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Charles Curry, Chronos Technology - CNI reliance on GNSS

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Presented by Charles Curry, Chronos Technology, in the UK Spectrum Policy Forum UK SPF Workshop: Spectrum Infrastructure Resiliency & Interference on the 18 April 2016.

http://www.techuk.org/about/uk-spectrum-policy-forum

Published in: Technology
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Charles Curry, Chronos Technology - CNI reliance on GNSS

  1. 1. techUK, London UK Spectrum Policy Forum Workshop Spectrum Infrastructure Resiliency & Interference 16th April 2016 Prof. Charles Curry BEng, CEng, MITP, FIET Chronos Technology Ltd CNI Reliance on GNSS A Serious Vulnerability
  2. 2. Black Swan Events  Surprise to the observer  Significant impact  With hindsight – could have been predicted Nassim Nicholas Taleb 2007 “The Black Swan”
  3. 3. Presentation Contents  Background Research  Jamming, Spoofing, Interference, System Failure  Spoofing & Jamming – Who and Why?  CNI Criticality  Mitigation Options  Recent “Events”  The Law and Recommendations
  4. 4. UK Research since 2008
  5. 5. Latest Testing Sennybridge 2015 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 5  UK Mod Range in Brecon Beacons  Distance Testing of 3W Jammer  Detection of Jammers in Container  Photographing a Passing Jammer
  6. 6. Detection of 3W Jammer 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 6 Approx 6Km
  7. 7. Jamming, Spoofing, Interference, System Failure  GNSS Jamming – Deliberate denial of service  GNSS Spoofing – Deliberate broadcasting of counterfeit GNSS signals  Interference in GNSS Bands – Harmonics, Guard Band encroachment – Space Weather  GNSS System Failure – GPS SVN23, Glonass, 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 7
  8. 8. Spoofing & Jamming - Who and Why?  Privacy & Covert Operations – Mainly Jamming – Personal Aggravation Disruption – Personal Privacy – Criminal Privacy – Organised Crime Gangs (OCG)  Cyber Security – Service Denial – Jamming & Spoofing – Cyber Crime – Civil Disruption/Terrorism – Nation State
  9. 9. Personal Aggravation Disruption 9 Multi band jammers jam GPS as well as mobile phones GPS: 1500-1600 MHz CDMA: 850-894MHz DCS: 1805-1880MHz GSM: 925-960MHz PHS: 1900-1930MHz CDMA1900: 1930-1980MHz WiFi: 2400-2500MHz
  10. 10. Personal Privacy – Case Study Three Switch GPS based fleet tracking technology used here Resilient Timing System using Rb/OCXO holdover not impacted by jamming
  11. 11. Criminal Privacy Recent arrest apprehended a de- tagged criminal who was a passenger in a van. The driver was using a cigarette lighter style jammer. Concerned about covert tracking technology.
  12. 12. Organised Crime http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p014f7jk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I8fe3nNUmBg Photos courtesy of NaVCIS & Hampshire
  13. 13. Civil Disruption/Terrorism -1 25m off ground near City Airport Purple – Total Denial of Service Red – Major Errors and Unable to get Fix Yellow – Large Errors, possible loss of lock
  14. 14. Civil Disruption/Terrorism - 2
  15. 15. Nation State - 1 Prof. Jiwon Seo -Yonsei University, South Korea Resilient PNT Forum II, Dana Point, California - January 26, 2015 http://rntfnd.org/2015/02/01/resilient-pnt-forum-ii-presentations/
  16. 16. Nation State - 2 “North Korea is using radio waves to jam GPS navigation systems near the border regions, South Korean officials said.”
  17. 17. Impact of similar Jammer on London  100 Watt Jammer Shard – Floor 72  Simulation courtesy Mike Jones – Roke Manor Research 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 17
  18. 18. What is Spoofing?  “A GPS spoofing attack attempts to deceive a GPS receiver by broadcasting counterfeit GPS signals” – Wikipedia 2016  Spoof Position  Spoof Time  Academic Research topic – Dr Todd Humphreys – https://www.ted.com/talks/todd_humphreys_how_to_fool_a_gps?language=en  …until 2015…. 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 18
  19. 19. What Happened in 2015? 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 19 A Beginners Guide to low cost Spoofing <£200! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jwJKMti_aw0
  20. 20. CNI Criticality to GNSS Vulnerability  UK National Infrastructure – defined as… – Communications – Emergency Services – Energy – Financial Services – Food – Government – Health – Transport – Water 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 20 US DHS Report at CGSIC Sept 2015
  21. 21. Threat Mitigation Options  Can’t be another similar technology  Has to work indoors  Low cost  Network connectivity may not be available – Excludes other GNSS, Quantum, PTP, NTP  eLoran – Anthorn kept alive by UK Gov’t – On grounds of National Security – France , Germany, Norway Denmark switched off – Coming back in the USA! – Taviga formed to liaise with Govt’s and build ecosystem 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 21
  22. 22. London Events/Month >30 Seconds 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 22 100 150 Near London Stock Exchange April 2015 to Now
  23. 23. Space Weather – June 19th 2015  11 Year Solar Cycles  Aurora Borealis  “Carrington” Event 1859  Solar Flares (8 Minutes)  Coronal Mass Ejection – CME – Up to 2 days  June 19th 2015 - Impacted UK Broadcast Services  Met Office – Space Weather Alerts http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/publicsector/emergencies/space-weather Nasa Univ of Bath
  24. 24. GPS SVN23 – 26th Jan 2016  January 25th 2016 – SVN23 retired  A -13.7µsec UTC offset accidentally set on satellites  Only impacted (some) timing receivers  USNO had no idea until users called!  Case Study  Video – Courtesy Ted Driver at Analytical Graphics via John Lavrakas 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 24
  25. 25. UK Law  Not illegal to possess – However - No legal reason for use!  Offence under Wireless Telegraphy Act 2006 – Causing Deliberate Interference – Maximum 2 years in prison - Unlimited Fine  Offence under EMC Directive EC89/336 – Electromagnetic compatibility Regs SI 2006/3418 – Supplying Jammers – Fine of up to £5000  CPS don’t have any experience  “Mens Rea” Defence! 25
  26. 26. Recommendations  Law needs to be more robust & easier to apply – Possession of a jammer should be a crime  Protect Spectrum – Interference from adjacent bands  Programme Making and Special Events (PMSE)  “Lightsquared” problem  Bigger guard bands for GNSS Frequencies as they are weak – Harmonics from stronger signals  Encourage adoption of complementary dissimilar technologies – eLoran (UK Government Support) 20/04/2016 ©Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY 26
  27. 27. Further Reading – Reports  GPS Interference & Jamming – Royal Academy of Engineering Report – Published 2011 – http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/reports/RAoE_Global_Navigation_Systems_Report.pdf  Extreme Space Weather – Royal Academy of Engineering Report – Published 2013 – http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/reports/Space_Weather_Full_Report_Final.PDF
  28. 28. Conclusion  Are we ready for a GNSS Black Swan?  GNSS Spectrum should be protected  Threats are not understood  They are different for GNSS!  UK Government has paid for the research  Learn with the SENTINEL Report  Contact Taviga 28
  29. 29. www.chronos.co.uk www.gpsworld.biz www.taviga.com charles.curry@chronos.co.uk charles.curry@taviga.com Thankyou

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