Sacred books-of-the-east-series-volume-46-vedic-hymns-part-two


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Sacred books-of-the-east-series-volume-46-vedic-hymns-part-two

  1. 1. - PRINCETON, N. J. r BL 1010 Vedas. Shelf .S3 Vedic hymns V.46 'Q I
  3. 3. £onbon HENRY FROWDE Oxford University Tress Warehouse Amen Corner, THE MACMILLAN CO., 66 E.C. FIFTH AVENUE
  7. 7. CONTENTS. PAGE Introduction xi . Hywns, Translation and Notes Ma;/«/ala I I, 1 I 2 6 13 Apri 26 Hymn 8 '3 27 16 31 22 36 31 44 37 45 08 42 59 60 49 52 65 66 54 67 68 45 57 61 64 69 67 70 70 7^ 74 82 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 94 88 92 95 96 100 102 103 108
  8. 8. CONTENTS. Vlll PAGE Ma«</ala I, 95 96 119 97 98 127 99 127 129 128 137 140 141 128 141 147 As 142 Aprt Hymn 153 143 157 144 160 145 164 146 167 147 170 148 173 149 176 150 178 188 Apr Hymn 179 181 189 I 186 2 II, 193 3 Ap n Hymn 198 4 202 5 206 6 209 7 211 8 III, 213 9 10 215 I 219 228 217 2 232 3 4 5 6 Ap n Hymn 236 240 244 7 248 8 252 9 256
  9. 9. X
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION, In preparing part of the this volume, which contains the greater Agni hymns the Ma/zrt'alas of the Rig-veda, namely, those of I-V, the translator enjoyed the high ad- vantage of Professor Max Miiller's assistance, in the stated in the Introduction to the Hymns, Sacred Books first way volume of Vedic of the East. vol. xxxii, p. xxvii. H. O. Kiel : November, 1895.
  11. 11. — -v VEDIC HYMNS. MA7Vi9ALA ASHTAKA ^ I magnify I I, HYMN I, ADHYAyA ^ Agni, the ministrant of the sacrifice, 1, 1. VARGA 1-2. Purohita, the Hotr/ the divine the priest, greatest bestower of treasures. Agni, worthy to be magnified by the ancient 2. i?/shis and by the present ones — may he conduct the orods hither, May one obtain through Agni wealth and welday by day, which may bring glory and high 3. fare bliss of valiant offspring. Agni, whatever 4. sacrifice encompassest on every and worship side, that ^ thou indeed goes to the gods. May Agni the thoughtful Hot;/, he who is and most splendidly renowned, may the god 5. true come hither with the gods. Whatever good thou 6. O Agni, that (work) verily Thee, 7. (god) who O Agni, wilt is do to thy worshipper, thine, O Aiigiras. we approach day by shinest in the darkness ^ ; day, O with our prayer, bringing adoration to thee Who 8. 7?/ta, 9. art the king of all worship, the guardian of the shining one, increasing in thy Thus, father is [46] O own Agni, be easy of access to to his son. house. us, as a Stay with us for our happiness. B
  12. 12. ' VEDIC HYMNS. NOTES. The hymn and may See family. is ascribed to MadhuHV/andas Vaijvamitra, possibly belong to an author of the Vij-vamitra my Prolegomena, The hymn has been p. Metre, Gayatri. 261. commented upon by translated and M.M., Physical Religion, pp. 170-173. Verse i = TS. IV, 3, 13, 3 MS. IV, 10, 5. Verse 3 = TS. Ill, I, II, I IV,'3, i3,'5 MS. IV, 10, 4 (IV, 14, 16). Verse 4 = TS. IV, i, 11, i MS. IV, 10, 3. Verse 7 = SV. I, 14. Verses 7-9 = VS. Ill, 22-24; TS. I, 5, 6, 2 MS. ; ; ; ; ; I> 5, 3- Verse Note 1. first verse of the Rig-veda as seems already to have occupied the same position in the time of the author of the hymns X, 20-26. For, after a short benediction, the opening words of this collection of hymns are also agni'm i/e, I magnify Agni.' Comp. my Prolegomena, p. 231. being Note 2. The verb which I translate by magnify we now 1. This verse being the possess it, ' ' ' well aware that it is impossible to do — full justice to its — meaning by such a translation is d. There seems to me no doubt that this verb is etymologically connected with the substantives I'sh, 'food,' id, ida., I'ri (not with the root ya^ of which Brugmann, Indogermanische Forschungen I, 171, We need not ask here whether the connection between id and I'sh is effected by a Wurzeldeterminativ (root-determinative) d in this case we should have here d thinks). ' — comp. nida. for nizhda, pd for pizhd, &c. see Brugmann's Grundriss, vol. i, § 591 or whether id is a reduplicated present of id (of the type described by Brugmann, Grundriss, vol. ii, p. 854 comp. i'rte, &c.). The original meaning of ide at all events seems to be I give sap or nourishment.' Now in the Vedic poetry and ritual, for izhd, ; — ; ' the idea of sap or nourishment the different is especially connected with products coming from the cow, milk and
