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The New Deal & Mrs. Roosevelt in Action


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The New Deal & Mrs. Roosevelt in Action, a teacher workshop touching on Val-Kill Industries, Arthurdale, and the National Youth Administration's Woodstock Residential Work Center. Presented by Susanne Norris, National Park Service, at THV's 2012 summer institute.

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The New Deal & Mrs. Roosevelt in Action

  1. 1. Val-Kill Industries - 1926 Arthurdale Homestead -1934 Eleanor Roosevelt and Frank Landolpha at the lathe. Photo courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage Museum NPS Photo National Youth Administration Photo courtesy of Woodstock School of Art Woodstock Residential Work Center - 1939
  2. 2. Val-Kill IndustriesEleanor and her friends NancyCook, Marion Dickerman, andCaroline ODay founded Val-KillIndustries in 1926. Conceived as asocial experiment, Val-Kill Industrieswas designed to provide local farmersand their families with the necessarycrafting skills to supplement theirincome. Eleanors appreciation for thehandicraft tradition fueled her interestin the American Colonial RevivalMovement.
  3. 3. NPS Photos
  4. 4. Photo courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage Museum Photo courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage Museum Val-Kill Industries continued in operation until 1937 when Eleanor and her friends dissolved their partnership. The equipment from the furniture shop was given to Otto Berge, and the forge was given to Arnold Berge. Photo courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage Museum
  5. 5. Arthurdale Heritage, Inc.Preserving Arthurdale, WV – Eleanor Roosevelts New DealCommunity
  6. 6. Arthurdale, the nation’s first New Deal Homestead Community. Library of Congress, FSA-OWI CollectionA pet project of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and her husband, President FranklinDelano Roosevelt, during the Great Depression, to the impoverished turmoilspreading across the country and an effort to stem concerns from liberals andconservatives of a communist uprising. Today, lifelong community members areworking alongside newcomers to preserve what eventually became, at least for abouta decade, a thriving and fully self-sufficient farm community.
  7. 7. Prior to FDR’s election in 1933, Eleanor becameArthurdale, WV, was first known interested in the work of the American Friendsas “The Reedsville Project” by the Service Committee (AFSC), a Quaker organizationgovernment employees who were which had begun a child feeding program insent here to establish the first New Pennsylvania and West Virginia at PresidentDeal community under the first of Hoover’s request. Clarence Pickett, secretary ofthree Franklin Delano Roosevelt the AFSC, was invited to Hyde Park, NY, FDR’s home, to discuss the AFSC’s efforts at vocationaladministrations. reeducation and subsistence living projects. FDR, after his 1933 inauguration, promoted a bevy of bills to address the problems of the Depression. One of these was a bill to establish a subsistence homestead fund. This bill interested First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and she, along with Clarence Pickett, who by then had been appointed chief of the Stranded Mining and Industrial Populations Section of the Department of the Interior, became involved with The Reedsville Project. later named Arthurdale Photo courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage Museum after Richard Arthur, from whom the land was purchased, was begun in 1934 as a homestead community.
  8. 8. On October 22, 1935, the homesteaders in Arthurdale chartered the Arthurdale Association, a non-share corporation and branch of the Mountaineer Craftmen’s Cooperative Association operating in Scotts Run. The association took out loans for several cooperative ventures in Arthrdale including a store, farm, inn, a barber shop, industrial factory, service station, as well as a dairy and poultry operation..Furniturefactory, Arthurdale, WestVirginia, BenShahn, 1937, Library ofCongress, FSA-OWICollection. Photos courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage Museum
  9. 9. The forge at Reedsville, West Virginia, Edwin Locke, December 1936, Library of Congress, FSA-OWI Collection. Photo courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage MuseumThe ForgeThe metalworking shop for the Arthurdale Association was located in theForge, located in the center complex. Blacksmiths furnished fixtures, locks, andhardware for the homes built in Arthurdale as well as copper and pewter ware aswell as wrought-iron items that was sold through the Craft Shop and mail-ordercatalog. Arthurdale blacksmiths soon received a national reputation for theproducts they made.
  10. 10. Spinning and Weaving In 1934, with five looms from Scotts Run and nine additional looms purchased by Eleanor Roosevelt, the spinning and weaving cooperative in Arthurdale began. Mrs. Roosevelt also paid for teachers from Berea College in Kentucky to teach interested women to weave. The cooperative Photos courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage Museum produced rag rugs, coverlets, aprons, pillow tops, tablecloths, draperies, bedsp reads, and clothes out of linen, cotton, and wool. Most of these items sold commercially through the Craft Shop, but the cooperative also filled orders from all over the United States and other countries. The women also quilted blankets and donated them to the Health Center and Nursery School.
