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Introducing Natural Light To East Tennessee State University


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This is a compilation of my research on the benefits of supplementing artificial lighting with natural lighting on the campus here at ETSU

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Introducing Natural Light To East Tennessee State University

  1. 1. Introducing Natural Light to ETSU By: Taylor Duncan
  2. 2. Challenge: Introducing Natural Light to ETSU Living and Working Spaces <ul><li>D escription of the Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>A nalysis of the Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>T heorizing Possible Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>A ction Recommendations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lighting practices in the U.S. have varied widely in the last 70 years <ul><li>Prior to 1940, natural lighting was the primary way to light buildings </li></ul><ul><li>By 1960, electric lighting was used almost exclusively to light interior space </li></ul><ul><li>Recently, energy issues and environmental concerns have caused the rediscovery of natural lighting </li></ul>
  5. 5. A few spaces at ETSU already take advantage of natural light <ul><li>Culp center cafeteria (1976) </li></ul><ul><li>Culp center atrium (1976) </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Physical Activity (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Library (1998) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Many other spaces at ETSU could benefit from natural light <ul><li>Offices (interior and exterior) without windows </li></ul><ul><li>Basement </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Labs </li></ul><ul><li>Classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Hallways and egress spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul>
  7. 7. Now is a good time to consider increasing use of natural light in ETSU facilities <ul><li>Energy costs are increasing </li></ul><ul><li>ETSU budgets are decreasing </li></ul><ul><li>Increased emphasis on sustainable design for future generations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Electricity costs are going up <ul><li>Generation costs are rising – fuel is primary driver </li></ul><ul><li>Demand is growing – expected to increase 45% by 2030 </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure costs are increasing – transmission lines, substations, and distribution systems </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental compliance costs are high – especially reducing air emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson City Power Board increased rates by 16% this fall – largest increase in 30 years </li></ul>
  9. 9. “ This is going to be the worst year financially (ETSU) has ever seen” -ETSU President, Dr. Paul Stanton <ul><li>As of November 2008, over $7M cut from ETSU budget so far and possibly another $4.6M after the first of the year (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Tennessee Board of Regents budget cuts due to State of Tennessee budget shortfall </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines issued in November to reduce energy use at ETSU </li></ul>
  10. 10. ANALYSIS OF THE CHALLENGE “ Energy management is something we can do and are doing.” – President Dr. Paul Stanton
  11. 11. The benefits of natural light have been demonstrated both in terms of energy savings and on how it affects building occupants.
  12. 12. Natural light is being used routinely to save energy in many situations <ul><li>Georgia Pacific – 80,000 sq. ft. warehouse – reduced energy consumption 282,844 KWH to 43,369 KWH, saving $33,500 annually </li></ul><ul><li>Durafeev Furniture – 47,520 sq. ft. warehouse – 3 years return on investment, saving $17,200 annually </li></ul><ul><li>Stockton Skills Gym and Stockton Unified Distribution Warehouse – removed and replaced 166 high watt HID lamps with 90 daylighting fixtures to illuminate 62,000 sq. ft. of warehouse and gym space </li></ul>
  13. 13. Scientific studies on natural light report positive physiological and psychological impact on building occupants <ul><li>Improved mood and morale </li></ul><ul><li>Less fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced eyestrain </li></ul><ul><li>Improved “connection” with outside environment </li></ul>
  14. 14. Benefits of natural light are reported for the many spaces that make up ETSU <ul><li>Offices – Improved productivity, reduced stress, lower absenteeism and turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Educational space – Improved attendance and academic performance </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare space – Reduced strain and fatigue for staff; Improved physiological and psychological well-being for patients </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial space – Improved safety and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Retail space – More customers and increased sales </li></ul>
  15. 15. Employees prefer natural light to artificial light <ul><li>Report greater job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Feel less “cooped up” </li></ul><ul><li>Like to have a sense of what is happening outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Consider natural light to be motivating and calming </li></ul>
  16. 16. However, making retroactive modifications to improve natural lighting in existing facilities in challenging <ul><li>Disruptive - space is frequently occupied </li></ul><ul><li>All but top floors are almost impossible to access with light tubes and skylights </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive than including in original design </li></ul><ul><li>Large roof or wall penetrations can affect building structure </li></ul><ul><li>Routing of fiber optics and lighting tubes through existing infrastructure can be complicated </li></ul>