  13. 13. MANDALX I, HYMN I. butter. The footsteps of the goddess IdX drip with butter. The words agnim We seem to me, consequently, origincally ' ' convey the idea of celebrating Agni by pouring sacrificial butter into the fire. There is a number of passages in the Rig-veda which, in my opinion, show clear traces of this to original meaning of the verb. Thus we read X, s^, 2. ya^amahai ya^;/iyan hanta devan i'/amahai i'rt'yan aVyena, ' let whom sacrifice is due whom magnifying ; us magnify {d) with butter those to let is us sacrifice (ya^) to the gods to V, due.' this 14, 3. tam hi j-a^vanta/^ ail god Agni with the butter-dripping that he may sruM devam i/ate agni'm havyaya v6//^ave, 'for people magnify sacrificial spoon, carry the sacrificial food.' V, 28, i. devan f/ana havi'sha ghritUi, magnifying the gods with sacrificial food, (the spoon) filled with butter.' Comp. also I, 84, i« VI, 70, 4; VIII, 74, 6; X, 118, 3. Then, by a gradual development, we find the verb d or the noun i/enya ' ; connected with such instrumentals as gira or girbhi'//, to magnify by songs,' or stomai// 'by praises,' namasa 'by adoration,' and the like. The Rig-vedic texts, however, show us very clearly that even in such phrases the ' original meaning of d was not quite forgotten. For the word is not used indiff'erently of any praise offered to any god whatever. No god of the Vedic Pantheon is praised so frequently and so highly by the poets of the Yet, with very few exceptions, the avoided in connection with this god. The whole Rig-veda as Indra. word d is ninth Ma/^^T'ala contains nothing but praises of Soma Pavamana. Yet the word d occurs, in the whole of this Mawrt'ala, in in two passages only (5, 3 66, an Apri verse transferring ; i) of which one artificially qualifications as belong originally to Agni. hand, in is contained Soma On the to such other the invocations addressed to Agni, this verb and its most frequently used. We may conclude that the idea of celebration, as conveyed by these words, had a connotation which qualified them for the employment with regard to Agni, the god nourished by offerings derivatives are of butter, much better than for being addressed to Indra, the drinker of the Soma juice, or to the B 2 god Soma himself.
  14. 14. VEDIC HYMNS. Last comes, believe, the I meaning of id as contained in a very small number of passages such as VII, 91, 2. I'ndravayu sustuti// v^m iyana marrt'ikam i//e suvitam ka navyam, ' Indra and Vayu Our ! beautiful praise, approaching you, asks you for mercy and for tion of i^is such as if in new welfare.' Here the construcmen magnify English the phrase, ' the gods for obtaining mercy,' could be expressed words men magnify the gods mercy.' in the ' I conchide by quoting the more important recent ture referring to id: Prof. Max Miiller's note litera- on V, 60, i Physical Religion, p. 170; Bezzenberger, Nachrichten von der Gottinger Gesellsch. d. (S. B. E. vol. xxxii, p. 354); VVissensch. 1878, p. 264; Bechtel, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, X, 286 ibid. XII, 91 Arische Forschungen, Indogermanische Forschungen, III, 28, note i Brugmann, Indogermanische Forschungen, I, 171 K. F. II, 78 Bartholomae, ; ; ; ; ; Johansson, Indogermanische Forschungen, also Bartholomae, Arische Forschungen, Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's Zeitschrift,. Verse Note 1. ' Worship adhvara, which of which it is ' is II, 47. 21 I, XXXII, ; Comp. III, 52, and 389. 4. a very inadequate translation of nearly a synonym frequently stands. of ya^/7a, by the side Possibly in the designation was laid on the eleand adoration; in the designation as adhvara on the actual work which was chiefly done by the Adhvaryu. Prof. Max Miillcr writes: 'I accept the native of the sacrifice as ya^;7a the stress ment of prayer, praises, — explanation a-dhvara, without a flaw, perfect, whole, holy. opus operatum hence adhvaryu, Comp. Physical Religion, p. 171. Bury's derivation of adhvara from madhu (nidhu-ara, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, VII, 339) is much more ingenious Adhvara is generally an ; the operating priest.' than convincing. Verse Note 1. which, as 7. I have translated doshavastar as a vocative is rendered very probable by the accent, was also the opinion of the diaskeuasts of the Sa;;/hita text.