  11. 11. Photos courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage Museum
  12. 12. Photos courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage Museum
  13. 13. Arthurdale Heritage, Inc. is a501(c)3 non-profit organizationdedicated to the preservation ofhistoric Arthurdale, WV.Created in 1985, AH has restoredfive community buildings thatcurrently comprise the New DealHomestead Museum. We arecurrently working on restoringthree of the original Arthurdale Photo courtesy of Arthurdale Heritage MuseumSchool buildings. Craft Classes are offered at the Heritage Quilt Guild Meetings Preregistration required for most classes. Homestead Quilt Guild – Meets every Monday at 6:30pm – All skill levels welcome!
  14. 14. National Youth Administration: Woodstock Resident Work Center 1939 Dedication Photo courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  15. 15. Document courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  16. 16. Photo courtesy of Woodstock School of ArtNYA Woodstock Resident Work Center is a national historic district locatedat Woodstock in Ulster County, New York. The NYA - Woodstock ResidentYouth Work Center 1939 Dedication. The district includes seven contributingbuildings and three contributing structures. It includes three shopbuildings, four shed buildings, a ca. 1900 barn, and a decorative flagpole base. Itwas built in 1939 by the National Youth Administration and operated until 1942as a facility devoted to training youths in the industrial arts. The camp iscurrently used by the Woodstock School of Art. It was listed on the NationalRegister of Historic Places in 1992.
  17. 17. Beginning: NYA 1939-1942
  18. 18. The Woodstock School of Art was constructed in 1939 asan initiative of the National Youth Administration…partof FDR’s New Deal Works Progress Administration. Photo courtesy of Woodstock School of ArtChampioned by Eleanor Roosevelt, the Resident WorkExperience Center was designed to help a “lostgeneration” of youth learn to use their hands and mindsfor sustainable living.
  19. 19. Document courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  20. 20. The buildings wereconstructed using localmaterials by the studentsthemselves under the tutelageof local, unemployedcraftsmen, and supervised bystone sculptor Tomas Penning. The idea, and ideal, of the project was that area youth, aged 16-24, would be taught skills which they could use throughout their lifetime, which could supplement income and help Photos courtesy of Woodstock School of Art sustain a rural, agrarian lifestyle.
  21. 21. Students learned weaving, metalworking, blacksmithing, and stone carving, pen & ink drawing, woodworking, subsistence farming and other skills, likemanaging a household , or how to start a business and how to promote it. Photos courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  22. 22. The Woodstock WorkExperience Center was designedafter First Lady EleanorRoosevelt’s experiment incottage industry, “Val-KillIndustries” which was locatednear her residence in HydePark. Mrs. Roosevelt wasan enthusiastic supporter of theWoodstock project. She was present to dedicate the buildings in 1939 and was a visitor to the campus where she befriended many of the students. It is said that she brought some of the boys to Hyde Park in summer to swim in the family pool. Photos courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  23. 23. Documents and photo courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  24. 24. Wood Design ShopDocument & Photo courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  25. 25. Photos courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  26. 26. Document and photo courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  27. 27. Documents courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  28. 28. Photos courtesy of Woodstock School of Art
  29. 29. Photos courtesy of Woodstock School of Art Eugene Caille with a spindle he designed for the Textile Unit while at the NYA Work-Training Center in Woodstock, c. 1940Eugene Caille, Jr. holding a weaving samplemade at the NYA Work-Training Center inWoodstock. Various samples of this kindwere made and displayed in the Textile Unit. Eugene Caille’s books of samples of knitting and weaving patterns taught at the NYA Work-Training Center in Woodstoc
  30. 30. Photo courtesy of Woodstock School of Art“The NYA Boys” posing in front of what is likely their Lake Hill residence.
  31. 31. Photo courtesy of Woodstock School of ArtEleanor Roosevelt, fourth from left, at Val-kill.
