History of Education InINDIAEarlier in India The formaladmission ceremony wasknown as Upanayana„.With theaccomplishment of thisceremony the child had toleave his home for the„Ashrama where he wouldreceive education.
Sanskrit was the language of teaching.The academies of higher learning wereknown as Parisads. The educationsystem involved of three basicprocesses, which included – Sravana Manana Nidhyasana
Sravana In the Sravana stage ofeducation, studentsreceived shrutisknowledge, which waspassed orally from onegeneration to another..
MananaThe second stage wasManana which meansthat pupils had to thinkthemselves about whatthey have heard. Theyhave to make their owninferences andassimilate the lessontaught by their teacherinto the life.
Nidhyasana The third stageNidhyasana meanscompletecomprehension of truthand its use in the life.
Today education system inIndia can be divided intomany stages Pre- Primary. Primary. Middle. Secondary. Higher Secondary. Undergraduate. Postgraduate.
Education GoverningBodies. The Central Board of SecondaryEducation (CBSE). The Council of Indian SchoolCertificate Examination (CISCE). The State Government Boards. The National Open School. The International School.
The Central Board ofSecondary Education (CBSE)This is the main governingbody of education system inIndia. It has control over thecentral education system. Itconducts exam and looksafter the functioning ofschools accredited tocentral education system.
The Council of Indian SchoolCertificate Examination(CISCE)It is a board for Anglo Indian Studiesin India. It conducts twoexaminations Indian Certificate ofSecondary Education and IndianSchool Certificate. IndianCertificate of secondary educationis a k-10 examination for thoseIndian students who have justcompleted class 10th and Indianschool certificate is a k-12 publicexamination conducted for thosestudying in class 12th.
The State GovernmentBoardsApart from CBSEand CISCE eachstate in India hasits own StateBoard ofeducation, whichlooks after theeducationalissues.
The National Open SchoolIt is also known asNational Institute ofOpen Schooling. It wasestablished by theGovernment Of India in1989. It is a ray ofhope for thosestudents who cannotattend formal schools.
The International School It controls theschools, which areaccredited to curriculumof international standard.
Other Educationalprograms In India Elementary Education. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA). District Primary Education Program. Operation Blackboard. National Bal Bhavan.
Elementary Education According to theConstitution ofIndia, elementaryeducation is afundamental right ofchildren in the age groupof 6-14 years. India hasabout 688,000 primaryschools and 110,000secondary schools.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan(SSA) The main goal of this program is that all children of6-11 years of age should complete primaryeducation by the year 2007 and all children of 6-14years of age should complete eight years ofschooling by 2010. This plan covers the wholecountry with special emphasis on girl education
The SSA centers are mainly opened inthose areas, which do not have any schoolor where schools are very far off. Specialgirl oriented programs include: Girl education at elementary level. National Program for Education of Girls atElementary Level (NPEGEL). Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV). Mahila Samakhya Scheme.
District PrimaryEducation Program It aims that the primary education shouldbe accessible to each and every child ofschool going age, once a child is enrolledin school he/ she should be retained there.The final step is achievement of the goal ofeducation.
The main components of DistrictPrimary Education Program are: Construction of classrooms and newschools Opening of non-formal schooling centers Setting up early childhood educationcenters. Appointment of teachers. Providing education to disabled children.
Operation Blackboard It was started in 1987-88. Theaim of this program is toimprove human and physicalresource availability in primaryschools of India. According tothis program every primaryschool should have at leasttwo rooms, two teachers andessential teaching aids likeblackboard, chalk, duster etc.
National Bal Bhavan The National Bal Bhavanwas opened with the aim ofdeveloping overallpersonalities of children ofall strata of societyirrespective of theircaste, creed, religion andgender. It supplementsschool education by helpingchildren to learn in play wayand natural environment.
Present scenario We can see the influence of westerneducation every where. The target ofeducational system is to give. Higher education is becoming morecostly. Especiallyengineering, Information Technologyetc., are every difficult for a middle classperson to join.
The present system is not meeting theneeds of the youth due to certainpolitical and financial constraints. It ismostly westernized. At present, education is abusiness, where every business man issure can make money. This makeseducation available to only rich and notto the middle class and the lower classpeople.
Indian Higher EducationScenario 40 percent of the Indian population isunder 18. According to the National KnowledgeCommission (which advises the PrimeMinister‟s office on higher education) –Out of the Indians between age group18 to 24 years, only 7 percent enter auniversity.
The Commission recommends creationof 1,500 colleges and universities overthe next several years to roughly doublethat percentage. The Commission estimates that 160,000Indians are studying abroad, spendingan estimated $4 billion a year.
Demand Supply gap: 2008 is poised to be another year of higheconomic growth for India. Scarcity of higher education opportunities isa potential hurdle to economic progress. There is scarcity of skilled manpower inevery industry, from good carpenters andplumbers to factory workers, doctors andscientists. The banking industry, which employs900,000 people, is expected to add 600,000more over the next three to four years.