  15. 15. MAiVDALA The author of the T, HYMN T formula which is given and 6"arikh. Grihy. V, 5, 4, 4 evidently understood the word in the same way there Agni is invoked as doshavastar and as pratarvastar, as shining in the darkness of evening and as shining in the morning. That this may indeed be the true meaning of the word is shown by Rig-veda III, 49, 4, where Indra in Aj-val. A'raut. Ill, sacrificial i2, ; is called kshapam (kshapam is Beitrage, XV, vasta, 'the illuminator of the nights' gen. plur., not as Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's 208, takes it, loc. sing.). The very frequent passages, however, in which case-forms -of dosha stand in — dawn or morning which most cases are derived from the root vas strongly favour the opinion of Gaedicke (Der Accusativ im Veda, 177, note 3) and K. F. Johansson (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XIV, 163), who give to doshavastar the meaning 'in the darkness and in the morning.' This translation very well suits all Rig-veda passages in which the word occurs. If this opinion is accepted, doshavastar very probably ought to be written and accented as two independent words, dosha vastar. See M. M._, Physical Religion, p. 173. opposition to words meaning words in ' ' ' ' —
  16. 16. ; VEDIC HYMNS. MATV/^ALA ASHTAKA 1. We I, HYMN ADHYAYA I, 1, 12. VARGA 22-23. choose Agni as our messenger, the all- possessor, as the Hot/7 of this sacrifice, the highly wise. 2. Agni and Agni again they constantly invoked with their invocations, the lord of the clans, the bearer of oblations, the beloved of many. 3. Agni, when born, conduct the gods hither for him who has strewn the Barhis (sacrificial grass) thou art our Hotr/, worthy of being magnified ^. 4. Awaken them, the willing ones, when thou ' nroest as messenorer, i£ods 5. O down Sit with, the on the Barhis. O whom thou to out, resplendent (god), O Acrni. Ghr/ta oblations are poured burn against the mischievous, Aeni, acrainst the sorcerers. 6. By Agni Agni is kindled (or, by fire kindled), the sage, the master of the house, the one, the bearer of oblations, sacrificial 7. Be sacrificial is young is the spoon. Praise whose ordinances for the the god who drives away sickness. Agni the sacrifice are true, 8. whose mouth fire sage, the protector, food O Agni, who worships of a thee, O master of god, as his messenger. 9. Be merciful, O purifier, rich in sacrificial food, unto the man who and who invites Agni is to the feast of the gods. 10. Thus, O Agni, resplendent purifier, conduct
  17. 17. MAiVDALA HYMN I, 12. the gods hither to us, to our sacrifice and to our food. 11. Thus praised by us with our new Gayatra hymn, bring us weakh of vahant men and food. 12. Agni with thy bright splendour be pleased, through all our invocations of the gods, with this our praise. NOTES. This opening hymn is ascribed to Medhatithi Ka;/va. It is the hymn of a collection which extends from I, 12 to see 33 (not, as Ludwig, III, 102, believes, from I, 2 to 17 Prolegomena, p. 220). That the authorship of this ; my whose poetical compositions are found partly in the first and partly in the eighth Ma;/<^ala, is shown by the text of see Zeitschr. der Deutschen 14, 2-5, and by other evidence Morg. Gesellschaft, XXXVIII, 44H. The metre is Gayatri. It is possible, though I do not think it probable, that the hymn should be considered as Verse i=SV. I, 3 TS. II. 5, 8, 5 consisting of Tr/'/C'as. belongs collection indeed to Ka;/va the family, ; ; ; V, 5, 6, I TB. ; Ill, 5, 2, 3 ; MS. IV, 10, Verses 1-3 = 2. 140-142; AV. XX. 101, 1-3. Verse 2 = TS. IV, MS. IV, 10, I. Verse 3 = TB. Ill, 11, 6, 2. 3, 13, 8; Verses 6, 8, 9 = SV. II, 194-196. Verse 6 = TS. I, SV. II, 4,46,3; III, 5, II, IV, 10, 2 XVII, 9 Verse (3). TS. ; 5; V, I, 3, 7 14, 8 ; = SV. 5, 5, 3 Verse Note vol. 1. xxxii, Studien, Note I, 2. On TB. i; 5, 6, I, ; pp. 84 109; 12, Verse 32. IV, MS. 6, i, 3 RV. I, 116, ; 3; 10 = u/ya//, I, 5, i- i ; M. M., Geldner, P. G., Vedische 152. On MS. VS. 3. vrzktabarhis, comp. seq., II, 7, comp. the note on uie I, i, i.
  18. 18. VEDIC HYMNS. 8 MAA^i9ALA ASHZAKA I, HYMN ADHYAyA I, 1, 13. VARGA 24-25. A ArRi Hymn. Beingf well liohted, I the gods to the man O Ao-ni brinor us hither rich in sacrificial food, O Hotri, and perform the sacrifice. make our sacrifice rich in honey Tanunapat and convey it to-day to the gods, O sage, that they purifier, ^ 2. may 3. ! feast. invoke here at I this sacrifice Nara6"a;;^sa ^ the beloved one, the honey-tongued food. sacrificial O preparer of the magnified^ Agni Conduct the gods hither Thou art the Hotri in an easy-moving chariot. instituted by Manus ' the 5. Strew, O thoughtful men, in due order sacrificial grass, the back (or surface) of which is 4. ! ^ sprinkled with butter, on which the appearance of immortality 6. May ^ (is seen). the divine gates open, the increasers of Rita, which do not stick together, that to-day, that now 7. the sacrifice I may invoke here at proceed. this sacrifice Night and Dawn, the beautifully adorned goddesses, that they sit down on 8. I with this our may sacrificial grass. invoke these two divine Hotr/s the sages May they perform this tongues. ', beautiful sacrifice for us. Nourishment'), Sarasvati, and Mahi (' the great one ') the three comfort-giving goddesses, they who do not fail, shall sit down on the sacrificial 9. I/a grass. ('
  19. 19. MAATDALA 10. come O 1 1. 1 3. 9 invoke hither the foremost, all-shaped Tva- I sh^rz to HYMN T, hither ; may he be ours alone. tree let the sacrificial food go, May the gods. O god, to the giver's splendour be foremost. Offer ye the sacrifice with the word Svaha 12. Thereto to Indra in the sacrificer's house. I invoke the &' eods. NOTES. The hymn it Ill, II, I, Its Verse 9 697-700. II, I ; to which Kaz/va (see the note on the metre is Gayatri. Verses 1-4 — Medhatithi preceding hymn). SV. whole collection ascribed, as the is belongs, to TB. = RV. Ill, 5, 12, The hymn belongs I ; V, MS. 5, 8. Verse 10 = TS. IV, 13, 10. Apri hymns, which were classed by the ancient arrangers of the Sawhita among the Agni hymns. The Apri hymns, consisting of eleven or twelve verses, were destined for the Praya^a offerings of the animal sacrifice (comp. H. O., Zeitschrift der D, Morg. Gesellschaft, XLII, 243 seq.). They were addressed, verse by verse in to the class of regular order, partly to Agni^, partly to different spirits or deified objects connected with the sacrifice, such as the sacrificial grass, the divine gates through which the gods had to pass on their way to the sacrifice, &c. The second verse was addressed by some of the Rishi families to Tanunapat, by some to Naraj-a;«sa in some of the hymns we find two verses instead of one (so that the total number of verses becomes twelve instead ; of eleven) addressed the one to Tanunapit, the other to Naraj-a;;zsa. Bergaigne (Recherches sur I'histoire de la Liturgie Vedique, p. 14) conjectures that some of the7?/shi This opinion is based families had only seven Praya^as. on the identical appearance of four verses (8-1 1) in the Apri hymns of the Viwamitras (III, 4) and of the Vasish///as (VII, 2), and on the diversity of metres used in two other Apri hymns, IX, 5 and II, 3. To me this conjecture, though very ingenious, does not seem convincing.
