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Health education and adults learning.


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Health education, methods of learning among adults, components and opportunities for health education.

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Health education and adults learning.

  1. 1. Health education and adult learning Professor Tarek Tawfik Amin Public Health Cairo University
  2. 2. Objectives: At the end of the session, trainees would be able to: 1- Define the basic rules forproviding health education. 2- Get oriented with principles of adult learning. 3- Appreciate the practical roles forprocesses involved in adult learning.
  3. 3. Principles of Patient Education Peopleareexpected to learn enough about their own health to beableto participatein health caredecisions. Patient education haschanged from telling the subject thebest actionsto take, to assisting them in learning about their health care for thesakeof improvement. Racial, cultural and ethnic differencesplay a largepart in thecommunication process.
  4. 4. Principles of Patient Education Two important principlesfor providing patient education aresimplicity and reinforcement. "Simplicity" meansthat educational messages must bedelivered so thesubject can readily understand them. Health education can includeextremely intricateinformation (e.g., triplescreening, amniocentesis, and Rh incompatibility).
  5. 5. Principles of Patient Education Start by assessing what thesubject knows beforeteaching. Never assumethat thepatient needsto be taught everything about atopic. Over teaching must beavoided. It isfar better to choosethreeor four essential conceptsabout atopic.
  6. 6. Principles forProviding Patient Education Simplicity 1.Teach the simple concepts about a topic first, and then move to the more complex concepts. 2. Use language that the woman will find easy to understand and avoid medical terminology wheneverpossible. 3. Use words that mean something to the general public. The word "positive" has a good connotation formost people, but in health issues, sometimes "positive" means a bad finding; this can be very confusing forourpatients. 4. Use concrete language and tell them exactly what you want them to do, such as "call me if you feel any fluid leaking from yourvagina," not "call me if yourwaterbreaks."
  7. 7. Principles forProviding Patient Education Reinforcement 1.Teach the one concept you want yoursubjects to truly learn first in the lesson, and then teach that same concept again last. 2. Ask subjects to re-state what you have taught them, so you can be sure they understood. 3. Use visual aids forteaching; using several senses improves learning. 4. Always use written educational materials forthe subjects to take home.
  8. 8. Knowles adult learning principles  Knowlesformulated what hecalled the "Adult Learning Principles".  They remain today essential knowledgefor peoplewho teach adultsin health settings.  Theseadult learning principlescan help usto plan effectivehealth education programs.
  9. 9. Knowles adult learning principles 1. Adultslearn best when thereisa perceived need. 2. Progressfrom theknown to theunknown. 3. Alwaysassesswhat they know about atopic beforebeginning ateaching session. 4. Don't re-teach thethingsthey already understand. 5. Progressfrom thesimpler conceptsto more complex topics. 6. Adultslearn best using activeparticipation.
  10. 10. Knowles adult learning principles 7. Adultsrequireopportunitiesto practicenew skills. 8. Adultsneed thebehavior reinforced. Teaching about health topicsneedsreinforcement continually. 9. Immediatefeedback and correction of misconceptionsincreaseslearning. 10. Alwaysask thesubject to restatewhat you havetaught. Adapted fro m Kno wles, 1 98 0
  11. 11. Adult-Learning Principles Introduction o Knowlesalso described adult learning asa processof self-directed inquiry. o Six characteristicsof adult learnerswere identified by Knowles(1970). o Headvocated creating aclimateof mutual trust and clarification of mutual expectations with thelearner.
  12. 12. Characteristics of adult learners ΩAutonomousand self-directed ΩAccumulated afoundation of experiencesand knowledge ΩGoal oriented ΩRelevancy oriented ΩPractical ΩNeed to beshown respect Knowles 1970
  13. 13. Adult-Learning Principles Introduction  Thereasonsmost adultsenter any learning experienceisto createchange.  Thiscould encompassachangein (a) their skills, (b) behavior, (c) knowledgelevel, or (d) even their attitudesabout things (Adult Educatio n Centre, 2005).
