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Final Research Report


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Final Research Report

  1. 1. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 1 The Effects of Time and Noise on Anxiety and Recognition Taylor J. Hartman John Carroll University Author Note Taylor J. Hartman, Department of Psychology, John Carroll University This research was made possible through Angela C. Jones, Department of Psychology, John Carroll University, who implemented the educational and experimental tools necessary to help bring our project come to life. Special thanks to Chris Wetherill and Leanna Gonzalez, both from John Carroll University, for providing my colleagues and I with guidance and offering advice on formatting our design. Last, but not least, a huge thanks to Jillian Falzini, Anna Hayburn and Brianna Turner for working endless hours creating our experiment—from brainstorming to data collection— and making this project an enjoyable group effort. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Taylor J. Hartman, Department of Psychology, John Carroll University, 1 John Carroll Boulevard, University Heights, OH 44118. E-mail:
  2. 2. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 2 Abstract The aim of this study was to build on research that involved the implementation of the Deese- Roediger McDermott paradigm. Noise and time manipulation were used to measure whether or not recognition and anxiety were affected. Participants studied word lists in one of four conditions with no stressors, noise, time, or both. Then, they took an anxiety test derived from the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. The STAI was implemented to measure the amount and scale of induced stress from each condition. Afterwards, participants took a recognition test and asserted whether or not they saw the words presented. Participants reported just as much to the presence of critical lures as much as studied words, despite the presence of noise or time. Results indicate that stressors did not affect recognition or anxiety. Moreover, participants’ results were similarly found in most DRM related studies. Keywords: time manipulation, auditory stimulation, word recognition, distraction, task performance
  3. 3. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 3 The Effects of Time and Noise on Anxiety and Recognition The human mind perceives and perseveres through stress in many ways. One of the most common forms of stress is cognitive stress, which usually involves a negative effect from completion, or failure of daily multifaceted tasks. The increased mental overload of the world’s stressors can pile up and hinder the performance of someone’s thinking, productivity and memory. Memory, in relation to recognition of objects, words and items, can often go wrong when grouped with negative factors (Payne & Nadal, 2002). This specific area of research involves the identification of stressors—time manipulation and noise—manipulated to affect performance. Researchers agree that stress is a term used to describe the physical and psychological nature that strains organisms and inhibits their adaptive powers; the wear and tear of life (Van Galen, 1997; Van Gemmert, 1997). Moreover, each person has a different threshold for stress, allowing him or her to be resilient and to continue on without harm to their functioning. Certain recognition of objects, words and items depends on the variables and the context in which they are presented (Daee & Wilding, 1977). The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of recognition through words derived from the DRM. A further aim was to investigate the levels of anxiety through the utilization of noise and time manipulation. Contrary to popular belief, Roets (2011) and Van Hiel (2011) asserted that negative environmental stressors do not harm cognitive performance and that these stressors can be maintained under energy investment or a directional use of energy toward the appropriate stress itself. Additionally, Roets (2011) and Van Hiel (2011) found that not all people are highly motivated to partake in an experiment, due to their lack of focus of cognitive energy investment. In reality, the stressors that affected them may actually have impaired their task performance. An important feature of this study involves the use of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott
  4. 4. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 4 paradigm. The implementation of the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm in this study is a fundamental asset because it is the center of our research. The DRM is made up of categories of similar items in a word list. In addition, the use of critical lures, which are similar words resembling the categorical items, are presented after the initial test that were not actually studied. Afterwards, DRM studies may ask participants to recall or recognize the words previously presented. Together, word recognition and word type are often used to measure and assess memory. Roediger & McDermitt (1995), modeled their scientific research after Deese (1959). Deese (1959) prepared designs that involved word lists and assessed for the direct recall of words. They built the experiment on the study originated from Deese who created a paradigm, utilizing a list of words used to assess memory recall. He created an experiment that used a list of word similar to one another, and unrelated words that are meant to assess false memories. Their reports required participants to study several lists of 12 words in which some were not presented, or not shown during the study, but during the test. Furthermore, the studies were made to assess memory, using the concept of illusory memory. Illusory memory holds the idea that people will fall prey by asserting their false memories. Additionally, when people are told about memory and instructed to recall words from a study, they are more likely to report words never studied in attempt to include words they feel are appropriate in the list of words they just studied. In short, Roediger & McDermott’s (1995) proposed that these memory tasks involve explicit memory. The concept of explicit memory is a type of memory storage that involves the intentional retrieval of thoughts, facts or emotions by bringing it to the conscious mind. It is important to note that explicit memory is used more often in recall or recognition tests. Payne, Nadel, Allen, Thomas, & Jacobs (2002), were some of the first researchers to
