Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

World Religions, including Secular humanism, Communism, and Animism


Published on

An overview of common world religions, as well as animism, secular humanism and communism. Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormonism are mentioned

Published in: Spiritual, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

World Religions, including Secular humanism, Communism, and Animism

  1. 1. World Religions and Missions Robert D. Patton Missionary to Suriname, South America
  2. 2. To effectively present the gospel…  We must understand the beliefs of the individual – His world view  This world view is the filter through which he interprets all of life, and especially religious meanings
  3. 3. A number of world views  Monotheism – only one God  Christianity  Judaism  Islam  Polytheism – many gods  Hinduism  Older religions – Romans, Greeks, etc.
  4. 4. World views  Monism or pantheism  Buddhism  Hinduism  Animism or folk religion  Probably 40% of all people in the world believe in folk religion though they may list their belief as Christian, Hindu, Islam, etc.
  5. 5. World Views  Atheism  Communism  Humanism – actually making man his own god…
  6. 6. Toward a Biblical Worldview  Worldview = the assumptions we hold as to the basic makeup of the universe  Some believe that demons never do anything to a “good Christian” so it is better to ignore them.  This is not from the Bible - we must resist, stand against, etc.
  7. 7. ―Western‖ world-view  Although some are atheists and deny any supernatural, the majority have this worldview:  The supernatural - God, angels & demons, - Religion and mysticism  separated from  The natural - science –  Faulty conclusion: No contact above. Therefore the supernatural can be basically ignored.  This is a faulty worldview
  8. 8. Modernism is built on  Rationalism  Empiricism  Market-driven economy  Science & technology
  9. 9. Modernism came from the ―enlightenment‖  The enlightenment separated  Science and materialism - public truth  Religion and faith - private faith & personal choice  There was no place for spirits, etc – superstition
  10. 10. Results of modernism  There was colonialism which assumed the superiority of Western culture, and also cultural evolution advancing from primitive to polytheistic to monotheistic to science  Assumed - magic was the thought of pre-logical thinking that will die out with science. No need to study it
  11. 11. Missions leaders worked with the same assumptions  They debated the religious leaders of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, etc comparing it to Christianity  Missionaries also assumed and taught the split world view  Science answers questions on earth  .Religion answers those of heaven
  12. 12. Missions leaders worked with the same assumptions  The middle region was ignored  Converts were reluctant to discuss them with missionaries  The old ways were continued in secret  Thus there was a great deal of syncretism – combining outward Christianity with an underlying animistic world view
  13. 13. We realize that we must rethink our attitudes  We must not assume that Western ways are necessarily Christian  New beliefs must replace the old ones - but we must be careful that it is not the foreignness that keeps people from getting saved  We must neither reject old ways automatically, or accept them uncritically when there is sin & leads to cultural relativism
  14. 14. Critical contextualization:  Study the local culture phenomenologically.  Understand clearly the old ways  We must also study our own culture. Our own world-view is difficult for us to comprehend. Like others sin, we see their problems more clearly than our own
  15. 15. We must study…  What the scripture says.  Note - the church’s purpose is missions - to call others to Christ  We must be theologians & cross- cultural evangelists  Reality testing - what really is.  We must avoid ethnocentric judgment
  16. 16. We must study…  Critical evaluation in terms of culture and the Bible  .Some may need to be rejected, or given a Christian meaning  Our goal must be transformation of lives to what Christ wants  Remember God loves variety – and made the world so…
  17. 17. Remember…  Worldviews are implicit assumptions of reality - rarely examined or questioned  Satan also uses social structures to inhibit persons from salvation – structure of society, persecution, etc  Bush-Negro family structure is very anti- Biblical in its matriarchal structure  Their folk religion is strongly opposed to Biblical Christianity
  18. 18. Dimensions of religion  Beliefs: For most people, this is reality - we need to know these clearly  Feelings - powerful, pervasive walls protecting beliefs. They are important too  Values - these are basic  Dimensions of religion: All the above are important
  19. 19. There is often a scale of transcendence  Things on this earth  Seen  Unseen - spirits, gods, restricted to earth  Other worlds unseen: There may be a high god - often all-powerful but distant and not interested. Rarely placated or offerings made to him (like deism)
  20. 20. Often there is a pantheon of lesser gods without eternal existence  There may be multiple other lesser beings as well - like angels and demons. They may come to earth, go back into “heaven”  Often felt to have other beings on earth, and limited to certain areas.  They may ask pardon of trees they chop down, or animals they kill
  21. 21. Half-Gods, etc  Some emperors were considered divine  Some were supposed to be the marriage of a god and a human  Some are human with some relationship to spirits or live spiritual lives  Some believe that people have spirits or souls apart from the bodies; others that they have multiple souls
  22. 22. Ancestor ―worship‖  Ancestors are believed to have a part in the society, and must be treated as such - food, telling them when you leave, etc. They can bless or curse the entire family  Witches - usually those with antisocial behavior may be accused - sending their spirits on trips  There may be belief in subhumans (trolls,etc)
  23. 23. Other world views…  Many believe that animals and plants have spirits that interact in the world. Nature is seen as alive  .Mana - the power in everything that can be given, removed, strengthened, etc
  24. 24. Other world views…  Life-force surrounding things - this is more local  .You can attack the individual with curses  There is a reason for everything - spiritual or influence of other
  25. 25. Other world views…  Mechanical other-worldly forces  Fate or fortune - numbers, horoscopes, etc  Cosmic moral order - with results depending on your good deeds or evil deeds - karma
  26. 26. Human Substitutes to True Salvation False Teaching Instead of the Truth
  27. 27. Substitutes for True Salvation  Hinduism  Buddhism  Islam  Secular humanism & evolution  Cults  Animism
  28. 28. Hinduism  Origin 1500-2500 B.C. No specific founder  Adherents: 825-850,000,000  India 780,000,000  Bangladesh – 20,000,000  Nepal – 20,000,000  USA – 1.5-2,000,000
  29. 29. Distribution of Hinduism
  30. 30. Hinduism by country
  31. 31. Hinduism  Books – Upanishads, Puranas, Bhagavad Gita, and many other scriptures  Diverse belief system – no single creed and no final truth  Pagan background with forces of nature personified as gods and goddesses- give offerings
  32. 32. Hinduism divided into  Popular Hinduism – worship of gods through offerings, rituals and prayers  Philosophic Hinduism – these few understand ancient texts, meditate and practice yoga
  33. 33. Hinduism – Non-reality  The physical material world is an illusion – called Maya  Personality & thinking and feeling cause suffering  Karma holds you bound  Comment – no wonder science never developed!
  34. 34. Hindu Monism – Reality  Brahman-Atman  Impersonal spiritual cosmos  Absorption into the One  Loss of personal identity  Peace, fulfillment, bliss  The goal is to transcend maya to reality
  35. 35. Thus…  God and the cosmos are one  We are God  In saving the world, we are saving ourselves, so to speak  The state of enlightenment is called, moksa, samadhi, kayvala  In Buddhism – Nirvana  Zen – satori
  36. 36. In the west, different names for the same thing  Cosmic consciousness  Unified field of Creative consciousness  Absolute Bliss  One with Self
  37. 37. Yoga – yoke with God  Astanga yoga – 8 steps to God  Hatha yoga – first 5 steps – isometrics and breathing exercises to make you unaware of the physical world  Raja yoga – last 3 steps
  38. 38. Yoga postures
  39. 39. Raja yoga  1. Concentration – on a mantra, often a name for a Hindu god  2. Dhyana – continuous meditation on the mantra  3. Samhadi – Absorption into the universe – like a drop of water in the ocean
  40. 40. What is God?  Tozer stated that no people rise greater than their religion  Here there is no difference between a person and dirt, or animals. Then what is God?  Humans become the same level as nature, and impersonal as well
  41. 41. Loss of personality  No love or compassion, because these are personal. Thus no hospitals, etc.  The monk is really a parasite who does nothing, and lives off begging  There is no basis for morality  There is no basis for human will and freedom of choice = Karma, which is fatalism…
  42. 42. Science and technology  No basis in Hinduism  They come from western schools and training
  43. 43. Reincarnation  Part of karma – you can come back as a lower form  Therefore you do not kill cows or rats  All who believe in reincarnation deny a personal intelligent creator
  44. 44. Christianity vs. Hinduism  Christians believe in a personal creator  Christians believe in the atonement of Jesus Christ, freeing us from sin  Christians believe in the resurrection of Jesus Christ, and the resurrection of the body – as a real person
  45. 45. Hinduism  In India, there are distinct castes which you may not come out of. A high caste Brahman will not associate with a Dalit, or untouchable, and in fact may wash the road behind one. One who had a Dalit eat a meal was totally ostracized by the entire community.  Christianity appeals especially to the Dalits
  46. 46. Worldview – India & USA American worldview  Empiricism – the world is real, and can meet our needs and give us position, worth  Real world is absolute, true categories. Those who cannot distinguish dreams and reality are mentally ill Indian worldview  Maya – the world is subjective, not objective. Real meaning is within  Meaning is relative. Morals are relative. Dreams are a part of reality of the person
  47. 47. Worldview – India & USA American worldview  Naturalism – the real world is natural and can be investigated by the senses. Spiritual experiences are subjective and personal – This is the world of science  Linear time: We live & die. Religious prepare for heaven; secular enjoy life today Indian worldview  No sharp distinction between natural and supernatural. All are blurred together  Cyclical time – The universe repeats itself countless times. People are reborn many times
  48. 48. Worldview – India & USA American worldview  Order and immutability – the universe is orderly with set rules  Knowledge: the human mind can understand and control the universe around. Often judged by knowledge rather than life Indian worldview  Unpredictability – a beggar can be a king; a lion can be a god.  Wisdom – intuitive true understanding of reality. Wisdom comes with sudden insight radically changing the person, so that he has peace and can be released from cyclical rebirths
  49. 49. Worldview – India & USA American worldview  Particularized and categorized world. They can be ordered and placed in order  Basic equality of things in a same category Indian worldview  Unity of all things with gods, saints, people, etc.  OK to worship saints as they are higher on the scale than humans  Hierarchy: all persons and things are ranked – and this is good (caste, etc) Spiritual insight best, then metaphysical wisdom, then offerings, then wealth
  50. 50. Worldview – India & USA American worldview  Individualism. Freedom of choice rather than restriction. Free enterprise and capitalism rather than communism or socialism. Democracy & choose your own leaders Indian worldview  Specialization and inter- dependency. Each person has his own role in society. Diversity and cooperation
  51. 51. Hinduism & avatars  These are godlike personalities who come to help mankind to escape from karma and the wheel of life and eventually find release, samsara…  One of the most popular is Krisna
  52. 52. Image of Krishna
  53. 53. Idol of Shiva in meditation
  54. 54. Hinduism in Suriname  We see the multiple temples, and the multiple gods which they worship  They are actually worshipping demons  They will sometimes devote their children to demons to gain power, money, etc  The demons will drink milk, etc from their Hindu Pandits…
  55. 55. What does the average Hindu understand?  I once went to a Hindu wedding. The two individuals heard the Pandit saying things in what I assume may have been a sacred language, and occasionally throwing objects into a fire. The others were sitting talking to each other, oblivious of the ceremony.
