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Public awareness


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Public awareness, theories of population awareness, methods of health education

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Public awareness

  1. 1. THE CONCEPT OF PUBLIC AWARENESS AND HEALTH EDUCATION Professor Tarek Tawfik Amin Public Health Cairo University
  2. 2. Objectives By theend of thissession traineeswould beable to: 1. Recognizetheconcept of public awareness and itsvaluein health education. 2. Thebasic componentsof communication and education processes. 3. Thebasic theoriesof health education and themeritsof each.
  3. 3. Introduction o Awarenessisabroad and vagueterm, yet intuitively widely understood. o It isapermanent-interactive-planned communication processwhich opensopportunities for: 1. Information exchange in order to improvemutual understanding of ahealth problem and 2. To develop competenciesof theindividualsand 3. Skillsnecessary to enablechangesin social attitude and behavior.
  4. 4. Raising public awareness o To beeffective, theprocessmust meet and maintain themutual needsand interests of thoseinvolved (Providers-patients). o Theultimateobjectiveisto influencecommunity attitudes, behaviorsand beliefs that isreflected in positively favorable outcome.
  5. 5. Public awareness o Thetheory and practiceof public health awarenessbased on: - Masscommunication and - Social or "social change" marketing. o Social “change” marketing: communicating or selling a'good idea' with thestated objective of changing community attitudesand actions.
  6. 6. Communication Effectivecommunication formsthebasisof all social marketing and public awareness-raising. "anegotiation and exchangeof meanings, in which messages, people-in-culturesand 'reality' interact so asto enablemeaning to beproduced or understanding to occur."
  7. 7. Communication Communication asathree-partsprocessby which we (1) Transmit and (2) Receiveinformation (3) Makesenseof themessageor messages embedded in theinformation. This finalpart o f the co mmunicatio n pro cess is typically the least successful.
  8. 8. Communication: challenges ✦ Communication isomnipresent and inescapable- it's everywhere! Thechallengeisto separatequality from quantity. ✦ Communication isirreversible- oncesaid or published it cannot beundone. Opportunitiesfor misunderstanding and misinterpretation. ✦ Communication iscomplicated- thedegreeof complexity isoften determined by factorsthat wecan anticipateand to someextent control.
  9. 9. Communication Critical factorsinfluencecommunication complexity: 1. Channel or medium used 2. Personal experiencesand opinionsof the communicators(speaker and listener, writer and reader) 3. Environmental factors
  10. 10. Communication: Common environmental factors ✦ Thephysical spacein which thecommunication is occurring - meeting room ✦ External distractionsthat causethemessageto be missed or, misunderstood ✦ Credibility of thecommunicator - can I believethis person? ✦ Listener or reader'slevel of education and background knowledgeof thetopic. ✦ Design of themessage- isit appropriateto the audience?
  11. 11. Communication process Receiver Communicator Media Message Interpretation Inescapable Irreversible Complicated Background knowledge Educational status Norm reference Ingrained attitude Credibility Skills Physical environment Distracters ? Language, culture, personal, lost information
  12. 12. 1- Communication usually fails, except by accident ✦ Languagedifferences: Poorly written and heavily abbreviated. ✦ Cultural differences: Bigger and morediverse audience, themorelikely it isthat someonewill misunderstand your message. ✦ Personal differences: Even homogenoussocietiesor communitiesarecomprised of individualswith different lifeexperiencesand opinions. ✦ Lost information: Missed critical information through inattention or thefailureof aspecific medium.
  13. 13. Communication; furtherreasons to fail. 2. If amessagecan beinterpreted in several ways, it will beinterpreted in amanner that maximizesdamages 3. Thereisalwayssomeonewho knowsbetter than you. 4. Themorewecommunicate, theworse communication succeeds. Theproblem of reinforcement and propaganda. 5. Themoreimportant thesituation is, themore probably you forget an essential thing.
  14. 14. Communication - Hearing, Seeing and Doing "Tell me, and Iwill forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and Iwill understand." Confucius, circa450BC
  15. 15. Learning o Our effectivenessascommunicatorsrelieson two key senses: sight and hearing. o Adultslearn best when what they seeand hear isreinforced with action.
  16. 16. Consider Welearn 1% through taste 1.5% through touch 3.5% through smell 11% through hearing 83% through sight Weremember 10% of what weread 20% of what wehear 30% of what wesee 50% of what weseeand hear 80% of what wesay 90% of what wesay and do
  17. 17. Point to be considered in awareness raising 1. Know yourpurpose. 2. Let yourpurpose guide and inform yourmessage 3. Know youraudience - communicate with the right people and be mindful of theirsocial, cultural and educational backgrounds 4. Anticipate problems and find solutions ormanage the risk 5. Ensure credibility with youraudience - trust is vital 6. Present information using a variety of approaches and techniques but ensure each is appropriate to your purpose, message and audience 7. Communicate a little at a time - quality overquantity 8. Assume that any communication has been unsuccessful until you have evidence to the contrary.