  20. 20. ; lO VEDIC HYMNS. With the text of the Apri hymns should be compared the corresponding Praishas of the Maitravaru;/a priest, by which the orders this pronounce the Praya^a invocations. Praishas given Taitt. Brahm. Ill, is Comp. on the character and position of the Apri hymns, Literature, p. 403 seq. ; the directed priest The i.e. Hotrz to text of these 6, 2. the historical and ritual Max Miiller, Hist. Roth, Nirukta, notes, Anc. Sansc. p. lai seq. ; Ludwig V, 315 seq. Hillebrandt, Das Altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 94 seq. Schwab, Das Altindische Thieropfer, 90 seq.; Ber- Weber, Indische Studien, X, 89 seq. ; ; ; gaigne, Recherches sur I'histoire de la Liturgie Vedique, 13 seq. Verse Note 1. Comp. 1. Dclbriack, Syntactische Forschungen, 1,97. Verses 3. 2, Note 1. Does Tanunapat, lit. son of the body,' mean, as Roth and Grassmann believed, 'son of his own self (comp. I, 12, 6. agni'na agni/i sam idhyate, by Agni Agni is kindled '), or is the meaning le propre fils' (Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique II, 100)? Narai-awsa, which is nearly identical with the Avestic Nairyosaiiha, means the song of men,' or 'praised by men (Bergaigne, 1. 1. I, 305 M. M.'s note on VII, 46, 4). In III, 29, 11 it is said of Agni: He is called Tanunapat as the foetus of the Asura he becomes Naraj-az/vsa when he is born.' Of course an expression like this is by no means sufficient to prove that the sacrificial gods Tanunapat and Nara.ya;«sa, as invoked in the Apri hymns, are nothing but forms of ' ' ' ' ' ; ' Expressions which are constantly repeated in the Apri verses show that the work of Tanunapat, and likeAgni. wise that of Naraj^awsa, consisted ' honey' over the in spreading ghr/ta or sacrifice. Verse 4. comp. the note on I, i, t. The third, or if both Tanunapat and Naraj-awsa are invoked, the fourth verse of the Apri hymns is regularly Note 1. ' Magnified' is i/ita/^ ; addressed to Agni with this epithet i/ita.
  21. 21. MA^DALA I, HYMN 1 II 3. Note 2. Manurhita, instituted by Manus,' not See Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, I, 65 seq. ' Verse 1. On 2. Note The ' by men.' 5. anushak, comp. Pischel, Vcdische Studicn, II, 125. Note last Pada is translated by Grassmann, wo * der unsterbliche sich zeigt' (comp. Bergaigne, R.V. note 1) To me ; by Ludwig, ' auf dem man das unsterbliche I, 194, sieht.' seems impossible to decide, so as to leave no doubt, whether amr/tasya is masculine or neuter. Comp. also Atharva-veda V, 4, 3 XIX, 39, 6-8, in which 28, 7 passages the phrase amr/tasya kakshauam recurs. it ; ; Verse 8. Note 1. The two divine Hotr/s are mentioned in the Rig-veda only in the eighth (or seventh) verse of the Aprisuktas and besides in two passages, X, 6^^, lo: 66, 13, which do not throw any light on the nature of these sacrificial gods. They are called ^atavedasa VII, 2, 7, purohitau X, 70, 7, bhisha^a Va^. Sawh. XXVIII, 7. As regards these divine the duality of human Hotr/ priest, possibly the counterparts of the two Hotr/s' should be ' understood as the Hotr/ and the Maitravaru;/a was the constant companion and in the Vedic animal disches Thieropfer, 96, 14, 117, the latter assistant of the former Comp. Schwab, sacrifice. 1 ; &c. ; H. Altin- O., Religion des Veda, 391. Comp. on the two divine Hotr/s also Bergaigne, R.V. I, 233 seq. Verse 9. Note 1. On I/a, see H. O., Religion des Veda, pp. 72, With regard to Mahi Bergaigne (Rel. Vedique, I, 322) 326. — has pronounced the opinion that Bharati et Mahi, qui, tantot ' se remplacent, tantot se juxtaposent tout en paraissant ne compter que pour une, se confondent aux yeux des r/shis.' But Pischel (Ved. Studien, II, 84 seq.) has shown that the eminent French scholar was wrong, and that really Mahi Pischd's (• the great one ') is independent of Bharati.
