First Quarter Review


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First Quarter Review

  1. 1. First Quarter Review<br />
  2. 2. What are the characteristics of a mineral?<br />Solid<br />Inorganic – not living<br />Crystalline structure/pattern<br />Definite chemical makeup – same elements/compounds<br />Naturally occurring – not man-made <br />
  3. 3. How are minerals used?<br />Ore - valuable<br />Gemstones/jewelry<br />Nutrition<br />Diamond drill bits<br />Cleaning products<br />Reclamation: fix the land after mining – return to original or better condition<br />
  4. 4. How are rocks classified?<br />Texture – mineral grains: coarse, medium, fine<br />Mineral composition – mixture of more than 1 mineral, sediment<br />Formation – how they are formed, not where they are found<br />
  5. 5. The Rock Cycle<br />Continual – no beginning, no end<br />Rocks can travel any path<br />Actions between changes… Look for key words<br />
  6. 6. Sedimentary Rocks<br />Sediment – bits of rock<br />WEDCC: weathering (breaking down to create sediment), erosion (moving of sediment), deposition (dropping of sediment), compaction (squeezing of sediment), and cementation (sediment glued together after the evaporation of mineral solution)<br />Can be formed from any type of rock<br />
  7. 7. Sedimentary Rock Types<br />Organic – once living material: limestone, coral<br />Chemical – minerals crystallize out of water - evaporation<br />Clastic – cemented together: conglomerate, sandstone, silt, shale<br />
  8. 8. Igneous Rocks<br />Melting, cooling, and hardening<br />Intrusive: magma – below surface, cools slowly, large crystals; coarse-grained texture – granite<br />Extrusive: lava, above surface, cools quickly, small crystals, fine-grained or glassy texture – basalt, obsidian<br />Stone Mountain - batholith<br />
  9. 9. Metamorphic Rocks<br />Heat – from mantle<br />Pressure – from layers of rock above<br />Foliated (banded, layered) and nonfoliated (nonbanded, not layered)<br />Composition can actually be changed<br />Can be formed from any rock type<br />Gneiss, marble, slate, phylite, schist<br />
  10. 10. Fossils<br />Remains or traces of once living things<br />Mold (imprint), cast (rock fills in), petrified (mineral replacement - forests), amber, tar/asphalt (LeBrea Tar Pits)<br />Trace fossils – evidence of activity (tail, footprint)<br />Index fossils – short lifespan, widespread geographically, numerous: trilobite and ammonite<br />
  11. 11. Relative Age/Dating<br />Approximate<br />Index fossils date rock layers<br />Superposition (older on bottom in geologic column)<br />Original horizontality – undisturbed <br />Uniformitarianism – gradual, consistent – past helps us understand present<br />
  12. 12. Absolute Age/Dating<br />Exact age in years<br />Radioactive decay: rate of decay in radioactive element – unstable to stable (half life)<br />Carbon-14: on once living organisms (carbon, organic) – up to 50,000 years<br />
  13. 13. Geologic Time<br />Breaks geologic time into manageable parts: eon, era, period, epoch<br />Based on changes in fossil evidence (life changes)<br />Paleozoic (largest mass extinction), Mesozoic (reptiles – dinosaurs), Cenozoic (mammals, now)<br />Gaps in time – only a few organisms fossilized<br />
  14. 14. Fossil Fuels<br />From once living organisms; millions of years to form<br />We rely on them<br />Photochemical smog (worse in spring, summer), acidic precipitation (rain), worsens global warming/ozone damage<br />Nonrenewable - depleting rapidly<br />Coal, petroleum (oil), natural gas<br />
  15. 15. Alternative Energy<br />Expensive to implement<br />Less pollution<br />Wind (renewable), biomass (organic, renewable), solar (Sun’s radiation, photocell, renewable), hydroelectric (Lake Lanier, dam, renewable), geothermal (renewable), nuclear (fission, nonrenewable, radioactivity?)<br />
  16. 16. Conservation<br />Use less<br />Use what we do have more efficiently<br />Recycle<br />Water at night, don’t let the water run, carpool, turn the lights off, use energy-saver settings on appliances<br />
  17. 17. Causes of Soil Erosion/Pollution <br />Mining<br />Farming<br />Deforestation<br />Desertification<br />Building/development (business and residential)<br />Business/factory waste<br />Human littering<br />Vehicles<br />
  18. 18. Soil Conservation<br />Prevent erosion of soil<br />Dust Bowl – loss of topsoil due to erosion (wind)<br />Cover crops (protect topsoil), contour plowing, crop rotation (prevent nutrient depletion), terracing (flat sections on hills), windbreaks (slow down wind)<br />