STARS
AND
THE SOLAR
SYSTEM
In sky we can countless stars, some are

bright some are not so bright.
Some of them twinkle, some are not
twinkle
The ...
Average Distance From Earth

238,857 miles (384,403 km)

Diameter

2,160 miles (3,476 km)
(about ¼ of Earth’s diameter)

M...
The moon is Earth‘s only natural satellite.
The moon is a cold, dry orb whose
surface is studded with craters and strewn
w...
The day on which the whole disk of the

moon is visible is known as the full moon
day
On the fifteenth day after full mo...
Moon does not produce its own light. We

see the moon when sun light falling on it get
reflected towards us. So we see a ...
The revolution of the Moon around the Earth

makes the Moon appear as if it is changing
shape in the sky. From Earth we s...
The Moon has almost no atmosphere, because of its

weak gravity. All types of gas will escape from its
surface.Without an...
On July 21, 1969 (Indian time) the American astronaut

Neil Amstrong landed on the moon for the first time.
Followed by E...
Definition : A celestial body of hot gases that radiates

energy derived from thermonuclear reactions in the
interior
Th...
A star’s size is estimated by mass, brightness

and color
 Most other useful information (including
composition) is acqu...
The Sun is just one of 100 billion stars in our
galaxy, the Milky Way.
The Sun is 93 million miles (150 million
kilomete...
Deep in the core*, the temperature is an amazing
27 million degrees Fahrenheit (15 million degrees
Celsius)!
 The surfac...
Light from sun take about 8 minute
to reach earth
So the distance is 8 light minutes
The distance to alpha centaury is
abo...
pole star is a visible star, preferably a
prominent one, that is approximately aligned
with the Earth's axis of rotation; ...
Constellations are groups of stars
that forms a recognizable shape
constellations were named by ancient peoples.
different...
Some of the well known constellations are
Ursa Major (Big Dipper, Great Bear, Saptharshi)
Orion (Hunter)
Cassiopeia
Leo Ma...
We can see during summer time in the
early part of the night
Contains seven prominent stars
Appears like a big ladle or...
We can see during winter in the late evening
One of the most magnificent constellation in
the sky
Contains seven or eight ...
Brightest star in the sky
Located close to Orion
If we imagine a straight line from
middle stars of Orion towards east
we ...
In Northern sky
Visible in winter in the early part of the night
Looks like a distorted letter W or M
A constellation does not have only 5-10
stars. It has a large number of stars .
However we can see only the bright stars
w...
4. 17. chapter
4. 17. chapter
4. 17. chapter
4. 17. chapter
4. 17. chapter
4. 17. chapter
4. 17. chapter
4. 17. chapter
4. 17. chapter
4. 17. chapter
4. 17. chapter
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4. 17. chapter