  22. 22. I VEDIC HYMNS. 2 own opinion that Mahi does not seem reasons. Max — On Miiller writes to be local Sarasvati, to me to name be Note 1. by estabHshed ' sufficient and another To me more it on Nourishment as fix Originally those three goddesses I/a. I/a, : should not I : the land or daughter of Manu, the river here called Mahi.' Verse translate of the goddess Dhisha;/a, the meaning of these three goddesses Prof. the true meaning of seem a is 11. seems evident that the literally, tree, or, to the lord of the forest (vanaspati) A Apri verse can only be the sacrificial post (yupa) to which the victim was tied before it was killed. The yupa is called vanaspati in the Rig-veda (III, 8, i. 3. 6. 11) as well as in the more modern Vedic texts (for inst., Taitt. Sa7«h. I, 3, 6, i). In the Apri hymn, IX, 5 (verse 10), the vanaspati is called sahasravaba with this should be compared III, 8, 11 (addressed to the yupa): vanaspate vi roha sahasravaUa/^ vi vayam ruhema, O lord may we rise of the forest, rise with a hundred offshoots with a thousand offshoots ' In the Apri hymn, X, 70 (verse 10), the rope (rai^ana) is mentioned by which the vanaspati should tie the victim comp. with this expression invoked in this — : ' ; ! — ; the statements of the ritual texts as to the rai"ana with which the victim is Brahma;<?a III, is 6, yupa tied to the Comp. dische Thieropfer, 81. 11, 3. Schwab, Das Altin- ; especially Taittiriya also — In the Apri hymns the vanaspati frequently invoked to let loose the victim therewith mention (j-amitr/), see II, 3, Va^. Sa;/^hita is made 10; III, XXI, 21 ; of 4, 10 the ; XXVIII, kill the victim, they loosen therefore, can be said to let it it 10. When butcher if lo, we explain the they are going to from the post loose. connection in and comp. The meaning of X, 110, these expressions becomes clear at once, vanaspati as the sacrificial post. ; sacrificial Then ; the post, the butcher away. See the materials collected by Schwab, Thieropfer, p. 100 seq., and comp. also H. O., Religion des Veda, 257. (sa.miiri) leads the victim
  23. 23. MAiVDALA I, MA7V/"/;ALA ASHZAKA 1. O Clothe I, IIVMN 26. ADHYAYA (god), 2, 2G. VARGA thy clothing- thyself with sacrificial HYMN I, I^ lord of all vigour 20-21. (of ; light), and then worship for us. down, most youthful god, as our desirable Hotr/, through (our prayerful) thoughts O Agni, with thy word ^ that goes to heaven. perform this 2. Sit 3. The by sacrificing procures (blessson the companion for the companion, father verily ings) for the the elect friend for the friend. 4. May Varu^^a, riches (?) ', sit Mitra, Aryaman, triumphant with down on our grass as they sacrificial did on Manu's. 5. O ancient Hotr/, be pleased with this and hear these prayers. For whenever we sacrifice constantly^ our friendship also, 6. to this or to that god, in thee alone the sacrificial food is offered. May he be dear to us, the lord of the clan, the joy-giving, elect Hotr/; may we be dear (to him), 7. possessed of a good Agni (i. e. of good fire). For the gods, when possessed of a good Agni, have eiven us excellent wealth, and we think ourselves possessed of a good Agni. 8. 9. And may of both there be the mortals, O among us mutual praises immortal one, (and the immortals) 10. With all Agnis (i.e. with all thy fires), O Agni, and this prayer, O young (son) accept this sacrifice of strength'.
  24. 24. VEDTC HYMNS. 14 NOTES. This hymn, as well as the whole collection to which it is ascribed to vSuna/wepa Ao-igarti (comp. 24, 12. 13). belongs, The metre is Gayatri. de la Sawhita, II, 7) Bergaigne (Recherches sur divides this hymn I'histoire into TrZ-^as, with one single verse added at the end. I cannot find sufficient the appearance in the Sama-veda evidence for this ; 967-9) of a Tn'ka. composed of the verses of our hymn is rather against Bergaigne's opinion. (II, 10. 6. 7 "Verse 2. Note 1. Manmabhi// (wise) thoughts; ' may possibly mean, 'with comp., for instance, III, sudhita agne// a.fyama manmabhi//, ' thy vuvani we obtain every 11, 8. pari may through Agni's (wise) thoughts,' or the blessings of Agni for our prayers.' bliss all • may we obtain Va^as stands for va/^asa. See the passages by Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 562, and comp. Roth, Ueber gewisse Kiirzungen des Wortendes im Veda, 5 Note 2. collected ; Joh. Schmidt, Die Pluralbildungen der indogermanischen Neutra, 304 seq. Ludwig also takes va^'as as instru- mental. Verse Note 1. Agni is 3. the father, the mortal whose sacrifice he performs, the son. Verse 4. Note 1. Can rii-adas be explained as a compound of ri (Tiefstufe of rai, as gu is the Tiefstufe of gau) and %adas, from the root sad, to be triumphant ? Prof. Auf' recht (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, Bezz. Beitr. XIX, ' XIV, 33 143) connects ri- ; see also Neisser, with the Greek epi- our hypothesis has the advantage of not {(piKvhj'i &c.) Comp. M. M.'s note on leaving the limits of Sanskrit. V, 60, 7 Ludwig, Ueber die neuestcn Arbeiten auf dem ; — ; Gebiete der Rig-veda-Forschung (1893), p. 7.
