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Professor Tarek Tawfik Amin 
Public Health, Cairo University 
amin55@myway.com
 Understanding the definition of Community, its’ 
subsystems, Community diagnosis and its indications. 
 To understand t...
 A cluster of people with at least one common 
characteristic (geography, occupation, race, 
ethnicity, housing condition...
 A whole entity that functions because of 
the interdependence of its parts or 
subsystems. 
 Includes Eight subsystems ...
Community core includes traits like history, 
socio-demographic characteristics, vital 
statistics, values/beliefs/core re...
Core 
Physical 
environme 
nt 
Education 
Safety and 
transportat 
ion 
Health 
social 
services 
Recreation 
Economics 
C...
Identification and quantification of 
health problems in a community as a 
whole in terms of mortality and 
morbidity rate...
Examining the aggregate of health and 
social statistics in addition to the 
knowledge of the local situation, 
aiming at ...
Analyze the health status. 
Evaluate the health resources, services, and 
systems of care. 
Assess attitudes toward com...
Community analysis is the process of 
examining data to define needs, 
strengths, barriers, opportunities, 
readiness, and...
Demographic 
Environmental 
Socioeconomic 
Health resources and services 
Health policies 
Study of target groups.
Health Indicators 
Variables used for the assessment of 
community health.
 Valid: Measure what they are supposed to 
measure. 
 Reliable and objective: the same if measured 
by different people ...
 Mortality 
 Morbidity 
 Disability rates 
 Nutritional status 
 Health care delivery 
 Utilization rates 
 Social ...
Mortality Indicators 
 Mortality Rates 
- The traditional measures of health status. 
- Widely used because of their read...
Morbidity Indicators 
 Morbidity rates 
- Data on morbidity are preferable, 
although often difficult to obtain. 
 Incid...
Disability Indicators 
 Disability rates 
 No. of days of restricted activity 
 Bed disability days 
 Work/School loss...
Nutritional Indicators 
 Nutritional Status 
Indicators 
- It is an indicator of positive health 
 Anthropometrics measu...
Health Care Delivery Indicators 
 Health Care Delivery 
Indicators 
- Reflect the Equity / Provision of health care Phys...
Utilization Indicators 
 Health care utilization 
Rates 
- Extent of use of health services 
- Proportion of people in ne...
Social/Mental Health Indicators 
 Indicators of Social 
and Mental Health 
- Valid positive indicators does not 
often ex...
Environmental Indicators 
 Environmental health 
Indicators 
- Reflect the quality of environment 
 Measures of Pollutio...
Socio-economic Indicators 
 Socio-economic 
Indicators 
- Is not a direct measure of health 
status. 
- For interpretatio...
Health Policy Indicators 
 Health Policy 
Indicators 
- Allocation of adequate resources. 
 Proportion of GNP spent on 
...
Others 
 Other health indicators 
 Indicators of quality of life. 
 Basic needs indicators. 
 Health for all indicator...
 Problem identification 
 Priorities setting 
 Identification of contributory 
factors 
1- Health system 
2- Demographi...
 Problem identification 
 Priorities setting 
 Identification of contributory 
factors 
1- Health system 
2- Demographi...
 Problem identification 
 Priorities setting 
 Identification of contributory 
factors 
1- Health system 
2- Demographi...
Indicators Governorate/regi 
on/ 
district 
Total 
national 
burden 
Crude birth rate/100,000 
Crude death rate/ 100,000 
...
Indicators Governora 
te/region/ 
district 
Total national 
burden 
% pregnant ANC 
% birth assisted by skilled 
% ever br...
Indicators Governorate 
/region/ 
district 
Total 
national 
burden 
% rural to urban population 
GPD /capita/ year 
% poo...
Thank You
Community Diagnosis
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Community Diagnosis

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Community diagnosis is vital in health planning, evaluation and needs assessment, several types of indicators are valid to be used for community diagnosis including Socio-economic, demographics, health system, and living arrangements.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Community Diagnosis