  1. 1. STARS AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM
  2. 2. In sky we can countless stars, some are bright some are not so bright. Some of them twinkle, some are not twinkle The object that do not twinkle are planets Moon is the brightest object in the night sky Moon, stars, planets and many other objects in the sky are called celestial objects
  3. 3. Average Distance From Earth 238,857 miles (384,403 km) Diameter 2,160 miles (3,476 km) (about ¼ of Earth’s diameter) Mass 1/81 of Earth’s mass Day About 29 ½ Earth days Temperature Day and Night Day: 261º F (127º C) Night: -279º F (-173º C) Gravity Multiply your weight by .17
  4. 4. The moon is Earth‘s only natural satellite. The moon is a cold, dry orb whose surface is studded with craters and strewn with rocks and dust. The moon has no atmosphere. Recent lunar missions indicate that there might be some frozen ice at the poles. The moon rises in the east and sets in the west
  5. 5. The day on which the whole disk of the moon is visible is known as the full moon day On the fifteenth day after full moon day moon is not visible. This is new moon day Next day only a small portion of the moon is appears on the sky, known as crescent The various shapes of the bright part of the moon as seen during a month are called phases of the moon
  6. 6. Moon does not produce its own light. We see the moon when sun light falling on it get reflected towards us. So we see a part of the moon that sun light reflected towards us. The size of the illuminated part of the moon visible from the earth increases day by day after new moon and vice versa after full moon day. The moon completes one rotation on its axis as it completes one revolution around the earth.
  7. 7. The revolution of the Moon around the Earth makes the Moon appear as if it is changing shape in the sky. From Earth we see the Moon grow from a thin crescent to a full disk (or full moon) and then shrink back to a thin crescent again before vanishing for a few days. What causes part of the Moon to be lit up? The moon is illuminated because it reflects the light from the sun. The part of the moon facing the sun is lit up. The part facing away from the sun is in darkness.
  8. 8. The Moon has almost no atmosphere, because of its weak gravity. All types of gas will escape from its surface.Without an atmosphere, there is no wind or water erosion. The surface temperature fluctuates from roughly +300° F during the daytime to -270 F during the night. This is because there is not enough atmosphere to keep the Moon warm at night, nor protect it from the Sun's rays in the daytime. Surface are dusty and barren There are many craters of different size Large number of steep and high mountains No water in moon
  9. 9. On July 21, 1969 (Indian time) the American astronaut Neil Amstrong landed on the moon for the first time. Followed by Edwin Aldrin On Space craft APOLLO 11
  10. 10. Definition : A celestial body of hot gases that radiates energy derived from thermonuclear reactions in the interior The nearest star is 4.2 LY away (40 trillion km!)  The distance to stars may be computed using parallax or apparent brightness Stars appear as point sources in even the most powerful telescopes A star’s mass may be deduced from interactions with nearby objects Most stars are about 71% hydrogen and 27% helium  Most stars have enough fuel to burn for billions of years
  11. 11. A star’s size is estimated by mass, brightness and color  Most other useful information (including composition) is acquired through spectroscopy Stars appear to move from east to west That is rises in the east and sets in the west It is due to the rotation of earth Stars are gigantic gravity-induced fusion reactors The core temperatures of all stars are millions of K
  12. 12. The Sun is just one of 100 billion stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way. The Sun is 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) from Earth Only about a billionth of the total energy emitted by the Sun reaches Earth. The size is about 800,000 miles (more than 1 million kilometers)across – more than 100 Earths could fit across the Sun's face. (Some stars are hundreds of times wider than the Sun!)
  13. 13. Deep in the core*, the temperature is an amazing 27 million degrees Fahrenheit (15 million degrees Celsius)!  The surface of the Sun is almost 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit (6000 degrees Celsius). The Sun's outer atmosphere (the corona*) is even hotter – about 2 million degrees Fahrenheit The distance between sun and earth is expressed (1million degrees Celsius). in ‘light years’. One light year is the distance travelled by light in one year. The speed of light is about 300,000 km /s.
  14. 14. Light from sun take about 8 minute to reach earth So the distance is 8 light minutes The distance to alpha centaury is about 4.3 light years
  15. 15. pole star is a visible star, preferably a prominent one, that is approximately aligned with the Earth's axis of rotation; that is, a star whose apparent position is close to one of the celestial poles, and which lies approximately directly overhead when viewed from the Earth's North Pole or South Pole (we feel it is still)
  16. 16. Constellations are groups of stars that forms a recognizable shape constellations were named by ancient peoples. different cultures have identified and named star patterns. The Northern Hemisphere's constellations are named from Greek and Roman mythology. The Southern Hemisphere's constellations are named from instruments, objects, and animals that explorers encountered. The constellations were named between 14001700 A.D.
  17. 17. Some of the well known constellations are Ursa Major (Big Dipper, Great Bear, Saptharshi) Orion (Hunter) Cassiopeia Leo Major
  18. 18. We can see during summer time in the early part of the night Contains seven prominent stars Appears like a big ladle or a question mark, three stars in the handle and four in its bowl Moves from east to west around the pole star Not visible from some points in the southern hemisphere
  19. 19. We can see during winter in the late evening One of the most magnificent constellation in the sky Contains seven or eight bright stars It also called Hunter Three middle stars represent the belt of the hunter Four bright stars appear to be arranged in the form of a quadrilateral
  20. 20. Brightest star in the sky Located close to Orion If we imagine a straight line from middle stars of Orion towards east we can locate the Sirius
  21. 21. In Northern sky Visible in winter in the early part of the night Looks like a distorted letter W or M
  22. 22. A constellation does not have only 5-10 stars. It has a large number of stars . However we can see only the bright stars with our naked eye. All stars in a constellation is not same distance, only same line of sight in the sky

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