  32. 32. Student Essay by -Kealey Viglielmo Eleanor Roosevelt A woman before her timeAs you step off the bus to observe your surroundings, you find yourself amidst a lusciously wooded areaunseen by the common wanderer. The path that crests the hill in front of you adds an almost mysteriousfeel to your new surroundings and all the while you have yet to realize that faint sound of a babbling brookoff in the distance. There are no signs nor markers, but only a field not fully visible and a walkway leadingto, the unknown? You set out in the direction of the path and soon enough as you rise higher atop the hilla building becomes visible and then a bridge that crosses over the water you had just heard. As you footplants down upon the now dirt road beyond the wooden bridge you have a understanding and youbecome almost one with what is around you. You feel so at ease with the serene backdrop, as you walkcloser towards the undetermined building, it is as though you dont belong here. At first you feel this waybecause it is so peaceful, exactly the opposite of what a school day is like, but you shortly realize that no,it is because this was where our forefathers resided, where our nations, may I say worldss, mostinfluential people took refuge, where our president and his highly regarded guests found comfort so as tomake you feel that you were undeserving of such an experience. Finally for the first time it actually hitsyou, and you remember what you have come here to do, you have come to the Val-Kill estate to learnabout one of the most revered women in history, Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt.We were asked upon arrival about what, if anything, did we as a group know about Mrs. Roosevelt.Personally I can say that I knew little to nothing regarding her except that she was married to PresidentFranklin Delano Roosevelt and that she was the first lady of the United States. But of course that had allchanged by the end of the four hours we had spent there, and as we were asked a question on the wayin, we were asked a question on the way out, the question was simply, "What did you learn today inregards to Eleanor Roosevelt." Various people raised their hand in response and all had their ownanswers, some simple, some complex, but for myself, I choose to examine this from a possibly less usedvantage point. That is why my topic for what I learned at the Hyde Park refuge was "how, Mrs. EleanorRoosevelt was far before her time."
  33. 33. Being the wife of anyone of high nobility almost always ensures you a status of high regards, let alone to be the president of the United States wife, butfor Mrs. Roosevelt she was unsatisfied with just a title. The un-satisfaction she felt was not in any way due to who she was bound to by marriage, butonly because she was an independent woman who set her own standards, virtues and morals. This for the most part sounds completely grand, beingable to set her own goals and sights, but she saw it differently. She saw not how she could be free, but how the others, not just women in general, buta majority of the world wasnt able to say the same. She wanted equal opportunity, rights and capabilities for everyone and found it hard to believe thatno one else spoke out against it. She is quoted for saying something along the lines of " I have a high position already, it would be a waste for me notto use it to my advantage." and she was exactly right. Her advantage: being married to the President, her goal: to help the world in more ways thanone, and that is exactly what she set out to do and succeeded in doing. Due to her firm beliefs and mindset, she emerged almost immediately with newideas involving rights for the underprivileged , not just in the United States, but to vastly different areas and also for the woman back home, whostill, despite the day and age, experienced oppression. Not believing that nothing could be done, just as the common person "woman" did in thosedays, she stood up unaccompanied and made an image for herself of great wisdom, courage and understanding, along with being a beacon ofhope, peace and unity to those who were experiencing the burden that life brings. This and a whole slew of other attributes only proves the beginningof why and how she was a woman before her time.Just being able to stand up for what she believed in was quite a statement to all in those days, showing that a woman was actually capable of living forherself, but she did more than just that. Having feelings towards the fact that she wanted to actually be an active help to the presidency, rather than bea simple counter part, mantle piece or figure head was another story. Rarely anyone as a woman felt as though they possessed a voice and now withEleanor speaking freely and openly about what needed to be fixed, a new courage and ability swept the entire nation, not just the women. All peoplegained more of a voice and the confidence of women in the work world increased slowly but surely and as the worlds eyes began to turn to ourpresident for help through our wars and depressions, his wife became more and more prevalent, prominent and important to our society as a whole.She not only was able to stand up for human rights, but for how all forms of life are affected by the environment it is placed into. Not too many peopleat the time understood how a nations actions directly affected the people of fellow nations and therefore tensions grew and connection faltered due toeither non-communication or world power unwariness. Eleanor, just like she did before, stood up, while no one else either had the courage orknowledge to do and spoke for everyone when she preached her message of consciousness. We all know now that to be conscious of our actions andlearn to communicate with others is to stay free from conflict and in content with life, but back then to