  56. 56. Many Hindus have idols at home  We have seen “god-houses” in front of some Hindu homes. They apparently have idols which they worship with flowers, food, etc.  They often have a number of flags (often red) on bamboo poles planted there by the Pandits
  57. 57. Hinduism in practice  I have seen a snake and Kali painted on the entrance gate of a home. Sometimes idols will be on the wall – such as frogs  I have seen idols of the monkey god Hanuman on the top of Hindu temples
  58. 58. Hanuman, the monkey god
  59. 59. Hindu ―trimurti‖ of Gods – Brahman, Vishnu, Shiva
  60. 60. Hindu festival - Divali
  61. 61. Transcendental meditation
  62. 62. Transcendental Meditation  This is basically a form of Hinduism adapted to US or western culture  Initially you must bring 6 flowers, 3 fruit and a white handkerchief  You come in a darkened room with incense and candles  Before a picture of Guru Dev, a priest will give a Puja – a Hindu Sanskrit song
  63. 63. Transcendental Meditation  You are given a mantra, which is the name of a Hindu god. When you meditate, you try to come one with him.  Doing so, you are really opening yourself to demons
  64. 64. Initiation puja includes  Whosoever remembers the lotus-eyed Lord gains inner and outer purity. To Lord Naryan, to Lotus-born Brahman the creator, to Vaishistha, to Shakti, to Shankaracharya the emancipator, hailed as Krishna, to the Lord I bow down and down again. At whose door the whole galaxy of gods pray for perfection day and night.[46]
  65. 65. It is expensive  n 2009, fees in the US were reduced for a one-hour-a-day, four-day course to $1,500 for the general public and $750 for college students.[62][63] Fees in the UK were also reduced, and a tiered fee structure introduced, ranging from £290 to £590 for adults, and £190 to £290 for students, depending on income.[64]
  66. 66. Save money Around 1995, Dr. Deepak Chopra created the primordial sound meditation, that is very similar to Maharishi's TM. Unfortunately Maharishi's and Chopra's techniques are very expensive ($2500.00 and $325.00).
  67. 67. Save money via internet  In 2003 a former TM teacher, R.Harrison, created the Natural Stress Relief technique, that can be learned in this website for $25.00 only. The Natural Stress Relief© technique (NSR) is based on a single basic syllable or "mantra", that is suitable for anybody.
  68. 68. Save money…  By the way, the original TM, that was taught by Maharishi in 1958, was also based on a single mantra (around 1968 the TM organization started to prescribe different "mantras").
  69. 69. Transcendental Meditation  I Tim. 4:1 Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils.
  70. 70. Transcendental Meditation is demonic worship  I Cor. 10:19-20 What say I then? That the idol is any thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is any thing? But I say that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils (demons) and not to God: and I would not that ye should have fellowship with devils…
  71. 71. TM is dangerous  Any time you allow your mind to go blank, you can open yourself to demonic deception. Meditating on the name of a false god (demon) is even more dangerous!
  72. 72. Hinduism in practice  There is a great deal of the demonic in Hinduism  It is no wonder that there is great opposition to true Christianity
  73. 73. Worship Shiva – god of destruction
  74. 74. Popular Hinduism  Caste system  Worship of 33,000,000 gods  .Revere the cow & monkey, etc  .The main gods are:  .Brahma - creator  .Vishnu - sustainer  .Shiva - destroyer
  75. 75. Hindu god
  76. 76. Kali – god of destruction
  77. 77. Hindu - Vishnu
  78. 78. Pakistani Hindu God
  79. 79. Popular Hinduism  The temple is the place the gods stay - not primarily worship. The priests carry the offerings of the people  They often worship one of the 10 incarnations of Vishnu – especially Krishna or Rama
  80. 80. Hindu temple
  81. 81. World’s largest Hindu temple
  82. 82. Richest & most visited Hindu temple
  83. 83. Popular Hinduism  Women’s situation is a little better now that suttee and the selling of young girls as temple prostitutes is basically gone.  William Carey worked against suttee  Amy Carmichael rescued many girls from being temple prostitutes
  84. 84. Hindu suttee – burning widow
  85. 85. Hindu worship  Most worship privately rather than corporately  Worship daily the chosen deity with chants, flowers and incense
  86. 86. Housewarming ceremony
  87. 87. Puja – Hindu worship
  88. 88. Puja worship
  89. 89. Puja – worship Woman sewing clothes for idol
  90. 90. Puja ceremony Mt. Everest!
  91. 91. Folk Hinduism makes even human offerings  Children were thrown into the Ganges River as an offering  Other locations, babies were killed previously in Suriname  Sometimes children have been dedicated to the gods
  92. 92. Many Hindus have been oppressed by evil spirits  Being freed from demonic oppression is one of the ways that many are coming to Christ
  93. 93. There is persecution of Christians  There are radical fundamentalist movements in Hinduism to totally eradicate Christianity and Christians  Recently a burial was interrupted and the body thrown into a tractor – they said that the body would contaminate Hindu soil
  94. 94. Persecution  Persecution is especially heavy now in Orissa state, but also in other areas  A number of pastors have been killed  A missionary doctor and two sons were burned to death while sleeping in their car – the doctor worked with lepers
  95. 95. Gandhi against conversions  Mohandes Gandhi stated that conversion to Christianity is changing their nationality.  The accusation is ―forced conversions‖ by which they mean anyone that finds a benefit to convert (especially seen with the untouchables)
  96. 96. Christian girl burned:Orissa
  97. 97. Attack on church in Orissa
  98. 98. Christian response to Hinduism  God – if God is God, and impersonal, then impersonal is greater than the personal – but we always give more attention to the personal  God of the Bible is personal – He thinks, does, has emotions, etc. No idol can represent God, and Christians are forbidden to worship idols
  99. 99. Christian response to Hinduism  The material world is real. God is present in creation but apart from it.  Don’t confuse God and his creation (Romans 1 – worship the creature instead of the creator)  Time is not cyclical – God created the world at a specific time and will consumate it also
  100. 100. Christian response to Hinduism  The incarnation of Jesus Christ occurred within historical time, as well as His crucifixion and resurrection
  101. 101. Christian response to Hinduism  People are created in God’s image  The human body will be resurrected physically and has eternal worth  There is no rebirth – Heb. 9: [27] And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:
  102. 102. Christian response to Hinduism  All men are resurrected: Jn. 5: [28] Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice,[29] And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.
  103. 103. Christian response to Hinduism  Sin is not ignorance of the union with Brahman, but is rebellion against a holy personal God.  Romans 3:23 All have sinned and come short of the glory of God.
  104. 104. Christian response to Hinduism  Salvation for the Hindu:  Yoga & meditation under a guru  Good works (karma marga)  The way of knowledge (jnana marga)  The way of love and devotion (bhakti marga)
  105. 105. Christian response to Hinduism  Salvation is through a personal relationship by faith with Jesus Christ throughout eternity. Salvation is NOT by good works. Religious deeds cannot save: Eph 2: [8] For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:[9] Not of works, lest any man should boast.