  5. 5. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 5 examine the impact of stress induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993), on false memory. In their study, participants were subject to either to the TSST or to the non-stressful assignment. Afterwards, they were instructed to listen to several DRM word lists, which were then followed by an immediate recognition test. Their results indicated that the most stressful condition displayed high rates of false recognition. From these data, Payne et al. (2002) found that a significant amount of stress may hinder a person’s ability to focus, and consequently diminishing the ability to determine the difference between true and false memories from the DRM paradigm. These conclusions suggests that people who become distressed may have difficulty in asserting their confidence on true and false memories. The original study done by Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs (1983), found that test-retest validity is strong, even after monthly intervals of test assessments from the State Trait Anxiety Scale. Furthermore, the testing accounted for accurate and reliable measures of anxiety and distress. The current study attempts to make use of the original test, however, adjusting it by utilizing only several types of questions to cater to our participant population. This scale is often used in clinical settings to help the clinician or psychologist diagnose anxiety and stress. Additionally, the test includes a list of predetermined phrases on a rated response of “not at all,” “somewhat,” “moderately so,” and “very much so” to help participants accurately describe their feelings. There are data that include the use of the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al., 1983). However, there are very few people that combine them all, and use them to administer tests on participants. In regards to the current study, the aim is to recreate the procedure from Payne et al (2002), but instead, use the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for the possibility of variation in the assertion of alleged stress. Nadel
  6. 6. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 6 and Payne (2002) used the Trier Social Stress Test as a measure of stress before the implementation of the DRM. This is a very similar assessment in that it attempted to measure anxiety with questions comparable to the STAI. It measured exactly how the participants reacted to the DRM test, with and without noise and time manipulation. Unlike the previously stated studies, the design of the current experiment involves conditions where time and noise occur simultaneously. Furthermore, The conditions were modified from the original DRM, by allotting certain words to be included in the word recognition test. Moreover, the experiment was paired with noise and time (Smeets, Otgaar, Candel, & Wolf, 2011). One widely studied stressor is noise, which is known to weaken performance during task completion and cause impaired judgment (Roets & Van Hiel, 2011). Results have shown that tasks involving strategizing may be more susceptible to the negative effects of noise because it is difficult to repeat something to oneself if distracted by another task (Smith, 1983). Other studies have shown that noise can improve recognition if played at a constant rate, but that time manipulation can influence decision making (Szalma & Hancock, 2011). This occurs because finding a steady beat or tune within a sound can produce an internal rhythmic equilibrium or balance that becomes learned, causing less stress. Therefore, the stress is not as powerful. Additionally, other studies claim uncertain results finding noise can have both harmful and beneficial effects (Hancock & Szalma, 2011). A psychobiological study done by Ljungberg and Neely (2007) asserted that noise and body vibrations would increase the amount of saliva cortisol and the amount of stress presented. Their findings asserted that stress was founded in tasks that were more difficult when exposed to either noise or whole body vibrations. Previous literature in which research used noise as a primary variable usually stated that more powerful levels of decibels decreased performance and mood in tasks. Kjellberg, Ljung,
  7. 7. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 7 and Hallman (2008), found that in their study of word recognition and noise, participants in the control condition with no noise present, recognized and recalled words stated in the tests and performed higher than those in other stressing conditions. Additionally, a steady beeping noise is an important independent variable of the current study and strengthens the belief that it is detrimental to cognitive performance. Jerison (1959) included noise as a negative factor in his experiments and found that multiple levels of noise in several conditions produce measureable change in human performance. Additionally, a study done by Theologus Wheaton & Fleishman (1974) asserted that sensitivity of performance could be evaluated, with the use of several noise levels. His study showed that reaction time was affected by episodes of spontaneous noise and conditions. The study showed that periodic episodes of noise at a static level of noise significantly deteriorated the participant’s ability to perform block trial tasks. In a study conducted by Millar (1978), noise was a stimulus used to assess low and high frequency words previously used from Battig and Montague’s category of words. Prompted words were found to provide faster recognition than unprompted. Additionally, noise-induced arousal was found to be a significant determinant of the retrieval of memory, especially with high frequency words. Most time related experiments involve the use of adding reaction time, hesitation or latency to a test. Consequently, it has been thought that time manipulation induces negative task performance and behavior. Furthermore, time manipulation may alter the capabilities of managing stress. Roets and Van Hiel (2011) found that participants who functioned under noise stressors were significantly stunted in their cognitive abilities showing inferior performance. In addition, Rothstein (1987) argued that time manipulation changed the ability to properly judge incoming processable information. The results found that people retained less material under time constraints and had less salient information after high amounts of stress. Roets and Van Hiel
