the tool itself and the direct scripting of the tool from the software or scriptware © Dorothy Graham, 2013 Page 3 of 5
  62. 62. that calls and uses the lower level scripts. Modularity and reuse are key factors in minimizing maintenance of automated testware. If something changes in the software, the testware will need to reflect that change. With lower levels of scripting (a recorded test or linear script being the lowest), a small change to a screen can result in making “magnetic trash” [9] of the automated tests. If possible, the testware should be designed so that it can cope with changes in the software under test without needing any changes to the testware. If this is not possible, the effects of any change to the software being tested should be confined to only one testware artefact (or a minimum number if this is not practical). This layer gives good maintainability to the automated test regime. 5.2 Tester Layer If all of the testers are technical, such as developers who are doing Test-Driven Design or unit testing, then this layer is not as critical. The Tester layer of abstraction is needed when system testers or user acceptance testers want to use test automation, but do not want to become technical, i.e. programmers. In order to achieve this, the non-technical testers must be able both to write tests (that can then be run automatically) and also to run tests, i.e. to “kick off” a set of automated tests. If the testware architecture uses a keyword-driven approach [1,4,5,6], the testers can write tests using keywords that are related to the business knowledge or domain knowledge that they are familiar with. Yes, they do have to follow the correct syntax for the keywords, but tools enable this to be relatively easy to do, for example by providing a drop-down list of valid keywords and checking the syntax of parameters entered to the keywords. The keywords are implemented (i.e programmed) by test automators, using the scripting language of the tool, or using any other programming language that they know and would be appropriate. The testers are not involved in the implementation of the keywords, but they are able to use them to write tests. The testers also need to be able to select a set of tests to be run automatically. This can be implemented by the test automators to make it easy for the testers to kick off a set of tests, for example by providing options in a user-friend interface to the automation. The testers also need to receive and understand the results of the automated tests, and the way in which this information is communicated to them is also designed by the test automator. This separation of the tester from the automation is needed for the automation to grow within an organization and to give long-lasting benefits and wide-spread acceptance. 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Test automation does need technical skill – for those who are closest to the tool itself. The skills of the tester and the skills of the test automator may be found in the same person, but it may work better to have different people performing the two roles. The test automator’s role is critical in establishing a modular and well-structure testware architecture, separating the tool from the testware, and providing a tester-friendly interface to the testware for nontechnical testers. Not every tester can or should become a test automator. Many non-technical people are very good testers; they should be able to use test automation without needing to have technical skills. Getting to © Dorothy Graham, 2013 Page 4 of 5
  63. 63. this point, however, does require good technical support, but that support does not have to be provided by the tester. 7. REFERENCES [1] Buwalda, H., Janssen, D. and Pinkster, I. 2002. Integrated Test Design and Automation. Addison Wesley/Pearson Education, London. [2] Crispin, L. Zero to 100% Regression Test Automation in one year: an Agile Approach to Automation 2010. In Graham, D. and Fewster, M. Experiences of Test Automation. [Publisher not yet determined] [3] Dustin, E., Garrett, T. and Gauf, B. 2009. Implementing Automated Software Testing. Addison Wesley/Pearson Education, Boston, MA. [4] Fewster, M. and Graham, D. 1999. Software Test Automation. Addison Wesley/Pearson Education, ACM Press, NY. [5] Gijsen, M. 2009. Effective Automated Testing with a DSTL [Domain Specific Test Language]. Paper from the author and k=cnt_dir [6] Graham, D. and Fewster, M. 2012 Experiences of Test Automation, Addison Wesley/Pearson Education, Boston, MA. [7] Hoffman, D and Strooper, P. 1995. Software Design, Automated Testing, and Maintenance. International Thompson Computer Press, Boston, MA. [8] Kaner, C., Falk, J. and Nguyen, H. Q. 1993. Testing Computer Software. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY. [9] Mosley, D. J. and Posey, Bruce. A. 2002. Just Enough Software Test Automation. Yourdon Press/Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ. [10] Siteur, M.M. 2005. Automate your testing! Sdu Uitgevers bv, Den Haag. [11] Stottlemyer, D. 2001. Automated Web Testing Toolkit. Wiley, NY. [12] [author unknown] 2002. Staffing your test automation team. Mosaic Inc, Chicago IL. © Dorothy Graham, 2013 Page 5 of 5