  25. 25. MAiVZ)ALA I, Verse Note 1. On j-aj-vata tana see Verse Note 1. HYMN 26. 15 6. Lanman, 480, 515, 518. 9. The comparison amr/ta martyanam in of verse 8 and the expression the second Pada of this verse seem show that ubhayesham does not refer to two classes of mortals, the priests and their patrons, but to the mortals and the immortals. genitive amr/tanam, which would to A make this meaning quite clear, can easily be supphed. A Dvandva compound amr/tamartyanam, which one tempted to conjecture, would have, in my modern a character. Prof. Max Miiller writes: I should prefer amr/ta martyanam, not exactly as a compound, but as standing for amrztanam martyanam. This seems to be Ludwig's opinion too.' could feel — opinion, too ' Verse Note 1. In the translation Geldner, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, lation is similar. 10. of sahasa// XXVIII, 195 ; yaho I follow Ludwig's trans-
  26. 26. 6 VEDIC HYMNS. 1 MAA^Z:>ALA ASHrAKA I. HYMN I, ADHYAyA 2, 27. VARGA 22-24. A. With reverence 1. worship thee who art shall I long-tailed like a horse, Agni, the king of worship. May 2. he, our son of strength ^ proceeding broad way, the his propitious, become on bountiful to us. 3. Thus protect us always, thou who hast a full from the mortal who seeks to do us harm ^ whether near or afar. 4. And mayest thou, O Agni, announce to the life, gods 5. this our newest Gayatra song. booty that is highest efficient Let us partake of all and that is middle (i. e. that dwells and in the middle world) help us in that 6. is O the highest to the wealth ; nearest. god with bright splendour, thou distributor. Thou giver in the wave of the art the instantly flowest for the liberal river, near at hand. B. 7. The in battles, will 8. him, 9. mortal, whom command O Agni, thou protectest in the races he constant nourishment Whosoever he may O conqueror (Agni) May whom thou speedest ! be, : no one will His strength^ he (the man), known among win the race with his horses ; of his priests become a gainer. may he overtake glorious. is all tribes ^, with the help
  27. 27. : MAiVDALA O HYMN I, 27. I 7 Accomplish this (task) for every hoiise^: a beautiful song of praise for wor10. shipful (9arabodha^ Rudra^ May 11. the he, smoke-bannered, May he hear in immeasurable, the great, rich and (pious) thoughts 12. ! splendour, incite the us to to strength. us, like the rich lord of a clan, the banner of the gods, on behalf of our hymns, Agfni with brio^ht Reverence 13. the lesser ones okP to the May of my ! not, I lio-ht. to the great Reverence ! Let us O ones, reverence to to the young, reverence sacrifice to the gods, if gods, fall we can. as a victim to the curse better^, NOTES. The hymn is ascribed to Suna/isepa. (see note on I, The metre is Gayatri the last verse is Trish/ubh. The laws of arrangement of the Sa//^hita show that 26). ; this and follows after a hymn verses belonging to the same deity, must be divided of ten into a number of minor hymns. On the question of this division some further light is thrown by the metre. The first six verses and then again the verses 10-12 are composed in the trochaic form of the Gayatri metre of the verses 7-9, on the other hand, not a single Pada shows hymn, which has thirteen verses ; the characteristics of that metre. the verses 1-6 form one I hymn by two hymns of three verses each. believe, therefore, that themselves, or possibly Then follow two hymns which is composed in a different metre, it is difficult to determine its exact nature. It may be a later addition though in that case verses 7-9, 10-12. As to verse 13, : [4r;] C
  28. 28. vedic hymns. t8 we why was placed at god it contains no reference whatever. Or it may form part of the hymn 10-12 in that case we should have to consider this whole hymn, which would then violate the rules of hardly be able to explain shall hymns addressed the end of the it to Agni, to which : arrangement, as an addition to the original collection. We may add that the Sama-veda gives the first twelve hymns: 7-9 = sv. verses of this Sukta so as to form four independent = SV. II, 984-6; 4. 6. 5 = SV. II, 847-9 765-7; 10-12 = SV. II, 1013-15. Besides, verse i is found in SV. I, 17. Verse 4 = SV. I, 28 TAr. IV, 11, 8. Verse 7 = VS. VI, 29 TS. I, 3, 13, 2 MS, I, 3, 1. Verse 10 = SV. I, 15. Comp. Bergaigne, Recherches sur I'histoire de la Sa;//hita, II, pp. 7-8 H. O., Prolegomena, 225-226. 1-3 ; II, ; ; ; ; Verse Note 1. It requires 2. a stronger belief in the infallibility I possess, not to change j-avasa do not think that I, 62, 9 (sanemi sakhyam svapasyamana// sixnu/i dadhara i'avasa sudawsa/^) furnishes a sufficient argument against this conjecture. of Vedic text tradition than into javasa//. I Verse Note 1. 3. Grassmann reads aghaayo/i metre; Prof. Max for the sake of the Mliller proposes aghay(5//. the missing syllable should be gained by think that I disyllabic pro- Comp. nunciation of -at in martyat or rather martiat. Prolegomena 185 and the quotations given there in my note i. Verses 7-9. Note It is 1. not my intention to enter here into a discussion on so frequently discussed a translated Note 2. it in verses 7, 9 by ' race,' in The expression used sa/i j-ushmi' as va^a. verse 8 in verses 7 be compared especially with VII, 40, maruta/^ word yam martyam 3. sa/i by and it ' I new have strength.' 8 should ugra/i astu pr/shadaj-va// avatha, uta im agni/i sdrasvati ^unanti na tasya vaya/i paryeta asti.