  106. 106. Witnessing to Hindus  Short personal testimony of faith in Jesus Christ  Pray for the Holy Spirit to work  Share that Jesus Christ is God’s revelation of Himself to mankind  Follow Jesus – no other deities  Emphasize salvation by faith without works
  107. 107. Hare Krishna – Krishna Consciousness: A Hindu Sect  They believe that anyone can chant the magic words and block the power of Kali, the God of destruction  Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare  Hare Rama Hare Rama  Rama Rama Hare Hare
  108. 108. Hare Krishna tree New York
  109. 109. Hare Krishna devotees
  110. 110. Buddhism
  111. 111. History of Buddhism  In contrast to Hinduism, there is a founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha  Although precise dates are not clear, and the history is mixed with much tradition, there is a basic history which can be used
  112. 112. Buddhism  Sidhartha Gautama, 564-483 B.C.) was a wealthy Hindu saw the suffering of the world, left his wife and son, and became an ascetic. After 6 years, he became enlightened and was “the enlightened one”  Gautama was born into a wealthy family. His mother died after his birth
  113. 113. Traditions of Gautama  His mother’s conception was considered miraculous – saw a 6 tusk elephant come into her side  Many miracles are traditionally attributed to Gautama, though they are probably not historical
  114. 114. The Buddha
  115. 115. Sidhartha Gautama  His father wanted him to be a great king, but hid suffering from him  When he finally started seeing his people at age 29, he met old age, suffering and death  He tried asceticism, and nearly died – almost drown washing himself
  116. 116. Buddha – the ascetic and then the enlightened one
  117. 117. Siddhartha Gautama  During his wanderings, he was recognized, and offered a kingdom. Others wanted him to become a general  He found that neither wealth or asceticism was proper, but sought out a middle way  He had many followers. One tried to assassinate him 3 times
  118. 118. Siddhartha Gautama  Eventually he went to nirvana at age 80  During his last years, he developed his philosophy of life
  119. 119. Buddhism  613,000,000 worldwide  1,000,000 in USA  Buddhists are trying to convert those in the USA  It is a major force in the New Age Movement
  120. 120. Distribution of Buddhists
  121. 121. Buddhism: Four noble truths:  1. Life is suffering (dukkha)  2. Suffering is caused by desire (samudaja)  3. The cessation of desire causes the cessation of suffering (nirodha)  4. The cessation of desire comes from the “middle way” between sensuality and asceticism
  122. 122. Buddhism – the 8 fold path to achieve the middle way…  Right view – understanding the 4 noble truths  Right resolve – determining to follow them  Right speech – action to avoid desire  Right action – action to avoid desire
  123. 123. Buddhism: the 8 fold path to achieve the middle way  Right livelihood  Right effort – emptying the mind  Right concentration – mind & body control  Right ecstacy – cessation of all sense experiences and obtaining universal knowledge
  124. 124. Buddhism  Become free from Karma – the law of good and bad deeds which is an impersonal law of monal causation  Obtain Nirvana – like blowing out a candle – nothing…
  125. 125. Buddhism  Nothing in life is permanent (annica)  Individual souls do not really exist (anatta)
  126. 126. Buddhist monks
  127. 127. Buddhist monks in China
  128. 128. Buddhist monk actually taken in Scotland
  129. 129. Buddhism  Theravada – “salvation” limited to monks alone – Thailand, Burma, Sri Lanka, Laos, Cambodia 38%  Mahayana – “salvation” open to all true seekers – Nepal, China, Tibet, Japan, Vietnam, Kor ea – and the west 56%  Tantrismor Lamism, 6% Tibet, Nepal, Mongolia
  130. 130. Timeline of development of various schools
  131. 131. Theravada Buddhism in Thailand
  132. 132. Angor Wat Cambodia
  133. 133. Theravada Buddhism
  134. 134. Mahayana Buddhism
  135. 135. Vajrayana traditions in Tibet, Mongolia, China
  136. 136. Lamaism – monastery
  137. 137. Tibetan monastery & monks
  138. 138. Traditional wheel of life - Tibet
  139. 139. Hinduism vs. Buddhism  Wheel of life  Karma  Maya (illusion)  Atman (individual soul)  Rebirth by reincarnation  Wheel of life  Karma  Maya  No atman  Rebirth without reincarnation
  140. 140. Hinduism vs. Buddhism  Moksha (realization)  Pantheistic  Caste system  Asceticism  Nirvana (oblivion)  Atheistic- pantheistic  Caste system  The middle way
  141. 141. Buddhism  Sidhartha Gautama wanted to reform Hinduism which had thousands of gods. He was an atheist in fact.  But now Buddhism has many idols. The golden pagoda has 3500 idols of Buddha
  142. 142. Buddhist idols
  143. 143. More Buddhist idols
  144. 144. Buddhism  Each man is an island to himself. To help him is to interfere with his karma  Christianity gives the true worth of a soul made in the image of God, and worth saving…  Religion is man reaching toward God, but Christianity is God reaching down to man
  145. 145. Buddhism vs. Christianity  God shows that this will happen in Romans 1:18 ff. Man who rejects God will make idols  God shows the foolishness of idolatry in Jeremiah 10:3-15
  146. 146. Idol worship
  147. 147. Romans 1  18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness;  19 Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed [it] unto them.
  148. 148. Romans 1  20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, [even] his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified [him] not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
  149. 149. Romans 1  22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,23 And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:
  150. 150. Romans 1  . 26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the atural use into that which is against nature:27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.
  151. 151. Romans 1  28 And even as they did not like to retain God in [their] knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
  152. 152. Romans 1  30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,31 Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:32 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them. 
  153. 153. Jeremiah 10:3-15  3 For the customs of the people [are] vain: for [one] cutteth a tree out of the forest, the work of the hands of the workman, with the axe.4 They deck it with silver and with gold; they fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not.5 They [are] upright as the palm tree, but speak not: they must needs be borne, because they cannot go.
  154. 154. Jeremiah 10:3-15  5b Be not afraid of them; for they cannot do evil, neither also [is it] in them to do good.  6 Forasmuch as [there is] none like unto thee, O LORD; thou [art] great, and thy name [is] great in might.7 Who would not fear thee, O King of nations? for to thee doth it appertain: forasmuch as among all the wise [men] of the nations, and in all their kingdoms, [there is] none like unto thee.
  155. 155. Jeremiah 10:3-15  8 But they are altogether brutish and foolish: the stock [is] a doctrine of vanities.9 Silver spread into plates is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of the workman, and of the hands of the founder: blue and purple [is] their clothing: they [are] all the work of cunning [men].
  156. 156. Jeremiah 10:3-15  10 But the LORD [is] the true God, he [is] the living God, and an everlasting king: at his wrath the earth shall tremble, and the nations shall not be able to abide his indignation.11 Thus shall ye say unto them, The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth, [even] they shall perish from the earth, and from under these heavens.
  157. 157. Jeremiah 10:3-15  12 He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion.13 When he uttereth his voice, [there is] a multitude of waters in the heavens, and he causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth; he maketh lightnings with rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of his treasures.
  158. 158. Jeremiah 10:3-15  14 Every man is brutish in [his] knowledge: every founder is confounded by the graven image: for his molten image [is] falsehood, and [there is] no breath in them.15 They [are] vanity, [and] the work of errors: in the time of their visitation they shall perish.
  159. 159. Buddhism in Cambodia
  160. 160. Buddhism in Cambodia
  161. 161. Practical Buddhism in Cambodia  Cambodians are definitely weaker in their adherence to Buddhism than their Asian neighbors.  Thailand is firmly fixed on Buddhism’s path as well as animism. Cambodians are also very Buddhist.  At present, Cambodians are more open to the gospel than other Buddhist nations in the area. Several generations of war and conflict and the resulting poverty have brought greater openness to the gospel. Many are willing to listen to the gospel.
  162. 162. Cambodia – Angkor Wat
  163. 163. Angkor Wat in the jungle
  164. 164. Practical Buddhism in Cambodia  Though persecution is alive and well for those that believe, it is less severe than in some Buddhist countries, especially those influenced by Communism (China, Laos, and Vietnam) or military dictatorships (Myanmar/Burma).  Thailand has open religious freedom, but Thais are more hardened against the gospel—even with centuries of Christian mission influence.
  165. 165. Practical Buddhism  Most Buddhists here do not believe anything like what the books say they do! One might get the impression that Buddhists here are deeply committed to Buddhism from the many Buddhist temples dotting the countryside and seemingly on every block in the cities. Monks are everywhere. It is true that belief in reincarnation, karma, and nirvana are firmly held. But where does their true devotion lie? How is most of their religious energy spent? What types of beliefs influence every day living?
  166. 166. Cambodia farmers
  167. 167. Cambodian monks
  168. 168. Karma…  Certainly the belief in karma is a strong motivator to follow the Buddhist path. Karma teaches that one’s circumstances in this life are the direct result of good and bad deeds committed in one’s previous life. Of course, no one wants to return in their next life as an animal, slave, poor person, etc. when they could return as a prince or wealthy merchant.
  169. 169. Nirvana – basically unobtainable  Almost no one considers the possibility of ever achieving nirvana, that state of non-existence so coveted by truly committed Buddhists. Nirvana is a state that no Buddhist seems to understand or be able to describe. Life is to be understood simply as endless suffering. To end this endless cycle of suffering, one must follow the Four Noble Truths and the Eight-Fold Path of Buddhism. If one is successful, he will cease to exist and become one with the universe. Most people desire merely to return in the next life to better circumstances.