The IT and IT’S industry will need around 850,000additional skilled manpower by 2010. The retail industry will need nearly 2.5 millionskilled professionals by 2012. India surely needs more universities. Japan has 4,000 universities for its 127 millionpeople. The US has 3,650 universities for its 301 million. India has only 348 universities for its 1.2 billionpeople.
Key Challenges for theIndian Education System To increase private education. To reduce the child labor. To provide infrastructure facility. To provide well qualified teachers.
SWOT ANALYSIS ofIndian education STRENGTH- World class business-social-spiritual –politicalleader, Professor, scientist, Manager-Doctor-Engineer-Civilservants etc Traditional knowledge. Powerful spiritual strength(yoga-Ayurvada-Healing-therapy services). IT & Software superpower
Weakness Education is struggling withquality and quantity issue. Immense amount ofcompetition in the areas ofscience and commerce. Confused state of mind. Unawareness of peopletowards education. Lack of implementation ofgovernment policies.
Opportunities Foreign interest growingrapidly in India. Requirement of number ofuniversities. Big potential market ineducation Sector. Internet institute network &e-Library. Councilors and studentadvisors.
Threats Regulation, protection andrestriction. Corruption, Ignorance &Complacency. Job seeking mind sets, notjob creator. Unnecessary socialpressure on students.
Here is a graph which gives us data aboutIndian students from India in USA and alsoIndian Students as a % of total foreignstudents in USA
The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), established by the Government ofIndia, are the ace business schools in the country . The IIMs located at Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Bangalore, Lucknow, Indore andKozhikode (Calicut) are institutions of excellence. The IIM, Calicut commenced its academic session from 1997-98, theIIM, Indore began its academic programme from 1998-99, a new one is comingup at Shillong soon. The IIMs conduct Post-Graduate Diploma Programmes in Management(equivalent to MBA), Fellowship Programmes in Management Developmentand Organisation-based Programmes as well as carry out research andconsultancy for the industry.
The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) need nointroduction either in India or abroad. The Institutes were set up by the Government of India as`Institutions of National Importance and almost all reputedinternational academic benchmarks have given them highrating. They teach technology at UG, PG and doctoral level and carryout basic and applied research in pure and applied sciences. There are 7 IITs located atBombay, Delhi, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras, Guwahati --- andRoorkee.
17 Regional Engineering Colleges (RECs)were establishedfrom 1959 onwards in each of the major states with Center-State co-operation with major Central govt. funding. While all the 17 colleges offer degree courses in variousbranches of engineering and technology, 14 have facilities forpostgraduate and doctoral programs. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) hasconverted the RECs (13 out of 17) into NITs by changing theiradministrative structure and granting them Deem Universitystatus.
The Sikkim Manipal University wasestablished in 1995. It is the first government-private initiative inthe region. Sikkim Manipal University offers qualityeducation to the students from North andNorth Eastern parts of India. As ranked byCompetition Success Review- October 2009. Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology(SMIT) ranked amongst top 8th BestUniversity Engineering Colleges of India.
The Amity University has been establishedby an act of State Legislature andrecognized by University GrantsCommission (UGC) through the Act of StateLegislature. It has campuses in Noida, Gurgaon, Jaipurand Lucknow (off-campus). Amity university is the leading educationgroup of India with over 50000 studentsstudying across 700 acres of hi-techcampus.
India Today Ranking :2007 - BEST OF THE BEST ARTSLOYOLA COLLEGE Chennai2006 (St. Xavier’s, Mumbai),2005 (LSR, Delhi),2004 (Loyola, Chennai) COMMERCESHRI RAM COLLEGE OF COMMERCEDelhi2006 (SRCC, Delhi),2005 (SRCC, Delhi),2004 (SRCC, Delhi)
SCIENCELOYOLA COLLEGE Chennai2006 (Loyola, Chennai),2005 (Loyola, Chennai),2004 (Presidency, Chennai) LAWNATIONAL LAW SCHOOL OF INDIAUNIVERSITY Bangalore2006 (NLSIU, Bangalore),2005 (I.L.S. Law College, Pune),2004 (NLSIU, Bangalore)
ENGINEERINGINDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYKanpur2006 (IIT-Delhi),2005 (IIT-Delhi),2004 (IIT-Kanpur) MEDICINEALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICALSCIENCES Delhi2006 (AIIMS, Delhi),2005 (AIIMS, Delhi),2004 (AIIMS, Delhi)
Few trends American Interest in Indian Education isgrowing rapidly. American universities, while expandingtheir global reach, want to explore thepotential in the fast growing Indianeducation market. There is also an urgent need in India tomeet the rising demand for highereducation.
Most American institutions are opting tojoin hands with existing Indianinstitutions. There is also trend to teach AmericanMBA students courses on doingbusiness in India.
There were 131 foreigneducational institutionsoperating in India in 2005, mostof them offering vocationalcourses.
Examples California State University Carnegie Mellon University Cornell University Kellogg School of Management Rice University Saint Joseph‟s University Temple University The Wharton School