  29. 29. MAiVDALA Note HYMN I, 27. jg Vuva^arsha«i, a frequent epithet of Agni, here by Agni; comp. I, 64, 14 (vol. xxxii, p. 108) X, 93, 10 (vi^vai-arsha/zi srsLva/i). 3. to the mortal hero protected refers ; Verse 10. Note 1. I think that Ludwig is right in taking 6^arabodha for a proper name. Note 2. Vij-e-vij-e may possibly depend on ya^;2iyaya, we should have so that to translate ' : a beautiful song of praise to Rudra every house.' Note Rudra 3. here a designation is next verses show. is The word this task : worshipful for of Agni, as Comp. Pischel-Geldner, Verse Note Administer who I, the ^6. 13. occurring only here, is IV, ss, 3 X,S9, 4, sana or sanaya stands in contrast with yuvan. Shall we conjecture nama^ a sanehhya/i ? 1. doubtful. In III, 6 I, as'ma., 'old,' ; ; Note 2. The last Pada of sam a vnkshi deva/^ C May this verse, not, ma £jayasa/i sam- O gods, neglect the praise of the greatest,' Muir, V, 12), offers some difficulty. It may be I doubted whether a vr/kshi belongs to a-vH^ or to a-vraj^. Let us see what would be the meaning of the passage, we were speaks : to VIII, loi, 16 the cow devTm devihhya/i pari eyiishim gam a ma avrtkta martya/^ dabhra^-eta//, come if decide for a-vri^. ' Me the goddess, the cow, who has hither from the gods, the weak-minded mortal has appropriated.' ^atapatha Brahmawa XIV, 9, 4, 3. ya evam vidvan adhopahasaw /-araty a sa stri;m;/z sukrzta;« vrmkte ^tha ya idam avidvan adhopahasa;^ /^araty asya striya// He who knowing this, &c., approgood works of the women. But the women appropriate the good works of him who without knowing this,' &c. In Rig-veda X, 159, 5 also we probably have a form of ^-vrig: There we find the triumphant utterance sukrzta;// vrzV/^ate, ' priates the C 2
  30. 30. — ; VEDIC HYMNS. 20 of a wife who has gained superiority over her fellow-wives a avrz'ksham anyasam var^a/z, We may splendour of the other wives.' these passages that our Pada, would mean 3i-vrig, my of On : May ' I : have won for myself the I ' a if v;-zkshi conclude from is derived from not draw on myself the curse better.' the other hand we have a great number of passages — they have been collected by Ludwig, IV, 249 seq. in which the verb a-vraj-/^ appears. Referring the reader for information to Ludwig, fuller I content myself here with two of these passages. Taitt. Sa;«h. II, 4, II, 4. devatabhyo va esha a vrisky^ie. yo yakshya ity uktva na ya^ate. In translating this we should remember that wdisk means to cut down ' a-vraj",^, therefore, must selecting one or ' be ' e. i. he so that the object reaches a certain desti- translate therefore I and does not sacrifice," — down to cut nation.' is ' : He who down sacrifice, is cut says, " dedicated or forfeited to the deities and destroyed (comp. a different explanation of Delbriick, Altindische shall I for the deities,' is thus by Syntax, 143). In other passages is used for indicating the not the dative but the locative whom somebody being to XII, A 4, 6. 12. is forfeited 18. ; see Atharva-veda 12, 6. 10. Rig-vedic passage containing X, 87, is XV, 26; a-vrai^/' (with the dative) a vrisky3.nikm. aditaye dureva//, 'May the evil-doers be forfeited to Aditi.' Several times same form we find the first person aor. as in our passage, a vr/kshi med. in the see, for instance, the ; Nivid formula to the Vijve deva//, vS'ankhayana ^"rautasutra In this Nivid, the text of which as given VIII, 21. Hillebrandt is not quite identical with that of Ludwig, read according to Hillebrandt's edition ma vij'asayur a vr/kshi. similar to our passage. Sa;;/hita I, 6, 6, i. This is verse. The same may be it is the verb a which It mi vo deva avijasa : ... a vrz'kshi looks quite said of Taittiriya yat te tapas tasmai Considering such passages it ma by we difficult te mavr/kshi. not to believe that we have before us in our must be admitted indeed that the accusative
  31. 31. MANDAhA I, HYMN 21 27. S3.msa.m does not agree with the construction of the later Can the accusative stand in the ancient in the same connection in which we have found the dative and the locative ? So that Vedic passages. language of the Rig-veda d-vrajX' (in the mean being, middle or passive) with the accusative would down in the direction towards another to be cut : i. e. being forfeited to that being translation of our passage fall would be ? In that case the May I not, O gods, as a victim to the praise (or rather, to the curse) of explanation of the accusative better/ If this too bold, we should propose get a dative tive ' : : or, which would ma ^yayasa// is my thought to correct the text so as to suit the metre better, a loca- i-awsaya (or sawse) a v;7'kshi dev4//.