  8. 8. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 8 (2011) created a time manipulation condition in which they told their participants to respond to a question on a computer monitor. If they could not respond within 5 seconds, the screen told the participants to respond faster after each trial. Moreover, the procedure was effective due to the specific time constraints. The stress invoked under this study embodies the efficacy of time in a manipulated and controlled setting. Another study, conducted by Ogden and Riek (1979), implemented the use of time manipulation and noise as independent variables. They used these stressors to induce distressing affects onto the participants. The study incorporated the use of the Stroop Test in which colors were discriminated and juxtaposed onto a word of a different color. Their task was used to assess whether noise hindered the ability to successfully complete a reading task. Unfortunately, they found that neither noise nor time showed any main effects or significance. Additional, they found that high noise level and low noise levels were measured, and a mean of 48 milliseconds were the differences between their average reaction times. Furthermore, the word test did not show effects under noise. They found that noise affects certain time varied levels and conditions, and should be changed to better-fit future endeavors in noise and time conditions. Alternatively, applying a design in which tasks contain study strategies might create difficulties in performance and allow noise and time to take on negative effects (Smith, 1983). Furthermore, it may become difficult to repeat something to oneself and the compounding thoughts of time and sounds presented may distract the participants. Throughout this current study, there are data allocating time and noise conditions in accordance with the DRM paradigm. It is important to note that the current study aims to not only add onto, but to reformat previously designed procedures generated by Deese (1959) & Roediger and McDermott (1995) by choosing specific word categories and implementing randomized foils.
  9. 9. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 9 As mentioned, the purpose of this study is to measure whether or not time and noise stressors are detrimental to the cognitive task performances. Recognition is the ability to remember information that is stored in the brain (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson-Riegler, 2011). Recognition requires a cue before it is remembered, however recall is the ability to remember “without thought” without a trigger to cue your memory. The hypothesis of the current experiment insists that the combination of noise and time manipulation will be the most negative and harmful. Additionally, the second hypothesis involves the notion that stress will be the highest in intensity when the variables of time manipulation and noise are both present. The hypotheses are inferred from the original DRM paradigm and modified with the addition of noise and time manipulation as negative factors. Ultimately, past literature have indicated that time manipulation and noise are negative when tasks involved memory or recognition and word lists. Participants have broken these hypotheses due to an ability to ignore stimuli and try their best to competently finish the experiment. Nonetheless, the current experiment attests that the independent variables will result in negative results. Anxiety will affect the amount of words recognized but noise will have a much stronger effect on memory than the timer. Moreover, lower recognition of words will be apparent under noise and time, and unrelated words and critical lures will be increasingly reported. Method Participants Participants included a total of 38 female and 26 male undergraduate students who attend John Carroll University. The participants were at least 18 years of age and a majority of which were enrolled in a psychology course credit. However, others from the campus community were
  10. 10. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 10 admitted through solicitation of friends and acquaintances to participate in the study. The participants had normal hearing capabilities. We anticipated that at least 80 participants would sign up for the experiment so that there would be enough power for each of the conditions. Materials The materials presented to each participant included 70 words from a list of four unrelated DRM paradigm categories (i.e., rough, spider, fruit and river). 36 words were included from the original DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959, Roediger and McDermott, 1995) were picked to assess recognition. 30 foils, or unassociated words, were picked from an online random word generator. Additionally, four critical lures, or words very similar to words in the related categories, have been put into place to assess recognition. 70 words were used all together. The noise used in the experiment was downloaded from an online program called SoundNote.“Recorder” was the sound used to replicate the “beeping” noise needed in the study. The computer speakers used for the distraction were set at the same level of volume, 50 percent on the speakers and 75 percent on the computer’s internal sound. Moreover, the study was administered using MediaLab, a program used to create research studies. Stimuli and Procedure Participants were asked to complete a recognition task in this 2x2x3 mixed-subjects design. The intermittent noise and timer were the independent variables inducing anxiety by impairing cognitive functioning in the participants. Additionally, anxiety and the recognition of words were the dependent variables being measured. Before the test began, the participants consented to the experiment. Following this, the women and men were split into four groups and presented with one of four conditions that were randomized, so data would be void of extraneous variables. The average amount of time spent on the tests was about 10 to 15 minutes.