be capable of comprehending such a complexidea was amazing, let alone be constantly aware of it. This in other words just proves again how influential and ahead of her time she actually was.Lastly, from what I learned at Val-Kill, Mrs. Roosevelt was a fantastic wife in general, if you couldnt gather that already from what she already did.None-the-less she promoted her husband in every way, was a beautiful companion who was passionate about life and compassionate towards herfamily, a person you obviously felt comfortable around due to her light heartedness and humor and finally because of her active involvement within herhusbands campaign. Eleanor Roosevelt was completely successful in not only aiding the president, but persuading and changing his mental state withnew and alternative ideas, comforting news, different ways of thinking and most of all, love.Mrs. Roosevelt set the stage for the younger generation by changing the worlds views drastically in multiple different ways therefore causing, duringher life time, completely new and alternative ways of understanding, thinking and education. Both before and after her death her message and callingreverberated around the world and still does to this day. Just as any major figure had come before and any that has come after, their body may benow nonexistent, but their legacy, due to the preservation of great ideals, ideas and love for humanity, will still live on. She along with billions ofcountless members of world change, all in their own unique way, will go down as a mark upon history in the scheme of things, but as a grandbeginning to unification in the eyes of the ones who experienced her knowledge first hand. Undoubtedly, she as a woman will always be seen as anactivist belonging to the future instead of the past and a shocking symbol for all those who lived through her eyes.-Kealey Viglielmo
  34. 34. The New Deal for Youth Program & Onteora High School StudentsNPS Photo’s by Susanne Norris
  35. 35. Student art work summary on human rights, after visit to Val-Kill
  36. 36. New Deal for Youth ProgramDay 2 at the Woodstock School of Art NPS Photo’s by Susanne Norris
  37. 37. New Deal for YouthTeachers Workshop Oct. 2011 NPS Photo’s by Susanne Norris
  38. 38. The Woodstock School of Art Photo courtesy of Woodstock School of Art NPS Photo’s by Susanne Norris Executive Director Nancy Campbell & Paula Nelson, Secretary Kate McGloughlin, Photo courtesy of Woodstock School of ArtPresident & Teacher
  39. 39. The Art Students League of NY: 1947-1979
  40. 40. The Art Students League of New York opened in Woodstock in 1906 where itestablished its Summer School of Landscape Painting. The school flourishedin that incarnation until 1922.After WWII, in 1947, the League wished to renew its presence inWoodstock, purchased the NYA buildings and leased the 38 acre land parcelfrom the City of Kingston Water Department where art classes were held until1979. With expenses outpacing student enrollment, a lack of affordable studenthousing, and an unsuccessful attempt to purchase the land from the City ofKingston, the ASL abandoned their summer school at the end of the 1979summer session.The local artist community, on hearing rumors that the historic buildings andwooded grounds would become an industrial site, formed an Ad Hoccommittee, led by Robert Angeloch, who had been both student andinstructor at the ASL, and with broad community support, the schoolreopened as The Woodstock School of Art, Inc. in 1980.
  41. 41. The Woodstock School of Art: 1980 -present Robert Angeloch class at Big Deep, Woodstock, circa 1984 John Kleinhans photo
  42. 42. The Woodstock School ofArt was incorporated in1980 as a not-for-profitcorporation. The WSAtook possession of theNYA site in Oct. of1980, and by May of 1981 afully functioninginstructional centeropened.Led by instructors RobertAngeloch, who taughtlandscape painting, andFrank Alexander, whotaught an evening class inlife drawing, and fourmore artists who startedteaching by Robert Angeloch and student, circa 1984, at MagicJune, registration reached Meadow in Woodstock.60 students that Augustand doubled for the first John Kleinhans photo
  43. 43. Today The WSA offers a wide variety of instruction in fine arts disciplines in classes and workshops . Drawing; painting in oils, pastel, acrylic and watercolor; printmaking, such as linoleum block cutting, lithography and monotype; sculpture of the figure in clay; collage Students are taught individually, according to their own levels of experience. Beginners are welcome –no experience required! WSA students range in age from 15 to 90!Student Gale Brownlee & Instructor Eric Angeloch
  44. 44. Photo album: 1980s to presentJeanWrolsen’s, “youngpeople’s class” John Kleinhans photos
  45. 45. Painting a portrait -Woolleyclass The art of still-life-Angeloch class
  46. 46. An afternoon idyll…Painting under thepineswith Zhang/Woolleyclass
  47. 47. An exhibit opening in thegallery
  48. 48. A sampling of instructor’s worksStaats Fasoldt, WatercolorPainting Karen O’Neil Seeing Color & LightEric Angeloch, Painting & Composition
  49. 49. Paul Abrams, The Poetic Still LifeChristie ScheeleInterpreting theLandscape Tricia Cline, Figurative Cla y Sculpture
  50. 50. Winter BeautyThe WSA site comprises 38acres of woodland, with abluestone sculpture park.Work has been created byartists from Japan, Ireland andthe Netherlands as well asregional artists.
  51. 51. The Woodstock School of Art, Inc. is a not-for-profit, 501 (c) 3 Educational Institution chartered underthe laws of the State of New York. There are noadmission requirements, and all are welcome.Scholarships and work exchange scholarships areavailable.
  52. 52. The EndWe hope you’ve enjoyed your visit! PowerPoint developed by Susanne Norris, NPS Education Specialist & Nancy Campbell, WSA Executive Director