GamingThe gaming era has been around for centuries dating way back to the1940’s till now. The history of video games goes as far back as then,when in 1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. and Estle Ray Man invented whatthey described as the “cathode ray tube amusement device”, but videogaming would not reach mainstream popularity until the 1970s and1980s, when arcade video games, gaming consoles and home computergames were introduced to the general public. Since then gaming hasbecome a popular form of entertainment and a part of culture in mostparts of the world. There are currently considered to be eightgenerations of video game console, with the sixth, seventh and eighthconcurrently.
The gaming platforms have increased incredibly through time from having games likepinball and pacman in arcades and them being developed into games that can beplayed on modern day consoles like the “Xbox 360” “PlayStation 1-4”, and the“Nintendo WII”. Modern day gaming has hugely adapted from then, so virtually everygame now is developed into a disk to be played on either one of these consoles plushand held consoles like the Psp , Gameboy and Nintendo DS.Gaming
1960 Gaming. The gaming era has been around for centuries, starting with:.1961-62- Space war, it was developed at MIT using vector graphics on a PDP1..Sega release the first arcade game called ‘Periscope’
1970’s GamingMagnavox Odyssey is a game console that came out on 1st ofAugust 1972, consisting of 28 games and it’s the ‘firstgeneration’ home video game console. In the first year it soldover 100,000 copies.
1980’s GamingMega Drive is a game console that came out on 29 October 1988, It is itscompany, Sega’s most successful console with a estimated range from 29million to over 40.8 million earned.
1990’s Gaming.Super Nintendo Entertainment System came out on 21 Nov 1990, it is theBest-selling gaming console of the 16-bit era, being a global success. It wasNintendo’s second home console (the first being Nintendo EntertainmentSystem)..PlayStation is a game condole that came out on 3 Dec 1994, Other thanplaying games, the PlayStation also contains the ability to read and play audioCDs, which can shuffle playing order, playing songs in a programmed order, orrepeating a single song or the whole disk in order..Nintendo 64 is a game console that came out on 23 Jun 1996, Although it isthe most technically advanced console of the fifth generation, the storagemedia is limited as it is cartridge-based rather than of Compact Disc format.This was a disadvantage compared to Nintendo 64’s competitors..Dreamcast is a game console that came out on 27 Nov 1998, it’s the firstconsole with a built-in modern and Internet support for online playing.
2001- present Gaming.Nintendo GameCube is a game console that came out on 14 Sep 2001, unlikeits’ opponents (PlayStation 2 and Xbox), the Nintendo GameCube usesMiniDVD-based discs rather than full size DVDs. It does not have the DVD-Videoplayback and audioCD playback function as a result..Xbox is a game console brought out on 15 Nov 2001, it’s the first game consolewith a built-in hard disk drive, which is used for game savings and content thatis downloaded from Xbox live..Xbox 360 is a game console that came out on 12 May 2005, this console (fromthe Xbox live service) allows players to compete and play online, downloadarcade games, game demos, trailers, TV shows, etc. as well as the WindowsMedia Center multimedia..Wii is a game console that came out on 19 Nov 2006, the remote for thisconsole is a wireless controller, which can be a handheld pointing device andalso detecting movements in three dimensions.
First Generation Consoles(1972-1977)The first home console system was developed by Ralph Baer and hisassociates. Development began in 1966 and a working prototype wascompleted by 1968 (called the “Brown Box”) for demonstration to variouspotential licensees, including GE, Sylvania, RCA, Philco, and Sears, withMagnavox eventually licensing the technology to produce the world firsthome video game console. The system was released in the USA in 1972 byMagnavox, called the “Magnavox odyssey”. The odyssey used cartridgesthat mainly consisted of jumpers that enabled/disabled various switchesinside the unit, altering he circuit logic (as opposed to later video gamesystems that used programmable cartridges). This provided the ability toplay several different games using the same system, along with plasticsheet overlays taped to the television that added color, play-fields, andvarious graphics to “interact” with using the electronic images generatedby the system. A major marketing push, featuring TV advertisementsstarring Frank Sinatra. Helped Magnavox sell about 100,000 Odysseys thatfirst year. Philips bought Magnavox and released a different game in Europeusing the Odyssey brand in 1974 and an evolved game that Magnavox hadbeen developing for the US market. Over its production span, the Odysseysystem achieved sales of 2 million units.
Second Generation Consoles(1977-1983)In the earliest consoles, the computing logic for one or more games washardwired into microchips using discrete logic, and no additional games couldever be added. In other words, these consoles were single-purpose computers,not programmable computers; there was no software, only hardware, so nochange of software was possible. This was and obvious issue for developers;customers would have to buy a whole new device to attach to their TV sets inorder to play a different game. By the mid-1970’s , game consoles containedgeneral-purpose microprocessors and video games were found on cartridges,starting in 1976 with the release of the Fairchild Video Entertainment. Programswere then burned onto ROM chips (ICs) that were mounted inside plasticcartridge casings that could then be plugged into slots on the console. When thecartridges were plugged in, the ROM electrically became a part of themicrocomputer in the console, just as if the ROM ICs were on the same circuitboard with the microprocessor inside the console, and the microprocessor wouldexecute whatever program was stored in the ROM. Rather than being confined toa small selection of games included tin the game system, consumers could nowamass libraries of game cartridges.