  170. 170. Folk religion in Buddhism  I believe that most religions have folk religion as well. We have seen this in the Muslims and Hindus in Suriname.  The next section will show this vividly in terms of Cambodia
  171. 171. Practical Buddhism  It is widely believed that our spirits will go to hell after death and suffer torment. Once a certain amount of the sin debt is paid, the person will then be reincarnated. Some believe that good people will go to heaven for a while before returning to the earth in another form. Forms of reincarnation might include animals, ghosts, gods, and humans. Human life is most coveted, for only a human can achieve non-existence (nirvana).
  172. 172. Monks, the king, and a water ceremony to carry away sins
  173. 173. Ancestor Worship in Buddhism  Ancestor worship, which is not central to Buddhist doctrine, has become a central part of Folk Buddhism. Every year Pachum Bun is celebrated. During this festival, Buddhists must go to the temples and give money and rice to the monks in exchange for blessings and prayers to help their ancestors be released from hell. If money and rice is given and prayers are offered, it is believed that the spirits of the ancestors are set free until the end of the festival, only to return once again to hell until their debt is paid.
  174. 174. Ancestor worship in Buddhism  People are fearful that if they do not worship their ancestors, these spirits will one day curse their lives and cause great suffering.  Parents also have power over their children after their death before they are reincarnated. The same is true for grandparents, etc.
  175. 175. Ancestor worship
  176. 176. Ancestor worship in Buddhism  Parents are perceived as ―gods‖ and actually referred to as such (in teaching, anyway). The parent gave the child life and sustained them and raised them. Thus, they earned much merit that must be acknowledged by the children.
  177. 177. Inconsistency in belief  . Buddhism is not the focus of most Cambodians. Even though all of the festivals, including weddings and funerals have Buddhist trappings, most Cambodians believe much more strongly in the spirit world. Belief in the spirits should be contradictory to Buddhist thought, but to the average Buddhist, these two very different forms of religion just work together in ways not to be understood.
  178. 178. Inconsistency in belief  . As a matter of fact, even many monks are heavily involved in spiritism. What is most important to ask of those that you are trying to reach in a Buddhist country is not “What does Buddhism teach?” but rather “What do people really believe?”
  179. 179. Syncretic religion except…  Buddhism accommodates all other religions except, of course, true Christianity.  Buddhists can add any god or spirit to their belief system, as long as Buddhism is not denounced.  It becomes very important, then, to press upon them the exclusivity of Christ.
  180. 180. Buddhism – monks in action
  181. 181. Tattoos  Throughout Cambodian history, the primary reason for getting tattoos etched in the skin was to bring the owner of the tattoo protection in battle. For those with tattoos, bullets would miss their mark; swords will not cut, etc.  All soldiers in Cambodia, no matter their station, had these tattoos and many do today. Tattoos are not merely pictures. Tattoos are filled with spiritual significance, and, when received, supposedly communicate spiritual power to the owner.
  182. 182. Tattoos  Another popular reason for getting tattoos is their ability to cause attraction and admiration. They increase the likeability of an individual, especially in reference to the opposite gender.  For some seeking spiritual power or influence over others, tattoos are attractive. They cause others to respect or fear them. Others just get tattoos because others have them. It seems that all sorcerers are tattooed heavily as well
  183. 183. Cambodian tatoos
  184. 184. Tattoos  The tatooist must be a spiritually powerful individual. His work is extremely difficult to accomplish and it is done is an entirely spiritual manner. Those who come to him worship the spirits upon entry. The tattooist’s shrine is full of idols: Buddhas, Vishnus, hermit spirits, symbols, incense, bones, etc. There are spiritual laws that govern the diet and manner of practice that the man must maintain.
  185. 185. Tattoos  For instance, they cannot put a curse on the individual. They do not sacrifice animals. Drums are played throughout the process. Those who receive a tattoo receive spells and instructions to maintain the power of the tattoo. These tattooists are honored in their practice but not in every day life as authorities in other matters. However, monks may do this also.
  186. 186. Tatoos  Tattoos are usually symbols, ancient Pali writing (the language of the Buddhist writings and that used by monks in rituals), drawings of the Buddha, Vishnu (a Hindu deity), a mythological bird or snake, or sometimes human beings.
  187. 187. Tatoos and Amulets
  188. 188. Amulets & Charms  One object highly regarded for its influence is a kind of belt charmed by a sorcerer or holy man. Nearly all Cambodians wear these. The chief reason for this item is protection—protection from the spirits--from harm, sickness, poor business, etc. These are worn about the waist and are made from nylon. Attached to the nylon are flattened metal pieces with Pali writing and other symbols which are rolled up and then put on the belt. Of course, all such items are paid for.
  189. 189. Amulets & Charms  Elaborate rules are given for how to maintain the power of the belt. For example, when entering the rest room, the belt must be taken off a certain way and hung in a certain fashion. To forget to do this would negate the power of the belt.
  190. 190. Amulets…  Amulets, or objects of spiritual significance, hung from a necklace, are also revered. These too are obtained for protection from evil workings of the spirits. Some hang Buddha figurines or Vishnu on these. Buddha figurines are to influence the wearer to do good works. Others put animal horns, though these are considered less powerful.
  191. 191. Spiritual amulets
  192. 192. Amulets…  Some may have a bone from an ancestor. In Thailand, amulets are extremely popular and large amounts of money spent of ancient or artistic amulets or amulets blessed by well- respected monks.
  193. 193. Thai amulets
  194. 194. Amulets…  At least in Cambodia, the amulet known to have the most power is a human baby fetus. The method of obtaining this is varied. Some insist that this is done through murdering a pregnant woman. Others insist that the woman be asked permission to have it taken from her by knife, not telling the woman that it meant death for her and the child.
  195. 195. This amulet contains the powder of a chosen baby who died (amulet enlarged greatly)
  196. 196. These monks bless amulets – advertised on the internet
  197. 197. Amulets…  Yet others claim that it is done ―above board‖ by the woman’s consent and that she does not die in the process. It appears that if the woman does not give consent than the fetus has no power. It is then grilled and dried then hung from the necklace. This amulet gives the power to know whom and when a person plans to harm you, even premonition of evil that will happen to you.
  198. 198. Building rituals  Before a house can be built, a monk or sorcerer must first come to the property and give counsel as to the place to build the house—the exact place. Why? Every house built has its own spirit. Also, the land has a spirit. If the house were built in the wrong spot, a spirit would be angry and cause evil to the house owner. Somehow too, the rituals are meant to trick the spirits into thinking different ways.
  199. 199. Variety of Cambodian houses
  200. 200. Building rituals  The night before building begins a monk or sorcerer must be invited to a party held in the home to perform certain rites. While the poles are being put in the next day, a tattooed cloth must be placed in order to hang from the ceiling. ALL Khmai homes have one (until Jesus came here!)
  201. 201. Altar to banana spirits
  202. 202. Spirit houses  Within the house is found either a Buddha statue or the bones of the grandparents. Buddhism encourages the bones to be brought to the Wat, so many have a Buddha within instead.  The purpose of the house is to worship the spirit of the ancestors. Buddhism teaches that ancestral spirits need to be placated. There is an annual festival devoted to this. The more money given to the temple in honor of the ancestors and other deeds greatly raise the chances that spirits will do good deeds towards the doer.
  203. 203. Spirit houses  Four times each month, Khmais are to leave a flower and fruit offering at the spirit house. Every day prayers are offered to the spirits of the ancestors and/or Buddha. These prayers are accompanied by incense burning. Buddhism no where teaches the worship of Buddha’s image. As a matter of fact, the Buddha does not exist because he achieved nirvana!
  204. 204. Territorial spirits  Just as every house has a spirit, so does every area. The village has a spirit, the forest nearby has one, the river does, etc. It is most important to be in favor with the spirit of your area. If you travel outside the territory of your spirit it is wise to offer worship at its altar there or at least have an amulet or belt for protection.
  205. 205. Territorial spirits  This spirit can be represented by idols such as a stone, skull, amulet, animal figure, etc. Every Buddhist pagoda/wat has an altar to the territorial spirit. Altars are often found underneath great trees or on small hills.
  206. 206. House with occult blessing object
  207. 207. Holy men  The Monks are sought for in all Buddhist ceremonies and generally hold the respect of the people. There is an ever growing number of monks in the monkhood for natural reasons—saving up money, learning English or computer skills (especially in Phnom Penh), showing respect for one’s parents, earning merit for one’s parents, and others. Most of these are ―short-term‖ monks. The older and more seasoned men command great respect. These monks are the ones most appealed to in matters dealing with spirits. They can tattoo, bless charms, cast out demons, give holy water, etc.
  208. 208. Sorcerers  Sorcerers are those whose main occupation is knowing how to placate and manipulate, even trick, the spirits. These are most often appealed to for blessings and receiving of powers in amulets, giving herbal medicines, and directing those suffering how to placate the offended spirits. Sometimes these are involved in animal sacrifices. Sorcerers also are involved in exorcisms. Many go to them for cures even after given treatment or prescriptions from a doctor!
  209. 209. Sorcerers  Monks who throw rice at possessed individuals in a certain manner can perform exorcisms. Sorcerers or monks may splash individuals with holy water also. The Sorcerer may just go to the house and discover the reason why a spirit is angered and give a remedy.