  11. 11. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 11 Subsequently, Group 1 had neither a time manipulation nor a noise presented in study. Group 1 acted as the control for the study. Group 2 had no timer but had noise present. Group 3 had a timer present on the computer screen with no noise. Lastly, Group 4 had both a timer and the noise present. The timer was placed at the bottom of the screen as participants studied, and a numbered countdown began at 3:00 and ended at 0:00. During the experiment, the participants listened to an intermittent, sound program from SoundNote, which occurred throughout the three- minute study of the word lists. Regardless of the condition, each group had three minutes to complete the task, and could go back and forth between word lists, allotting their time as they pleased. The computer screen showed all four word lists at the same time, but presented them on four different screen slides and required the clicking of the mouse to continue or go back. Following the ending of the timer, a popup box appeared on the screen, indicating that it was time to continue on to the next segment. During the first condition, this popup box was displayed so that stress was not induced during the recognition task. Once the time and noise ended at the three-minute mark, the study concluded. Next, participants were presented with an anxiety test derived from the State Trait Anxiety Inventory used to measure the level of anxiety. The STAI was created as a scale response, that presented a list of statements, where responses ranged from “Not at all,” “Somewhat,” “Moderately so,” or “Very much so”. This helped to determine if someone felt uncomfortable as a result of the time and/or noise variables used in the experiment. Participants were asked to rate how they felt after their test. Then, the recognition test consisted of words studied and not studied, along with the presence of lures from the categorical lists. The words from the recognition test were presented one at time, instead of all at once, in attempt to rule out clicking-related mistakes. The
  12. 12. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 12 participants finished the recognition test promptly after studying the presented word lists by indicating whether or not they saw the words by indicating on the computer with a “yes” or “no” response. These included 70 words. Furthermore, the 70 words consisted of 36 words from the DRM, including 30 unstudied words and four critical lures used to assess recognition. Lastly, the test participants read a debriefing statement displayed on the computer screen that let them know that if they had any questions they could contact us. Furthermore, It instructed them to address the researchers if the experiment had any negative effects on their mental state. Participants were also informed of the purpose behind the study. Results The results of each condition were scored and analyzed using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). In this study, a 2 (noise or no noise) x 2 (timer or no timer) x 3 (studied, foil and critical lure words) mixed-subjects design was chosen to identify the effects of stressors and word recognition. Additionally, a 2 (noise or no noise) x 2 (timer or no timer) between-subjects design was also used to assess the levels of induced anxiety from the participants included in each condition. To do this, a repeated measures test was selected to assess the effects of the conditions on word recognition results including foil type, critical lure and studied words. Data analysis did not reveal a main effect of noise. Testing for noise and conditions, it was found that F(1, 58) = 1.027, MSE = .041, p = .315, which did not indicate a significant result or interaction. Additionally, data did not conclude any significant results with time. Similarly, under the between subjects effects, F(1, 58) = .043, MSE =.002, p = .837, time did not hold an effect that was noteworthy. Secondly, the ANOVA that tested between subjects of word lists and conditions did not show any significant interaction. F(1, 58) = .646, p =.588 reveals that there was not enough
  13. 13. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 13 statistical significance to account for an interaction. Moreover, the type of word lists, which were studied, foil, and critical lures were all significant and were lower than the p-value of .05 (.000). According to hypothesis, studied words and critical lures would cause participants to report a high amount of “yes” responses. Additionally, participants scored much higher “yes” responses in the studied noise condition (M =.727, SD =.033), while the least amount of “yes” responses were in the simultaneous noise and timer condition (M =.694, SD =.032). Moreover, the foils that were not studied denoted the highest score of (M =.058, SD =.029), which meant that these participants had very high ratings of false alarms in the fourth condition. As assumed in the first control, participants did the best in that they were not as susceptible to reporting foils. Additionally, in the control condition, participants did the “best”, as in, they did not report critical lures as much as any other condition (M =.683, SD =.067) except