Three machines dominated the second generation of consoles in North America, faroutselling their rivals:The Video computer system (VCS) ROM cartridge-based console, later renamed the Atari 2600, wasreleased in 1977 by Atari. Nine games were designed and released for the holiday season. While theconsole had a slow start, its port of the arcade game Space Invaders would become the first killer appand quadruple the consoles sales. Soon after, the Atari 2600 would quickly become the most popularof all the early consoles prior to the North American video game crash of 1983. Notably the VCS didthis with only an 8-bit 6507 CPU, (30) 128 bytes (i.e. 0.125 KB) of RAM, and at most 4KB of ROM eachgame program cartridge.The intellivison, introduced by Mattel in 1980. Though chronologically part of what is called the 8-bit-era, the intellivison had a unique processor with instructions that were 10 bits wide (allowing moreinstruction variety and potential speed), the registers 16 bit wide. The system which featured graphicssuperior to he older Atari 2600, rocketed to popularity.The ColecoVision, an even more powerful machine, appeared in 1982. With its port of arcade gameDonkey Kong included as a pack-in, sales for this console also took off. However , the presence of threemajor consoles in marketplace and a glut of poor quality games began to overcrowd retail shelves anderode consumers interest in video games, within a year this overcrowded market would crash.Activision was created by disgruntled former Atari programmers. It was first third- party developer ofvideo games. By 1982, approximately 8 million American homes owned a video game console, and thehome video game industry was generating and annual revenue of $3.8 billion, which was nearly halfthe $8 billion revenue in quarters generated from the arcade video game industry at the time.
Third Generation Consoles (1983-1995)In 1985, the American Video Game Console market was revived with Nintendo’srelease of its 8-Bit console, the Famicom, known outside Asia as NintendoEntertainment 8-bit console, the Famicom, known outside Asia as NintendoEntertainment System (NES). It was bundled with Super Mario Bros. and instantlybecame a success. The NES dominated the North American and the Japanesemarket until the rise of the next generation of consoles in the early 1990’s. Othermarkets were not as heavily dominated, because of heavy competition from PCSlike the ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC and Commodore 64. This led to allowing otherconsoles the chance to find an audience In the new consoles. The game pad or joypad , took over joysticks, paddles, and the keypads as the default game controllerincluded with the system. The gamepad design of an 8 direction Directional-pad(D-pad) with 2 or more action buttons became the standard. This generation alsomarked a shift in the dominance of home video games from the United States toJapan to Europe.But this generation of games ended with the discontinuation of the NES in 1995.
Fourth Generation Consoles(1988-1999)The Mega Drive/Genesis proved its worth early on after its debut in 1988.But Nintendo responded with its own next generation system known as thesuper NES (SNES/ in 1990. The TurboGrafx-16 (1987) debuted early onalongside the Genesis, but unlike in Japan it did not achieve a large following.The intense competition of this time was also a period of not entirely truthfulmarketing. The TurboGrafx-16 was billed as the first 16-bit system but itscentral processor was an 8-bit In Japan, the 1987 success of the PC Engine (asthe TurboGrafx-16 was known there) against the Famicom and CD driveperipheral allowed It to fend off the Mega Drive (Genesis) in 1988. CD-ROMdrives were first seen in this generation, as add-ons for the PC Engine in 1988and the Mega Drive in 1991. Basic 3D graphics entered the mainstream withflat-shaded polygons 3D graphics.SNKs Neo-Geo was the most expensive console by a wide margin when itwas released in 1990, and would remain so for years. It was also capable of2D graphics in a quality level years ahead of other consoles. The reason forthis was that it contained the same hardware that was found in SNKs arcadegames. This was the first time since the home Pong machines that a true-to-the-arcade experience could be had at home. This generation ended with theSNESs discontinuation in 1999
Fifth Generation Consoles(1993-2006)In 1993, Atari re-entered the home console market with the introduction ofthe Atari Jaguar. Also in 1993, The 3DO Company released the 3DOInteractive Multiplayer, which, though highly advertised and promoted,failed to catch up to the sales of the Jaguar, due to its high price tag. Bothconsoles had very low sales and few quality games, eventually leading totheir demise. In 1994, three new consoles were released in Japan: the SegaSaturn, the PlayStation, and the PC-FX, the saturn and the PlayStation laterseeing release in North America in 1995. The PlayStation quickly outsold allof its competitors, with the exception of the aging Super NintendoEntertainment System, which still had the support of many major gamecompanies.By the end of this period, Sony had become the leader in the video gamemarket. The Saturn was moderately successful in Japan but a commercialfailure in North America and Europe, leaving Sega outside of the maincompetition. The fifth generation is most noted for the rise of fully adapted3D games.
Sixth Generation Consoles(1998-2004)In the sixth generation of video game consoles, Sega exited the hardwaremarket, Nintendo fell behind, Sony solidified its lead in the industry, andMicrosoft developed a gaming console. The generation opened with thelaunch of the Dreamcast in 1998. While it was initially successful, sales andpopularity would soon begin to decline with contributing factors being Segasdamaged reputation from previous commercial failures, software pirating,and the overwhelming anticipation for the upcoming PlayStation 2.Production for the console would discontinue in most markets by 2002 andwould be Segas final console before becoming a third party game provideronly. The second release of the generation was Sonys PlayStation 2.Nintendo followed a year later with the Nintendo GameCube suffered from alack of third-party games compared to Sony’s system, and was hindered by areputation for being a “kids console” and lacking the mature games forcurrent market appeared to want.