  210. 210. Sorcerers  Sorcerers are also paid to curse people. Those angry or seeking revenge will appeal to them for assistance. I am told that many Khmais do this for revenge. These men are said to be able at times to cause foreign object to appear in the stomachs of the cursed. Other sorcerers who are aiding the cursed then draw out the foreign object which is usually a piece of buffalo skin, nail, or a needle.
  211. 211. Importance of cultural understanding…  Understanding our audience is of utmost importance. Though we cannot assume that every person believes the same way, we can assume that many, if not most, of our hearers in Cambodia will be listening to the gospel through this theological grid. It reveals the necessity to spending time with people introducing to them the nature of the One True God.
  212. 212. Importance of cultural understanding…  There is no Creator in Buddhism. Buddhism leaves room for an unlimited number of gods. If a person does not understand Divine revelation about who God is, there is no possibility of them grasping the gospel. The cross and the resurrection, heaven and hell, etc. have no real meaning apart from the person of God the Creator and the promise of a Savior.
  213. 213. The power of the gospel  The Biblical teachings of the Kingdom of God and the kingdom of Satan take on much more significance in this context. The realities of spiritual powers become a daily reality rather than theory. Missionaries must be aware of this and be intimate with passages of Scripture on these issues.
  214. 214. The power of the Gospel  . New believers will need much help understanding the importance of the Holy Spirit indwelling them and how it relates to these matters. As we grow in these ways, we begin to realize that the Bible was written in such a context and addresses these issues often
  215. 215. We need a proper background  In both Hinduism and Buddhism, understanding God as the creator is vital. They need to understand that He is a person – and not an impersonal force. He is a God of love, who interacts with His creation.  Genesis 1:1 In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.
  216. 216. Other important concepts  We automatically assume the reality of the created world, but this needs to be communicated to the Hindu and Buddhist
  217. 217. Bridge to suffering  Our suffering as Christians is only temporary – the seen. But the future is without suffering, because Jesus Christ has won the victory over the cause of suffering, which is really sin  Sin is rebellion against a personal creator, and Jesus has restored the relationship
  218. 218. Victory over sin and suffering  [17] For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory;[18] While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal.
  219. 219. Jesus gives worth to life  Romans 5: [6] For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly.[7] For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die.
  220. 220. Jesus gives worth to life  Romans 5: [8] But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. [9] Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him.
  221. 221. The moral law and karma  Karma is impersonal – they try to earn merit with good deeds  Jesus gives us His merit: Romans 8: [1] There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.[2] For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death.
  222. 222. Suggestions for witnessing  Avoid terms like new birth, regeneration  Talk about endless freedom from suffering, guilt and sin  Talk about new power to live a holy life  Talk about Jesus’ gift of unlimited and unearned merit
  223. 223. Buddhism  Be careful to avoid syncretism  Share your testimony  Freedom from guilt  Assurance of heaven without pain  Personal relationship with Christ  Pray – do not witness in your own strength
  224. 224. Radical Buddhism is persecuting Christians  Where the Buddhists predominate, there are places where they try to eliminate Christians and Christianity
  225. 225. China – some have Buddhism, Confucianism & Taoism
  226. 226. Many Chines have all three religions  Confucianism  Taoism  Buddhism  They view them as complementary, and not as conflicting
  227. 227. Confucianism  Not confined to China  Also in Japan, Korea and Vietnam  It is an ethical and moral system as much as a religion
  228. 228. Confucius and Confucianism
  229. 229. Confucius  Chinese sage 551 BC – 479 BC  Initially many of his ideas were not accepted  He was expelled from various states  His ideas were best outlined in Analects
  230. 230. Summary of Confucianism  In Confucianism, human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavour especially including self- cultivation and self-creation.  A main idea of Confucianism is the cultivation of virtue and the development of moral perfection.
  231. 231. Hall of Confucianism
  232. 232. Analects of Confucius  Often very condensed sayings, conversations,  His disciples later codified and organized his thoughts  Rites were very important  People need to know their place and role in society -
  233. 233. Rites and rituals  Gives balance between extremes  Politeness, harmony  One must learn to control himself  They developed a civil service system where one could rise to importance and honor the entire family
  234. 234. Confucianism and society  Confucianism has been used as a kind of "state religion", with authoritarianism, legitimism, paternalism and submission to authority used as political tools to rule China.
  235. 235. Confucianism and the roles of people  Relationships, and the differing duties arising from the different status one held in relation to others. Individuals are held to simultaneous stand in different degrees of relationship with different people, namely, as a junior in relation to their parents and elders, and as a senior in relation to their children, younger siblings, students, and others.
  236. 236. Confucianism and the roles of people  While juniors are considered in Confucianism to owe strong duties of reverence and service to their seniors, seniors also have duties of benevolence and concern toward juniors. This theme consistently manifests itself in many aspects of East Asian culture even to this day, with extensive filial duties on the part of children toward parents and elders, and great concern of parents toward their children.
  237. 237. Loyalty  Loyal is the equivalent of filial piety on a different plane, between ruler and minister. Like filial piety, however, loyalty was often subverted by the autocratic regimes of China  We can see how this can support a totalitarian regime
  238. 238. Ruler and those ruled  If the ruler lacks rén, Confucianism holds, it will be difficult if not impossible for his subjects to behave humanely. Rén is the basis of Confucian political theory: it presupposes an autocratic ruler, exhorted to refrain from acting inhumanely towards his subjects. An inhumane ruler runs the risk of losing the "Mandate of Heaven", the right to rule.
  239. 239. Ruler and those ruled  A ruler lacking such a mandate need not be obeyed. But a ruler who reigns humanely and takes care of the people is to be obeyed strictly, for the benevolence of his dominion shows that he has been mandated by heaven. Confucius himself had little to say on the will of the people, but his leading follower Mencius did state that the people's opinion on certain weighty matters should be considered
  240. 240. Five fundamental relationships  The Five Bonds  Ruler to Ruled  Father to Son  Husband to Wife  Elder Brother to Younger Brother  Friend to Friend
  241. 241. Relationships are important  Specific duties were prescribed to each of the participants in these sets of relationships. Such duties were also extended to the dead, where the living stood as sons to their deceased family. This led to the veneration of ancestors. The only relationship where respect for elders wasn't stressed was the Friend to Friend relationship. In all other relationships, high reverence was held for elders.
  242. 242. Filial piety  The idea of Filial piety influenced the Chinese legal system: a criminal would be punished more harshly if the culprit had committed the crime against a parent, while fathers often exercised enormous power over their children. Now filial piety is also built into law. People have responsibility to provide for their elder parents according to law.
  243. 243. The ideal man  They were to:  cultivate themselves morally;  show filial piety and loyalty where these are due;  cultivate humanity, or benevolence.  The ―small man‖ is petty, interested in only materialism, greedy
  244. 244. Confucian temple in Taiwan
  245. 245. Taoism – Chinese religion Often combined with Confucianism
  246. 246. Difficult to know how many participate  Often Chinese will have 3 religions, or mix with Chinese folk religion  Estimates from 20,000,000 to 400,000,000!  The number has declined since communism
  247. 247. Symbol for Taoism
  248. 248. The essence of Taoism  Taoism refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions with the word Tao meaning– path or way.  Three Jewels of the Tao:  compassion,  moderation,  humility,
  249. 249. The essence of Taoism  Taoist thought focuses on nature,  the relationship between humanity and the cosmos (天人相应),  health and longevity,  wu wei (action through inaction),  These produce harmony with the Universe.[
  250. 250. Taoist temple in Hong Kong
  251. 251. Tao is almost indefinable  In reading descriptions, it is like a flow of basic energy  A basic concept is that of effortless effort – that the master aligns himself with this flow ―qi‖ accomplishes things without effort
  252. 252. Pu – the state when you follow wu wei (effortless effort)  It is believed to be the true nature of the mind, unburdened by knowledge or experiences.  In the state of pu, there is no right or wrong, beautiful or ugly. There is only pure experience, or awareness, free from learned labels and definitions. It is this state of being that is the goal of following wu wei.
  253. 253. Lau viewed as a god; Taoist priest
  254. 254. White Cloud Monastery Beijing, China
  255. 255. Islam  Rapidly growing religion  Dominates in 52 countries  Total population of Islam – about 1,000,000,000 – 1/6 world population  Although we think of the middle East, only 20% are there. The largest Muslim country is Indonesia
  256. 256. Muslim Population Worldwide
  257. 257. Muslims at Prayer
  258. 258. Islam  Rapidly growing in Europe – now the second largest religion in Europe  However, only a small percentage of missionaries have been working with Muslims
  259. 259. Islam  It is tied with 7th century Arabian culture, and is a deification of that culture.  You cannot separate the culture and the religion – they are tied together in politics, family structure, food, clothing, religious rites, etc.