for condition four in the studied segments (M =.694, SD =.032). Furthermore, the highest reports were included in the noise condition where (M =.800, SD =.067) which indicated that out of all conditions and words, noise seemed to have the greatest effect for critical lure responses, whereas, the most correct and accurate responses came from the first condition with foils. In regards to time manipulation and studied words, (M =.704, SD =.143) which showed that there were more reports and responses from actual studied words. Similarly, critical lures were reported highly, like in the original DRM study (M =.758, SD =.250). In contrast, (M =.055, SD =.147) which indicated that there were very little false alarms to foils under the third condition. Though there are main effects between groups, nothing is significant enough to report less than .05. Furthermore, these results indicate that there was a trend of low main effects that did not indicate significance. Lastly, a between subjects ANOVA was run in order to determine any contrasting values in anxiety between the four conditions. The noise condition, F(1, 58) = .045, MSE =.043, p =.832
  14. 14. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 14 and ηp 2 of .001, an extremely low effect size, indicated that there were no effects. Additionally, there were no such signs of significance in the time condition either F(1, 58) = .029, MSE =2.56, p =.866 and ηp 2 of .000, the lowest effect size. Furthermore, there was non-significance between noise and time when measured for amount of stress, F(1, 58) = .579, p = .450, MSE = 51.43 and ηp 2 of .010, a low effect size. Moreover, the control and the third condition varied the most in means, which seemed to show the major differences in stress between conditions, nonetheless anxiety was non-significant in all of the conditions. The STAI, the test that measured anxiety, was scored at a minimum of 20 and a maximum of 80. The study revealed a range of scores between 24 and 61. Figure 2 further explains that noise and time held the ranges of high and low scores from the STAI. On the other hand, In the first condition, the control (M = 38.67, SD = 13.286) was found to hold a higher amount of anxiety than any of the other conditions, which was statistically shown in Figure 1. Moreover, unlike the first condition, the second, third and fourth reported that (M = 36.33, SD = 7.078), (M = 36.44, SD = 8.922), (M =37.75, SD =7.234), respectively. The effect size showed results of non-significance, statistically, though the means appeared to be slightly different. All showed low to very low effects, despite condition one showing a .000 reaction in anxiety and word recognition. Ultimately, results indicated that most people appeared to be the most anxious in the first condition, followed by conditions two, three, and four. Discussion Overall, our study did not find significance in noise nor time conditions. Additionally, the reported scores only held true to the original DRM results in that studied words were asserted as much as critical lures. Furthermore, the average recognition scores, or “yes” responses did hold
  15. 15. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 15 significance between type of words presented, including studied, and critical lures. Participants falsely recognized critical lures almost as often as they remembered studied words, and non- studied words were recognized less often. Lastly, participant STAI anxiety scores did noy differ between the experimental conditions. The results from this study used sets of categories taken from the original DRM. The results taken from the participants indicate that previously studied words were rated at higher “yes’s” and similarly reported a low rate of unrelated words. These findings are quite similar to the DRM study conducted by Deese (1959) and Roediger McDermott, (1995). According to the aforementioned studies, the results were interesting to report. Many participants asserted the occurrence of critical lures, despite the condition. Furthermore, it is very uncommon and should be noted that this strange, yet interesting circumstance may be due to the types of words chosen in the DRM lists (Gooding, Mayes, & Meudell, 1999). According to Ogden et al. (1979), arousal narrows attention and may negatively or positively alters task performance. They assert that the amount and type of information being processed is filtered into the conditions assignment. Moreover, too much environmental stress and stimuli may drastically affect the processing and task performance. Though time has been demonstrated to negatively affect participants in previous studies and has indicated significant effects that include alterations on human judgment (Rothstein, 1986), our study did not find to uphold these previous assertions. Despite this association, noise in particular has been known to negatively affect tasks assigned to participants (Stuart & Phillips, 1997). In regards to our study, noise had a small association between studied words and anxiety. However, this result was only slightly higher than that of the time manipulation conditions. These results may be even more significant if there were a lot more participants to increase the power.