  14. 14. Adult-Learning Principles Introduction  Compared to school-agechildren, themajor differencesin adult learnersarein: a) thedegreeof motivation, b) theamount of previousexperience, c) thelevel of engagement in thelearning process, and d) how thelearning isapplied.  Each adult bringsto thelearning experience preconceived thoughtsand feelingsthat will be influenced by each of thesefactors.  Assessing thelevel of thesetraits-readinessshould be included each timeateaching experienceisbeing planned.
  15. 15. Pillars of adult learning. Adult Learning MotivationExperiences Engagement
  16. 16. Adult-Learning Principles 1- Motivation o Adults learn best when convinced of the need forknowing the information. o Often a life experience orsituation stimulates the motivation to learn (O'Brien, 2004). o Meaningful learning can be intrinsically motivating.
  17. 17. Adult-Learning Principles 1- Motivation o The key to using adults' "natural" motivation to learn is tapping into their most teachable moments (Zemke & Zemke, 1995). o Lieb (1991) described six factors which serve as sources of motivation foradult learning.
  18. 18. Sources of motivations 1. Social Relationships: to makenew friends; to meet a need for associationsand friendships. 2. External expectations: to comply with instructionsfrom someoneelse; to fulfill recommendationsof someone elsewith full authority. 3. Special welfare: to improveability to servemankind; to improveability to participatein community work. 4. Personal Advancement: to achievehigher statusin a job; to secureprofessional advancement. 5. Escape/Stimulation: to relieveboredom; providea break in theroutineof homeor work. 6. Cognitive/interest: to learn for thesakeof learning to satisfy an inquiring mind. Leib, 1991
  19. 19. Motivation Health care providers involved in educating adults need to convey a desire to connect with the learner. Providing a challenge to the learner without causing frustration is additionally important. Above all, provide feedback and positive reinforcement about what has been learned (Lieb, 1991).
  20. 20. Experience Adults have a greaterdepth, breadth, and variation in the quality of previous life experiences than youngerpeople. Past educational orwork experiences may colororbias the patient's perceived ideas about how education will occur. Formerexperiences can assist the adult to connect the current learning experience to something learned in the past. This may also facilitate in making the learning experience more meaningful. (O'Brien,2004).
  21. 21. Experience However, past experiences may actually make the task harderif these biases are not recognized as being present by the teacher. This would be an opportune time to address any erroneous or preconceived ideas.
  22. 22. Level of Engagement  When an adult learner hascontrol over the nature, timing, and direction of thelearning process, theentireexperienceisfacilitated.  Adultshaveaneed to beself-directed, deciding for themselveswhat they want to learn.  They haveagoal in mind and generally takea leadership rolein their learning.  Thechallengefor teachersisto encouragethe learner with reinforcement. Rogers (1969)
  23. 23. Level of engagement According to Rogers(1969), theadult-learning processisfacilitated when: 1. Thelearner participatescompletely in the learning processand hascontrol over its natureand direction. 2. It isprimarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, or personal problems. 3. Self-evaluation istheprincipal method of assessing theprogressor success.
  24. 24. Level of engagement It isimportant to remember that in order to engagetheadult learner and facilitatethe transfer of knowledge, patienceand time on thepart of theteacher and patient are needed.
  25. 25. Applying the Learning: readability o Verbal patient education should alwaysbe accompanied by written information. o It can bedifficult to find information written at theappropriatereadability level, containing theappropriateinformation, and in the languagethewoman understands.
  26. 26. Readability o Health education materialsdeveloped for the general public should not exceed sixth to eighth gradelevels. o Materialswritten at readability levelsof sixth to eighth gradearemoreeffectivein conveying health messagesand havehigher ratesof recall acrossall educational levels.
  27. 27. Readability o Somepopulationsof women havespecific problemswith written health education materials, especially women with low literacy skills. o It isclear that women with low literacy skills requirespecial interventionsto help them learn. 
  28. 28. Readability o Educational materialsgiven to clientsshould beculturally competent.
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  31. 31. Thank you