  260. 260. Islam – submit  Islam = submission of body and soul to Allah  Muslim = those who submit
  261. 261. Worship in a Mosque
  262. 262. Place of ablutions
  263. 263. Islam  Culture – the authority was in the Sheik, who had absolute authority  Therefore, democracy is basically incompatible with Islam. You can expect a ―strong man‖  There is no concept of personal rights or civil rights per se
  264. 264. Contact with the West  Some western ideas have been implemented in some places  Veil not always worn  Law of apostacy not always enforced  Western goods bought  Some places polygamy is reduced or even against the law
  265. 265. Conflict with western civilization  Western racial problems  Colonialism  ―peace-keeping‖ wars  Moral degeneracy  N.B. – Conflict is mostly where the west has abandoned Jesus’ teachings
  266. 266. Islam  Very difficult to win  More difficult to remain faithful and grow  Opposition from family  Ridicule from friends  Social and economic pressures
  267. 267. Main areas of theologic problems  The innate sinfulness of man  The Sonship of Jesus Christ  The doctrine of the trinity  Jesus’ death and resurrection
  268. 268. Further inconsistencies  They believe that there were 124,000 prophets, all sinless  This actually contradicts the Qur’an, where God tells one or another prophet to confess and repent of his sins  To them, a prophet is an authentic messenger of God to bring God’s true revelation
  269. 269. Signs of respect to a Muslim  Take off shoes when entering a home  Shake hands both coming and going  Never sit cross-legged in a chair (don’t show bottom of feet)  Be careful of petting dog (unclean)  No alcohol, pork, certain seafood  Be careful how you handle the Bible; not on the floor
  270. 270. Signs of respect  Avoid  Being free with the opposite sex  Joking about sacred things  Religious jewelry  Pictures of Jesus
  271. 271. How to witness  A devout life with deeds of love and service – especially schools and medicine  Sharing common interests  Disaster relief  Teaching English  Selling literature, especially Bible correspondence courses
  272. 272. Witness to Muslims  Where permitted, public evangelistic meetings with much prayer and printed invitations  Radio & TV may penetrate as well  Be sure to relate the convert to Jesus, and not just to yourself
  273. 273. Islam  Background information:  Just before Mohammed, Arabia was animistic with worship of stones. The tribe of Mohammed had the black stone put in the Ka’ba  Sabianism was dominant, worshipping the heavenly bodies, with a lunar calendar and the moon as the male deity. They fasted with the appearance of the crescent moon
  274. 274. Allah  Allah was originally the name of the moon god for Mohammed’s tribe, represented by the black stone which was believed came from heaven.  The sun was female, married the moon, and produced three daughters of Allah, which were the top of 360 idols. Mohammed later destroyed all idols but the black stone
  275. 275. Muslims and the Ka’ba  Believe it was first built by Adam, but destroyed by the flood  Rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael
  276. 276. The Ka’aba at night
  277. 277. Mohammed – 570-632 AD  His father died before he was born, and his mother died when he was six  He was reared by uncle, became a camel driver at age 25 met a wealthy 40 year old woman, Khadijah, and lived happily. He lived only with her, but had at least 9 wives after her death.  He apparently heard about Jesus both from the Bible and extra-Biblical sources
  278. 278. Muhammed’s call  Age 40, while meditating, the angel Gabriel came and gave a revelation from God.  First messages – one God there; repent from idolatry before the day of judgment  About 40 people initially accepted his teaching
  279. 279. Opposition grew  He started sending groups of leaders to Yathrib (Medina), and finally fled with Abu Bakr on June 20, 622  This is the Hijra – the beginning of Islam  In Medina, he plundered rich caravans and had military success.
  280. 280. Successful re-entry in Mecca  With 10,000 soldiers, he entered Mecca without a fight, cleared the Ka’ba of idols, and made decree for an annual pilgrimage there – the Hajj
  281. 281. Muhammad’s tomb is here
  282. 282. Five pillars of Islam  The creed – there is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his prophet‖  Prayers in Arabic 5 times per day  Alms to the poor  Fasting, esp. Ramadan, with no food, drink or sex from sunrise to sunset for one month  Hajj once in a lifetime
  283. 283. Some benefits of Islam  No idolatry  No burying live baby girls  Uniting Arabian tribes  Civil brotherhood among Muslims  Some rights of women were improved
  284. 284. Qur’an  Believed to be the very words of God  Muhammed did not write them, but followers memorized them  Caliph Uthman ordered their assembly – 114 suras (chapters) a little more than the New Testament  Some memorized the entire book
  285. 285. Qur’an  Used in Arabic in the services  Private believers may have bilingual editions  Some read the entire Qur’an during Ramadan  It reads as poetry in Arabic
  286. 286. The spread of Islam  Abu Bakr consolidated the Arabian tribes and won a number of victories  There was rapid spread over 100 years – taking over the Persian empire, much of the Byzantine, north Africa, Spain, and were finally stopped at Tours in France by Charles Martel – 732  90% became Muslim. Countries slowly lost their advanced civilization
  287. 287. Spread of Islam to 750 AD
  288. 288. Spread of Islam
  289. 289. Initially Islam brought advances  Golden era – great advances in medicine, science & art  1300-1600 Ottoman empire expanded, as did the Moghul empire in India with expansion to East Indies and Philippines
  290. 290. Mosque in Cordoba, Spain
  291. 291. Taj Mahal - India
  292. 292. Mosque – Istanbul, Turkey
  293. 293. The mosque of the Prophet – second most holy place
  294. 294. 20-21st century advances  Initially the Arabian slave traders were hated. However, colonialism stopped the slave trade, and colonialism replaced the hatred for the slavers  Much expansion in Africa, and also in Europe and to a lesser degree in America
  295. 295. Muslim sects
  296. 296. Ahamdiyya movement  Very anti-Christian, using anti-Christian western critics to argue their point  Black Muslims initially were political, but later more orthodox Muslims
  297. 297. Sunni & Shi’a groups  Shi’a say that Muhammed’s son-in-law, Ali was supposed to be his follower, but Uthman suppressed 3 sections of the Qur’an which showed that Uthman was not legitimate.  Ali was assassinated, and there was a struggle between two successors leading to the split
  298. 298. Shi’as have Imam  Imam is a successor to Muhammed and an infallible guide – at least 12 so far. The last, the Madhi, disappeared in 878, but they believe that he is still alive, will return at the end of the age, and convert the world to Islam  Sunnis have a caliph  90% are Sunni; 10% Shi’a
  299. 299. Sufi’s  Muslim mystics  Sought actual contact with God through emotional experience
  300. 300. Sufis seeking ecstacy
  301. 301. The Hadith  These traditions of what Muhammed said were brought together and cover virtually every action of life, including the most intimate  To the Shi’a, the authorized interpreters of the law are called Mudtahids
  302. 302. Qur’an and the Bible  Muslims accept 4 books as inspired: Taurat (Law) given to Moses  Zabur (Psalms) given to David  Injil (Gospel) given to Jesus  Qur’an given to Muhammed
  303. 303. Qur’an and the Bible  In Surah 5:44 it implies that the Jewish scriptures are still valid and unaltered  [5.44] because they were required to guard (part) of the Book of Allah, and they were witnesses thereof; therefore fear not the people and fear Me, and do not take a small price for My communications; and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the unbelievers.
  304. 304. Qur’an and the Bible  Surah 5:68 – Christians must obey the book: [5.68] Say: O followers of the Book! you follow no good till you keep up the Taurat and the Injeel and that which is revealed to you from your Lord; and surely that which has been revealed to you from your Lord shall make many of them increase in inordinacy and unbelief; grieve not therefore for the unbelieving people.
  305. 305. Qur’an and the Bible  The Qur’an is sent to guard the scriptures  [5.48] And We have revealed to you the Book with the truth, verifying what is before it of the Book and a guardian over it, therefore judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires (to turn away) from the truth that has come to you; you differed;
  306. 306. Qur’an and the Bible  [5.48] for every one of you did We appoint a law and a way, and if Allah had pleased He would have made you (all) a single people, but that He might try you in what He gave you, therefore strive with one another to hasten to virtuous deeds; to Allah is your return, of all (of you), so He will let you know that in which you differed;
  307. 307. Qur’an and the Bible  On the other hand:….  Surah [5.51] O you who believe! do not take the Jews and the Christians for friends; they are friends of each other; and whoever amongst you takes them for a friend, then surely he is one of them; surely Allah does not guide the unjust people.
  308. 308. Qur’an and the Bible  Surah 3:78 the Muslim must believe the scriptures  [3.78] Most surely there is a party amongst those who distort the Book with their tongue that you may consider it to be (a part) of the Book, and they say, It is from Allah, while it is not from Allah, and they tell a lie against Allah whilst they know.
  309. 309. Qur’an conflicts with the Bible  Jesus spoke to men from his cradle (Surah [19.23] And the throes (of childbirth) compelled her to betake herself to the trunk of a palm tree. She said: Oh, would that I had died before this, and had been a thing quite forgotten![19.24] Then (the child) called out to her from beneath her: Grieve not, surely your Lord has made a stream to flow beneath you;
  310. 310. Qur’an and the Bible  Jesus was not crucified, but one who resembled him: Surah 4:157. But Jesus himself predicted his death, all the disciples saw it; he had marks on his hands and feet, Jesus prayed for his persecutors, and this was the purpose of his coming and his death
  311. 311. Qur’an and the Bible  [4.157] And their saying: Surely we have killed the Messiah, Isa son of Marium, the apostle of Allah; and they did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but it appeared to them so (like Isa) and most surely those who differ therein are only in a doubt about it; they have no knowledge respecting it, but only follow a conjecture, and they killed him not for sure.
  312. 312. Jesus did not die according to the Qur’an  [4.158] Nay! Allah took him up to Himself; and Allah is Mighty, Wise.