  1. 1. Professor Tarek Tawfik Amin Public Health, Cairo University amin55@myway.com
  2. 2.  Understanding the definition of Community, its’ subsystems, Community diagnosis and its indications.  To understand the methods involved in community diagnosis.  To list the essential characteristics of health indicators.  To realize the value of different health indicators in community service and development.  Develop the ability and skill to identify, and prioritize health problems within the community using the specific set of indicators
  3. 3.  A cluster of people with at least one common characteristic (geography, occupation, race, ethnicity, housing condition……)  A group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society .
  4. 4.  A whole entity that functions because of the interdependence of its parts or subsystems.  Includes Eight subsystems plus the community core.
  5. 5. Community core includes traits like history, socio-demographic characteristics, vital statistics, values/beliefs/core religions.
  6. 6. Core Physical environme nt Education Safety and transportat ion Health social services Recreation Economics Communicati on Politics and governme nt
  7. 7. Identification and quantification of health problems in a community as a whole in terms of mortality and morbidity rates and ratios, and identification of their correlates for the purpose of defining those at risk or those in need of health care.
  8. 8. Examining the aggregate of health and social statistics in addition to the knowledge of the local situation, aiming at determining the health needs of a given community.
  9. 9. Analyze the health status. Evaluate the health resources, services, and systems of care. Assess attitudes toward community health services and issues. Identify priorities, establish goals, and determine courses of action to improve health status. Establish epidemiologic baseline for measuring improvement over time.
  10. 10. Community analysis is the process of examining data to define needs, strengths, barriers, opportunities, readiness, and resources. The product of analysis is the “community profile”.
  11. 11. Demographic Environmental Socioeconomic Health resources and services Health policies Study of target groups.
  12. 12. Health Indicators Variables used for the assessment of community health.
  13. 13.  Valid: Measure what they are supposed to measure.  Reliable and objective: the same if measured by different people in similar circumstances  Sensitive: to changes in the situation concerned,  Specific: reflect changes only in the situation concerned  Feasible: Have the ability to obtain data needed  Relevant: Contribute to theunderstanding of the phenomenon of interest.
  14. 14.  Mortality  Morbidity  Disability rates  Nutritional status  Health care delivery  Utilization rates  Social and mental health  Environmental  Socio-economic  Health policy  Quality of life
  15. 15. Mortality Indicators  Mortality Rates - The traditional measures of health status. - Widely used because of their ready availability.( death certificate is a legal requirement in many countries)  Crude death rates  Specific death rates: age/disease  Expectation of life  Infant mortality rate  Maternal mortality rate  Proportionate mortality ratio  Case Fatality rate
  16. 16. Morbidity Indicators  Morbidity rates - Data on morbidity are preferable, although often difficult to obtain.  Incidence and prevalence  Notification rates  Attendance rates: out-patient clinics or health centers.  Admission and discharge rates  Hospital stay duration rates
  17. 17. Disability Indicators  Disability rates  No. of days of restricted activity  Bed disability days  Work/School loss days within a specified period.  Expectation of life free of disability
  18. 18. Nutritional Indicators  Nutritional Status Indicators - It is an indicator of positive health  Anthropometrics measurements  Height of children at school entry  Prevalence of low birth weight  Clinical surveys: Anemia, Hypothyroidism, Night blindness
  19. 19. Health Care Delivery Indicators  Health Care Delivery Indicators - Reflect the Equity / Provision of health care Physician / Population ratio  Physician / Nurse ratio  Population / Bed ratio  Population / Health center
  20. 20. Utilization Indicators  Health care utilization Rates - Extent of use of health services - Proportion of people in need of service who actually receive it in a given period  Proportion of infants who are fully immunized in the 1st year of life. “immunization coverage”.  Proportion of pregnant women who receive ante-natal care.  Hospital-Beds occupancy rate.  Hospital-Beds turn-over ratio
  21. 21. Social/Mental Health Indicators  Indicators of Social and Mental Health - Valid positive indicators does not often exist - Indirect measures are commonly used  Suicide & Homicide rates  Road traffic accidents  Alcohol and drug abuse.
  22. 22. Environmental Indicators  Environmental health Indicators - Reflect the quality of environment  Measures of Pollution  Proportion of people having access to safe water and sanitation facilities  Vectors density
  23. 23. Socio-economic Indicators  Socio-economic Indicators - Is not a direct measure of health status. - For interpretation of health care indicators.  Rate of population increase  Per capita GNP  Level of unemployment  Literacy rates - females  Family size  Housing condition e.g. No. of persons per room
  24. 24. Health Policy Indicators  Health Policy Indicators - Allocation of adequate resources.  Proportion of GNP spent on health services.  Proportion of GNP spent on health related activities.  Proportion of total health resources devoted to primary health care
  25. 25. Others  Other health indicators  Indicators of quality of life.  Basic needs indicators.  Health for all indicators.
  26. 26.  Problem identification  Priorities setting  Identification of contributory factors 1- Health system 2- Demographics 3- Socio-economic - % rural population 4- Living environment - Gross domestic product/per-capita /year - % poor - Literacy rate (%) ≥15 years - % unemployment ≥15 years - % under 5 years - % <15 years - Family size - Age dependency %
  27. 27.  Problem identification  Priorities setting  Identification of contributory factors 1- Health system 2- Demographics 3- Socio-economic 4- Living environment - Population density: individuals/KM2 - House H Access to piped water (U/R and total)% - House H access to sanitation (U/R and total) % - Health units/100,000 - Physicians / 10000 - Nurses / 10000
  28. 28.  Problem identification  Priorities setting  Identification of contributory factors 1- Health system 2- Demographics 3- Socio-economic 4- Living environment Outcome indicators: effectiveness of health programs in converge with services % pregnant received ANC % births by skilled persons % children ever breastfed % infants 12-23 months fully immunized % contraceptive prevalence Impact indicators: effectiveness of programs in improving health status. Crude birth rate/100,000 Crude death rate/100,000 Annual growth rate/100,000 Life expectancy at birth Infant mortality rate/1000 LB <5 mortality rate/1000 LB MMR/100,000 LB Disability /1000 <5 underweight
  29. 29. Indicators Governorate/regi on/ district Total national burden Crude birth rate/100,000 Crude death rate/ 100,000 Annual growth rate /100 Life expectancy at birth Infant mortality rate /1000 LB Under 5 mortality rate/1000 LB MMR ratio/100,000 LB Prevalence of disability /1000 % underweight in under 5
  30. 30. Indicators Governora te/region/ district Total national burden % pregnant ANC % birth assisted by skilled % ever breastfed % infants 12-23 months fully immunized %Contraceptive prevalence Health units/100,000 Physician /10000 Nurses /10000
  31. 31. Indicators Governorate /region/ district Total national burden % rural to urban population GPD /capita/ year % poor Literacy rate *% Unemployment rate *% Under 5 to total population Under 15 % Average family size Age dependency ratio
  32. 32. Thank You

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