  16. 16. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 16 In regards to anxiety, the results indicated that there were no significant differences between any of the conditions, which is opposite of what was originally expected. Our findings indicated that overall, there were no differences in scores between variables. After sharing the thoughts with this study’s’ co-researchers, it was deduced that this could have been due to a lack of intensity or severity of stress. Furthermore, adding onto the fear or stress-inducing sounds, by implementing either harsher sounds or faster frequencies could have created more substantial results. Moreover, if someone reported a high score on the anxiety test, it may have been due to several factors. In reality, these reports may have been due to an increased sense of anxiety from the self, in general. As previously stated, the study revealed a range of scores between 24 and 61. These results indicate that participants might not have felt as much anxiety as previously thought. In another sense, these people may have been stressed or anxious prior to taking the study. For example, many participants scored in the low 30’s in condition four, which was assumed to have created the most stress, but nonetheless it does not indicate that it was successful. Additionally, some participants reported very high anxiety upmost in the 50s and 60s range, where no stressors were presented. This occurrence begs the question as to how these individuals could have such high amounts of stress in a relatively calm environment. Though the explanations are vast, one possibility can be that many participants were already stressed prior to taking this study. Understanding these anxiety issues could be taken under further investigation with careful regards to future methodological procedure, in order to properly explain how these occurrences came into play. There are quite a few reasons and limitations within our study that contributed to possible variations in this study’s findings. For one, we may not have had collected a large enough
  17. 17. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 17 participation pool in this specific study, and consequently, the amount obtained may not have provided enough power to provide us with ample significance. Another limitation may have involved the sound we had used. If there were a somewhat stronger, more fast and intimidating sound, perhaps, more people would have reported higher amount of anxiety. Moreover, allowing for different rates of noise and changing the frequency and tempo of these sounds could be examined for future studies. Another limitation may involve the amount, or length of words imported from the DRM. For example, after administering a test to participant, they had afterwards, stated that the test was too easy and felt no strain or difficulty assessing the words presented. Perhaps the adaptation of future tests may include longer or more difficult words that influence the amount of recognized words, including foils and critical lures. Lastly, during these instances, lowering the time counter may inhibit task performance, to assess for high amounts of stress. Overall, our hypothesis had matched that of the original DRM studies done by Deese (1959) and Roediger & McDermott (1995). However, the implementation of noise, similar to that done in Theologus et al., (1974) and Kjellberg, (2008) reported different than what our study found. Additionally, time manipulation seen in Rothstein (1986) and Roets et al., (2011) produced results that we did not find. These differences may have been noted due to the way in which the independent variables were operationally defined and manipulated. Instead of applying a timer onto the computer screen, it may have been a better idea to keep an actual timer next to the participant, like an egg timer, to induce stress. Applying these findings to real life, it is certain that people may be stressed if they know they are going to take a test, and therefore may make mistakes due to their behavior being prone to anxiety. Lastly, the indication of these findings may come from the idea that some people may find stress and the multitasking of
  18. 18. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 18 mental processes to be so commonplace that they are able to adapt. Consequently, they may be able block out and make use of their stimuli to fulfill and complete the tasks assigned to them.
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  22. 22. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 22 Figure 1. Anxiety as a function of time and noise, analyzed through average STAI scores. 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 noise no noise STAIScore Presence of Variable timer no timer
  23. 23. DO TIME AND NOISE AFFECT ANXIETY AND RECOGNITION? 23 Figure 2. Average proportion of “Yes” responses as a function of condition in either control, noise, time or both, amongst studied words, critical lures, and foils. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 control noise timer both Proportionof"Yes"Responses Condition studied critlure foil