  313. 313. Qur’an conflicts with the Bible  Qur’an states one of Noah’s sons drowned (Surah [11.42] And it moved on with them amid waves like mountains; and Nuh called out to his son, and he was aloof: O my son! embark with us and be not with the unbelievers.[11.43] He said: I will betake myself for refuge to a mountain that shall protect me from the water. Nuh said: There is no protector today from Allah's punishment but He Who has mercy; and a wave intervened between them, so he was of the drowned.
  314. 314. Qur’an conflicts with the Bible  Because they called Isaac his only son, the Arabs believe that it was Ishmael who was offered but God sent a substitute, although the Qur’an mentions Isaac a few verses later, and does not say which son. (when discussing, focus on the main point, a substitute)
  315. 315. Conflict with supposed Christian teaching  Christ is the son of God – they think that Christians believe that God had intercourse with Mary:  The trinity – that Christians believe in three Gods, one of which is Mary: Surah 5:116, 79  Answer with Jesus words in Mark 12:29: Here, O Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord
  316. 316. Qur’an suggests Christians believe in three gods  [5.116] And when Allah will say: O Isa son of Marium! did you say to men, Take me and my mother for two gods besides Allah he will say: Glory be to Thee, it did not befit me that I should say what I had no right to (say); if I had said it, Thou wouldst indeed have known it; Thou knowest what is in my mind, and I do not know what is in Thy mind, surely Thou art the great Knower of the unseen things.
  317. 317. Assertion that the Bible predicts Muhammed  Surah 61.6] And when Isa son of Marium said: O children of Israel! surely I am the apostle of Allah to you, verifying that which is before me of the Taurat and giving the good news of an Apostle who will come after me, his name being Ahmad, but when he came to them with clear arguments they said: This is clear magic.
  318. 318. Assertion that the Bible predicts Muhammed  They claim this for John 14-16 concerning the coming of the Holy Spirit (name resembles a name given to Muhammed), as well as Deut. 18:15-18
  319. 319. They believe that the Bible has been corrupted  In fact, the Qur’an does not state that the scriptures were corrupted, but that some Jews and Christians denied and perverted that truth, and that the Jews had changed some scriptures. Surah [2.75] Do you then hope that they would believe in you, and a party from among them indeed used to hear the Word of Allah, then altered it after they had understood it, and they know (this).
  320. 320. They believe that the Bible has been corrupted  They believe that the 4 gospels were not from the mouth of Jesus directly as speech from God like the Qur’an
  321. 321. The Jews alter the Bible according to the Qur’an  [4.46] We have heard and we obey, and hearken, and unzurna it would have been better for them and more upright; but Allah has cursed them on account of their unbelief, so they do not believe but a little.
  322. 322. The Jews alter the Bible according to the Qur’an  [4.46] Of those who are Jews (there are those who) alter words from their places and say: We have heard and we disobey and: Hear, may you not be made to hear! and: Raina, distorting (the word) with their tongues and taunting about religion; and if they had said (instead): a little.
  323. 323. Answers to Muslims re Bible  No true believer would dare tamper with the Bible. Gal. 1: [8] But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.[9] As we said before, so say I now again, If any man preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed.
  324. 324. Revelation 22:18-19 Don’t tamper with the Bible  [18] For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book:[19] And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.
  325. 325. Answers to Muslims re Bible  The Bible had spread to many different lands in different translations long before Muhammed was born and these are the same as the texts we have now
  326. 326. Answers to Bible tampering charge by Muslims  There are many manuscripts before the birth of Muhammed today, and they are essentially the same as ones after his birth  Translations are not different Bibles  The Qur’an basically believes in the truth of the scriptures
  327. 327. The truth of scriptures  Its own testimony that it is God’s word  The wonder of its unity in diversity  The power to reveal God and change the lives of the readers  Its scientific and literary accuracy
  328. 328. Muslim concept of God  All powerful and the only truly active force in the universe. However, the God of the Bible  Cannot do anything to violate His own nature = He cannot lie  Has given us free will, but acts upon our will to accomplish His own purposes
  329. 329. Muslim concept of God  Omnipresent – same as Christianity, but not the concept that God can live in a person. He is more distant  Omniscient – God knows everything. However the God of the Bible knows our inner thoughts, and He promises to forget the sins of those He forgives
  330. 330. God is Holy  Quite a difference – for the Muslim, holy is used only once, and means really wholeness, completeness  No concept of moral righteousness and purity. He is said to create from Adam one group for heaven, and one for hell
  331. 331. God’s Justice  Christian – we face a righteous God who will be faithful to His own Word  Muslim – no such thing as an absolute principle to which God must adhere. Right or wrong is what Allah commands at a particular time, and it can change.  There are 225 commands in the Qur’an which have been cancelled. They feel that binding God to any principle makes Him less than God
  332. 332. God Forgives Sins  But God of the Bible forgives sins and gives the GIFT of salvation – not earned  Forgiveness extends to changing the heart of the believer and restoring a proper relationship with God  Only an outside power can save us from the power of sin
  333. 333. The love of God  Muslim concept – God is too far away to have a feeling for man. They feel that love comes from a sense of need – and God needs nothing  Also – the existence of pain and suffering  Also – man is insignificant in the vast universe  Christian – God loves because it is His nature to love, and His love extends to sinners
  334. 334. Muslim belief of sin  Adam & Eve forgot God’s command. It was satan’s fault  Their sin did nothing to others, and they can reform as Adam did  The muslim looks at man as good but imperfect. The prophets are to remind us not to sin, and man can avoid sin. Muslims do not see sin as a major problem… know what to do, and do it…
  335. 335. Muslim concept of Jesus  The Qur’an accepts the virgin birth & sinlessness – a direct creation of God like Adam.  He is given special titles showing his unique relationship to Allah  He is considered a man, a prophet and an intercessor.  Allah gave him a book as a boy
  336. 336. Muslim concept of Jesus  His teaching confirmed previous revelation  He told of an apostle who comes after him  His ministry was to the people of Israel  His message was a word of truth  He healed and raised the dead
  337. 337. Muslim teaching re Muhammed  Nothing about a miraculous birth  Although they believe he did miracles, this is denied in the Qur’an  Muhammed’s teachings came from visions – later compiled in the Qur’an and also the Hadith – traditions  Muhammed’s ministry was enforced by the sword – Jihad
  338. 338. Their deaths  Muslims believe that God changed Jesus and they only thought they killed him, but God raised him to heaven, where he lives today.  The Qur’an talks about Jesus’ death, but they say this is in the future. He will return 40 years on the earth, marry and have children, die, and be raised in the general resurrection
  339. 339. The death of Muhammed  Muhammed was sick several days, and then died. He left no instructions for a replacement. Abu Bakr took over the prayers, and was chosen as the first khalifah
  340. 340. The prophets and sinlessness  The Qur’an agrees that prophets sinned.  The Qur’an also supports that Jesus was sinless.
  341. 341. Conversion  Muslim – simply a heart-felt repetition of the creed is enough  Christian – you must receive Christ in you as your new life – later shown by baptism
  342. 342. The value of the individual  Jesus is unique – He placed the highest value on all mankind  The value of something is what you are willing to pay for it. Jesus paid for our salvation with His own life.  Muslims & children  Don’t kill children  Care for orphans (Muhammed was one)  Jesus placed great value on children
  343. 343. Woman and the Qur’an  Men are superior to women. You can beat them, but rod no thicker than your thumb  Legalized polygamy – but you must treat your women the same – in material things  Some places are opposing polygamy now  They allow ―temporary wives‖ also  Wives veiled – sometimes a burka  Only men could divorce – after saying it three times…
  344. 344. Women and the Qur’an  Women get ½ inheritance of men  Woman’s testimony = ½ a man  Majority of women were illiterate  Jesus made basically no difference in treating men and women
  345. 345. Qur’an and brotherhood  Brotherhood of all believers – but don’t make friends of Jews or Christians  Still many consider non-Muslims unclean  Jesus standard was higher than that of the Pharisees – love even your enemies
  346. 346. Jesus & Qur’an & apostates  Surah 4:89 – kill apostates [4.89] They desire that you should disbelieve as they have disbelieved, so that you might be (all) alike; therefore take not from among them friends until they fly (their homes) in Allah's way; but if they turn back, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them, and take not from among them a friend or a helper.