  18. 18. A number of options are available to introduce natural light to ETSU buildings <ul><li>A few of these options include: </li></ul><ul><li>Skylights </li></ul><ul><li>Atria </li></ul><ul><li>Light-tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic sunlight concentrators </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pros Vs. Cons Advantages Disadvantages Ability to Retro-fit Skylight <ul><li>Less likely to be obstructed </li></ul><ul><li>3X more effective than vertical window </li></ul><ul><li>More light & heat in summer (strain on HVAC) </li></ul><ul><li>Less in winter due to lower winter sun </li></ul>Fairly easy depending on roofing system Atria Bring light to several different floors <ul><li>Too much to top floors </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough to lower floors </li></ul>Extremely difficult, not practical Light-tubes <ul><li>Diffuse light efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Block out harsh light and heat </li></ul>Only effective on top floors Relatively inexpensive & easy to install depending on space Fiber-optics Possible to pipe light anywhere you can place a cable with zero added heat Directional, focused light Expensive Easy to difficult depending on space, place into existing lighting systems
  20. 20. Skylights are low-technology solutions <ul><li>Challenging to install after construction is completed </li></ul><ul><li>Limited benefit – do not concentrate natural light </li></ul>
  21. 21. Light-tubes have three main components to concentrate natural light <ul><li>Hemisphere daylight collector/concentrator </li></ul><ul><li>Highly reflective/efficient light conveyor </li></ul><ul><li>Light diffuser in space </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Advantages of light-tubes over skylights <ul><li>Can be installed where skylights would not fit </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to install (no special framing and drywall) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater light output per sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Light is diffused throughout living space </li></ul><ul><li>Not as prone to leaking </li></ul>
  23. 23. Costs of light-tube technology <ul><li>10” light tube – Illuminates 10’ x 10’ area – $700 installed (approx.) </li></ul><ul><li>14” light tube – Illuminates 14’ x 14’ area – $800 installed (approx.) </li></ul><ul><li>21” light tube – Illuminates 21’ x 21’ area – $1,000 installed (approx.) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Fiber-optic sunlight concentrators <ul><li>Benefits of natural light with convenience of artificial light </li></ul><ul><li>Roof-mounted platform with 45’ fiber optic bundle </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight “piped” directly into rooms in buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid light fixtures automatically regulates ratio of natural/artificial light for consistent lighting </li></ul>
  25. 25. Costs of fiber-optic sunlight concentrators <ul><li>Up to $10,000 per lighting fixture </li></ul>
  26. 26. Disadvantages of natural light technology for ETSU <ul><li>Needs to be supplemented with artificial light in most areas (overcast days and nights) </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson City has 56% annual possible sunshine (compare Phoenix, Az – 85%) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires initial capital investment with long-term payback (2-3 years) </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Center for Physical Activity The workout area The basketball court area
  29. 29. Potential Savings <ul><li>What kind of Lights? 1000 Watt Metal Halide </li></ul><ul><li># of lights? 95 on one circuit </li></ul><ul><li># of hrs. on per day? (6:30 am-11:00 pm) 16.5 hr/day </li></ul><ul><li># of days per year? 330 days </li></ul><ul><li># of hrs on per year? 5445 hr/year </li></ul><ul><li># of daylight hours supplemented per year? 3960 hr/year per fixture </li></ul><ul><li>Electric cost per kilowatt hr.? $0.098/kwh </li></ul><ul><li>Costs per fixture to upgrade? 100 tubes @ $600 each installed </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Energy Savings (with proposed Solatube): $36,867.60 </li></ul><ul><li>Current Annual Energy Bill for this set of lights: $55,301.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Installation for Solatube: Approximately $60,000 (2 year payback) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  30. 30. Recommendations for introducing natural light to ETSU facilities <ul><li>Conduct cost-benefit analysis for supplementing existing high-cost lighting (such as CPA) with light-tube technology </li></ul><ul><li>Place CPA lights on separate circuits </li></ul><ul><li>Install light tubes in a few internal office spaces (such as counseling center or student resource center) on a trial basis to gauge improvements in quality of work life </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate installation of light tubes in internal hallways </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate installation of fiber-optic lighting in lower floor or basement labs, offices, and classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate natural lighting into new building design </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conclusion <ul><li>Introducing natural light to ETSU is not a quick fix – It is a long-term commitment to improving quality of work and school life and to increase the use of sustainable design </li></ul>
  32. 32. Contact Information <ul><li>Jack O’hanlon of The O’hanlon Group </li></ul><ul><li>-Lighting Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>-Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>-Phone: (865) 546-6735 </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry Harris of Alexander Metals, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>-Solatube Representative </li></ul><ul><li>-Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>-Phone: (615) 256-6070 </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor Duncan </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Student of ETSU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Email: [email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Phone: (865) 603-0708 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. I would like to thank all involved in this project for their time, support, and assistance… <ul><li>Jeremy Ross </li></ul><ul><li>Kathleen Moore </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Bishop </li></ul><ul><li>Dan O’Brien </li></ul><ul><li>Diane Godsey </li></ul><ul><li>Ian Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Phyllis Cooper </li></ul><ul><li>Jack O’Hanlon </li></ul><ul><li>Jerry Harris </li></ul>