  18. 18. Key components MAST Therearefour key componentsof an effective awarenessraising: 1. Message 2. Audience 3. Strategy 4. Timing
  19. 19. Awareness raising Approaches The more commonly used approaches may be grouped into five broad categories, with each describing its primary approach oremphasis: 1. Personal communication 2. Mass communication 3. Education 4. Public Relations (PR) 5. Advocacy
  20. 20. HEALTHEDUCATION BEHAVIORMODELS ANDTHEORIES Current models/theoriesthat help to explain human behavior related to health education, can beclassified on thebasisof being directed at thelevel of: a) Individual (Intrapersonal); b) Interpersonal; or c) Community.
  21. 21. Individual (Intrapersonal) Health BehaviorModels/Theories TheHBM can beoutlined using four constructswhich represent theperceived threat and net benefits: 1) Perceived susceptibility, aperson'sopinion of thechances of getting acertain condition; 2) Perceived severity, aperson'sopinion of how seriousthis condition is; 3) Perceived benefits, aperson'sopinion of theeffectiveness of someadvised action to reducetherisk or seriousnessof theimpact; and 4) Perceived barriers, aperson'sopinion of theconcreteand psychological costsof thisadvised action 1-Health Belief Model (HBM) 
  22. 22. HBM
  23. 23. Individual (Intrapersonal) Health BehaviorModels/Theories Behavior changeisviewed asaprocess, not an event, with individualsat variouslevelsof motivation or "readiness“ to change. Sincepeopleareat different pointsin this process, planned interventionsshould match their stage. 2- Stages of Change Model orTranstheoretical Model 
  24. 24. Stages of Change Model orTranstheoretical Model 1) Precontemplation - theperson isunawareof theproblem or hasnot thought seriously about change; 2) Contemplation - theperson isseriously thinking about a change(in thenear future); 3) Preparation - theperson isplanning to takeaction and is making final adjustmentsbeforechanging behavior; 4) Action - theperson implementssomespecific action plan to overtly modify behavior and surroundings; 5) Maintenance - theperson continueswith desirableactions (repeating theperiodic recommended stepswhilestruggling to prevent lapsesand relapse; and 6) Termination - theperson haszero temptation and theability to resist relapse.
  25. 25. Stages of behaviorchange
  26. 26. Robinson's solution to identify seven steps (Doors) to social change: 1. Knowledge- knowing thereisaproblem 2. Desire- imagining adifferent future 3. Skills- knowing what to do to achievethat future 4. Optimism - confidenceor belief in success 5. Facilitation - resourcesand support infrastructure 6. Stimulation - acompelling stimulusthat promotes action 7. Reinforcement - regular communicationsthat reinforcetheoriginal messageor messages
  27. 27. Individual (Intrapersonal) Health BehaviorModels/Theories o Developed out of thestudy of human problem solving and information processing. 3- ConsumerInformation Processing Model (CIP)
  28. 28. CIP CIPisacyclical processof information search, choice, useand learning, and feedback for futuredecision-making. Beforepeoplewill usehealth information, it must be: 1. Available, 2. Seen asuseful and new, 3. In afriendly format.
  29. 29. Individual (Intrapersonal) Health BehaviorModels/Theories  Thistheory isbased on theassumption that most behaviorsof social relevanceareunder willful control.  In addition, aperson'sintention to perform (or not perform) thebehavior istheimmediate determinant of that behavior. 4-Theory of Reasoned Action
  30. 30. Interpersonal model Social networkshavecertain typesof characteristics: 1) Structural: size(number of people) and density (extent to which membersreally know oneanother) 2) Interactional: reciprocity (mutual sharing), durability (length of timein relationship), intensity (frequency of interactionsbetween members), and dispersion (easewith which memberscan contact each other) 3) Functional: providing social support, connectionsto social contactsand resources, and maintenanceof social identity.
  31. 31. Social support refersto thevarying typesof aid that aregiven to membersof a social network. Research indicatesthat therearefour kindsof supportivebehaviorsor acts: 1) Emotional support - listening, showing trust and concern; 2) Instrumental support - offering real aid in theform of labor, money, time; 3) Informational support - providing advice, suggestions, directives, referrals; and 4) Appraisal support -affirming each other and giving feedback.
  32. 32. Community Level Models/Theories  Thephrase Community Organization has emerged from peopleas  they attempt to "definetheir own goals,  mobilizeresources, and  develop action plans" for meeting their identified needs 1- Community Organization
  33. 33. Community model o Diffusion of InnovationsTheory providesan explanation for how new ideas, productsand social practicesdiffuseor spread within a society or from onesociety to another. 2- Diffusion of Innovations Theory
  34. 34. Characteristics of successful diffusion efforts 1) Relative advantage - an innovation isperceived as better than theideait attemptsto replace; 2) Compatibility - being consistent with theexisting values, past experiencesand needsof thepotential adopters; 3) Complexity - innovation isviewed asdifficult to use and understand; 4) Trialability orFlexibility - an innovation can be experimented with on alimited or "trial" basis; 5) Observability - theresultsof an innovation can be seen by others.
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  37. 37. Thank you