  347. 347. Jesus & Qur’an & apostates  Jesus prayed for Peter knowing he would deny him. He showed love even to Judas, who betrayed Him.  God loves all; Jesus died for all; each individual is priceless
  348. 348. Jesus death  Surah 4:157 states that the Jews did not kill Jesus, but God protected him. However, it says ―we have slain the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the apostle of God‖  Problems – They claim Jesus did not claim to be God. Then why would the Jews kill him? Further, if they called him the messiah, they would have followed him, not killed him. So the teaching is inconsistent…
  349. 349. Jesus atonement  Denied by Islam – first, he didn’t die, and second, no need for atonement  God has decreed the fate of all men from the beginning, and they cannot change it.  God does not truly love man.  However, each man’s deeds are weighed in the balance…
  350. 350. Christian predictions about Muhammed  Surah 61:6 says that Jesus predicted Muhammed. ―Ahmed‖  Deut. 18:15-19, which refer to Jesus  Jn. 14-16, where they believe that parakletos (the comforter) was originally periklutos – which means praise, as does Ahmed  Hundreds of copies written long before Muhammed all had parakletos (comforter)
  351. 351. Answers  Muslims claim brothers = Muslims  But brother is used in Deut. 17 referring to kings, who were Jews, and Samuel anointed Saul, a Jew  Peter in Acts 3:22-23 shows that the reference is to Christ
  352. 352. Answers  The comforter was to comfort the disciples on Jesus’ death. How would someone born 500+years later comfort them?  Jesus called the comforter a ―spirit whom the world shall not see.‖  The spirit was to be in the disciples  The spirit would come ―not many days hence‖
  353. 353. The gospel of Barnabas  Two are there – one rejected in 496 of which no copies have been found  One written in Italian found in 1709  Many faults  Calls Barnabas one of the disciples  Accuses Paul of being deceived & refuted him  Quotes Jesus as saying he is not worthy to untie the sandals of the messiah – instead of John the Baptist
  354. 354. Gospel of Barnabas  Historical & geographic blunders  Year of Jubilee every 100 years  Wine stored in barrels, which had not yet been invented  Wearing stockings – done by Italians, never by Jews in Palestine  Had Jesus arrive in Nazareth by sea  Pilatus governor at Jesus birth rather than at his death…
  355. 355. Epistle of Barnabas  The Muslims were interested because it claims that Jesus did not die, and that he predicted Muhammed  But it is clearly a fraud and not related to the earlier book
  356. 356. Jesus predictions vs. Qur’an  Many of Jesus predictions have already been fulfilled  Jesus predicted many times that He would return personally on earth in glory  Muslims claim he will return to live as a man 40 years, become a muslim, make children, and die to arise on the judgment day to be judged as all men
  357. 357. Jesus and Qur’an – the future  Both predict a judgment time unknown, with good in heaven and evil in hell  Qur’an looks at paradise strictly in materialistic terms – food, drink, sex
  358. 358. Folk religion dominates also in Islam  What magic must he use  What demons must he placate?  What fetishes must he use  We have seen obvious demonic involvement  His world is dominated by the evil eye, sorcery & curses, sickness and death
  359. 359. Jihad  Used to talk about physical war against apostates  Used to talk about control of desires  The most severe persecutions against Christians now occur in communist and Muslim lands
  360. 360. Roman Catholicism  About 620,000,000 people worldwide; 50,000,000 in the USA  Dominant figure in the middle ages in politics, art, literature, education  Many of the central beliefs of the faith – virgin birth, trinity, sinlessness of Christ, atonement, deity of Christ
  361. 361. Problem is what is added  Church built on Peter, who was the first pope  Purgatory after death to clean from sin  Prayer to Mary and dead saints  Images to kneel to  Confession to a priest, who absolves  Mass as a saving sacrament
  362. 362. Added…  Veneration of Mary  Holy Water  Canonization of dead saints  Rosary  Celibacy in the priesthood  Tradition of the church = the Bible
  363. 363. The Pope  Based on Mt. 16:18 [18] And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.  The wrong Rock – not Peter but Christ  We are commissioned to preach the gospel – those who receive it are forgiven of their sins
  364. 364. The Catholic pope
  365. 365. Traditions of Mary  Mother of God & Queen of heaven  Immaculate conception – born without sin – contradicted in Luke 1: 46] And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord, [47] And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.  Assumption (raised directly to heaven)
  366. 366. The virgin Mary
  367. 367. Traditions of Mary  Perpetual virginity – no: Mt. 1:19-20, 24- 25; [24] Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife:[25] And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name JESUS.
  368. 368. Traditions of Mary  Perpetual virginity – Mt. 13:[55] Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?[56] And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things?
  369. 369. Mary going to heaven
  370. 370. Traditions of Mary  Co-redeemer & co-mediator with Christ –  I Tim. 2:5 [5] For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;  Jn. 14:6 [6] Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.
  371. 371. Doctrine of Purgatory  Sale of indulgences to shorten the time in Purgatory  Saying masses & prayers for the dead  Further the Catholic church believes that you must be subject to the Pope and come through the church for salvation.
  372. 372. False ―Christian‖ and Non- Christian cults  Christian cults:  Jehovah’s Witnesses – Jesus is Michael, the archangel  Mormons – Jesus is the son of Elohim, a man who had sex with Mary, and the brother of Lucifer  Christian science – Jesus is a divine idea  Etc…
  373. 373. Oriental Cults  Some type of Hinduism or Buddhism  Hare Krisna  Divine Light  Transcendental meditation  Hindu pantheism, we are part of an impersonal universe, the world is an illusion, we must get rid of the illusion and be part of the impersonal universe
  374. 374. New Age combines  Western secular Humanism  No personal God or creator  Evolution  Man is supreme  Man is basically good  Humans have potential to become god
  375. 375. New Age…  Eastern Hindu Mysticism  Pantheism  We are one with nature  We are part of the impersonal cosmos  Yoga, TM  Reincarnation
  376. 376. New Age…  Occult  Spiritism  Channeling  Spirit guides  Astrology  Crystals  Tapping into cosmic forces
  377. 377. Spiritist cults  Astrology  Tarot cards  Palmistry  Numerology  Witchcraft  Satanism  Seances
  378. 378. Jehovah’s Witnesses  Largest publisher in the free world –  44 million books & 550 million magazines in a single year!  Plan to have every home visited 1-2 times per year in the USA  Started by Charles Taze Russell, taken over in 1917 by Joseph Rutherford
  379. 379. Watchtower – 1907 – publication over 100 years
  380. 380. Public and study editions
  381. 381. Watchtower is available in  407 different languages!  PDF and audio files  ACC files – more up to date than mp3
  382. 382. Watchtower Internet Ad
  383. 383. Charles Taze Russell – founder of Jehovah’s Witnesses
  384. 384. Judge Rutherford – second man for Jehovah’s Witnesses
  385. 385. Jehovah’s Witnesses  God’s theocratic government – all other governments are satanic  No Christmas because they deny the incarnation, and no Easter because they deny the bodily resurrection  Under Knorr, they developed a strong missionary outreach  They continue to grow under Franz & Henschel
  386. 386. Jehovah’s Witnesses  The organization is the prophet of God  The organization is God’s sole channel of the truth  To reject the organization is to reject God  Only the organization can properly interpret the Bible  The Watchtower has God’s truth directed through the organization
  387. 387. Kingdom Hall – worship center
  388. 388. Kingdom Halls are overall in the world
  389. 389. Worship in Spanish
  390. 390. Jehovah’s Witness teaching denies:  The trinity  The bodily resurrection of Christ  The deity of Christ  The visible return of Christ  The person of God the Holy Spirit  The promise of heaven to all believers  The necessity of the new birth for all believers
  391. 391. Jehovah’s Witnesses deny:  The Lord’s supper for all believers (not 144,000)  Eternal security of believers  Eternal conscious punishment of the lost
  392. 392. False teachings of the JW  Jesus is a created being, actually Michael the Archangel  Jesus is just a spirit being  Jesus was not resurrected bodily, but as a spirit being  Jesus returned invisibly in 1914  Jesus was only a man on earth
  393. 393. False teachings of JW  Hell is simply the grave  The Holy Spirit is simply an active force  Heaven is only for 144,000  The majority of JW’s will remain on earth  Salvation is found only through the organization  Salvation is maintained through working hard for the organization  Satan is the author of the trinity  Do not worship Jesus, just honor him
  394. 394. Ways to witness to Jehovah’s Witnesses  One method is to attack the power of the Watchtower by demonstrating that it is a false prophet. There are some books which duplicate the prophecies of the witnesses, which are patently false
  395. 395. Ways to Witness  Another method is to ask if Jesus is really an angel  The 5 references in the Bible do NOT show that Jesus is Michael the arkangel  Then go to Hebrews 1, which contrasts the Son with angels in a very clear way.  Then – who is Jesus? Is the Watchtower truly God’s organization?
  396. 396. Witness to Jehovah’s Witness  Couple the various verses concerning Jesus and Jehovah  Isaiah 44:6 [6] Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.
  397. 397. Witness to Jehovah’s Witness  Revelation 2:8 [8] And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;
  398. 398. Witness to Jehovah’s Witness  Revelation Revelation 1:[17] And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:[18] I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
  399. 399. Mormonism
  400. 400. Mormon church  One of the wealthiest churches around – profits $3,000,000 per day! Value is in the billions  They claim to be the fastest growing church, although not true in the USA – most growth is overseas
  401. 401. Mormon temple Salt Lake City
  402. 402. Mormonism  The law of eternal progression:  ―As man is, God once was; and as God is, man may become‖  They believe that there are a vast number of planets scattered through the universe ruled by men-gods who were once like us. And so we work to become a god and have our own planet
  403. 403. Mormon teaching…  One god & goddess made a spirit child called Elohim, who was later born to human parents and given a human body. In obedience to Mormon teaching, he proved himself worthy and was elevated to godhead like his father. He lived with his wives on a planet near the star Kolob, making billions of spirit children.
  404. 404. Then  The head of the mormon Gods decided to build planet earth where the spirit children would be sent to take mortal bodies and learn good and evil. Lucifer, one of Elohim’s sons, wanted to be the savior of the new world, but planned to force everyone to become gods. The Mormon Jesus wanted to give man the choice like on other planets. They voted and chose Jesus. However, Lucifer rebelled with 1/3 of the spirit children, who became demons, and were denied the possibility of having bodies of flesh & bone.