  32. 32. VEDIC HYMNS. 22 MAA^i9ALA ASHTAKA I, I, HYMN ADHYAYA 2, 31. VARGA 32-35. Thou, O Agni, (who art) the first Aiigiras 7?/shi, hast become as god the kind friend of the gods. After thy law the sages, active in their wisdom were born, the Maruts with brilHant spears. 2. Thou, O Agni, the first, highest Arigiras, a sage, administerest the law of the gods, mighty for the whole world, wise, the son of the two mothers reposing everywhere for (the use of) the living^. O Agni, as the first, shalt become^ 3. Thou, 1. manifest to Matari^van, through thy high wisdom, to The two worlds trembled Thou hast sustained Hot/'/. Vivasvat. at (thy) elec- tion as the burthen thou, O ; Vasu, hast sacrificed to the great (gods) ^ Thou, O Agni, hast caused the sky to roar^ Manu, for the well-doing Pururavas, being thyself When thou art loosened by a greater well-doer. power (?)- from thy parents, they led thee hither before and afterwards again. 5. Thou, O Agni, the bull, the augmenter of prosperity, art to be praised by the sacrificer who raises the spoon, who knows all about the offering^ and (the Thou sacrifice performed with) the word VashaA 4. for (god) of unique vigour art the first to invite' the clans. 6. Thou, O Agni, leadest forward the follows crooked wa)s', in thy fice-, strife O god dwelling among of heroes, in company all at the sacri- who in moment for tribes, the decisive man who the the
  33. 33. UANDALA I, HYMN 3 23 1. obtainment of the prized even with few companions many killest foes in the battle*. O Thou, Agni, keepest that mortal^ in the highest immortahty, in glory day by day, (thou) who 7. being thirsty thyself^ givest happiness to both races (gods and men), and joy to the rich. O Thou, 8. Agni, praised by singer to gain prizes. May we us, help the glorious accomplish our work with the help of the young active (Agni). O Heaven Bless us together with the gods. and Earth ! O Thou, 9. among Agni, O gods, in the lap of thy parents, a god blameless one, always watchful, be Thou, the body's creator and guardian to the singer. beautiful one, pourest forth all wealth. O 10. Thou, O Agni, art our guardian, thou art our we are thy art the giver of strength Thou father. ; Hundredfold, thousandfold treasures come together in thee, who art rich in heroes, the guardian of the law, O undeceivable one. kinsmen. 11. living Thee, as Nahusha-. teacher of is O the Agni, the gods have made for the first living the They have made men (manusha), when clan-lord of the (the goddess) I/a the a son of my father born^. O Agni, protect with thy guardians, O god, our liberal givers and ourselves, O venerable Thou art the protector of kith and kin^ and one of the cows, unremittingly watching over thy law. 12. Thou, ! 13^ Thou, O Agni, art kindled four-eyed, as the closest guardian for the sacrificer who is without (even) a quiver^ Thou acceptest in thy hymn even of the poor'^ who has made that he may prosper without danger. 14. Thou, O mind the offerings*, Agni, gainest' for the widely-re-
  34. 34. VEDIC HYMNS. >4 nowned worshipper and that property which Thou excellent. art called even of the weak^ father ; is desirable the guardian and thou the instructest simple, thou, the greatest sage, the quarters of the world ^. Thou, 15. well-stitched O He who fees. Agni, protectest on every side like armour the man who gives puts sweet food (before the priests), who makes them comfortable kills living (victims), Forgive, 16. sacrificial O (will reside) high in heaven ^ Agni, this our fault (?) (look graciously at) this Thou he who in his dwelling, way which we have wandered companion, the guardian, the father of those who offer Soma thou art the quick one^ who makes the mortals 7?zshis^ 17. As thou didst for Manus, O Agni, for Angiras, from afar. art the ; O Angiras, for Yayati on thy (priestly) seat, as for the ancients, O brilliant one, come hither, conduct hither the host of the gods, seat them on the sacrificial grass, beloved (host). O Agni, through this spell for thee with our skill or with knowledore. And lead us forward to better our Let us be united with thy favour, which things. and sacrifice to the 18. Be magnified, which we have made bestows strength. NOTES. The him c^[^, Rish'i of the hymn is Hira;/yastupa Aiigirasa. tradition ascribes the authorship of the collection probably because in I, To 31- X, 149, 5 the poet invokes Savitr/, 'as Hirawyastupa the Aiigirasa has called thee, O Savitr/.' Vedic theologians of course tried to find out where this invocation of Hira/zyastupa to Savitr/ v^as preserved, and the hymn, I, 35, seemed to agree best with the conditions
  35. 35. MAiVZ>ALA HYMN I, 3 25 1. of the case (comp. Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Ges. XLII, 330). By this and many similar cases it is made probable that at the time when knowledge belong, was first Ma.7ida.a. The metre is 6^agati Verse Trish/ubh. Verse 12 I. Anukramawi was composed, the whom as to authors to = lost. only the verses ; =VS. 1 VS. real all the collections of the With verse 34, 13. 8, Verse 8 34, 12. 18 16, = MS. AV. 16 comp. are IV, 11, Ill, 15,4- Verse 1. Note 1. Vidmanapasa// seems to be nom. plur., not gen. Comp. I, in, i. takshan ratham vidmanapasa//, they (the A'zbhus), active in their wisdom, have wrought sing. ' . . . the chariot.' Verso Note 1. As to dvimata 2. sayu/i, comp. Ill, ^^, 6 (sa.yu/i parastat adha nu dvimata); Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, — On Agni's two mothers and his double birth see Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 52. 50. 2. By 'living' I have translated ayu. word, Bergaigne, Rel. Ved., I, 59 seq. Note this Verse Note 1. 3. Probably Bergaigne (Rel. Ved. I, right in conjecturing hhava/i for bhava. should have to translate manifest to Matari^-van.' Note devan it ; 2, I Thou ; III, 7, 9 ? See ; first hast we have 16, 2 ; is we become to supply Can Lanman, 48, 4, &c. vol. xxxii, p. 307 ; ' M. M. Verse Note VI, ^S, note 2) In this case as the believe that to maha/z see II, ^y, 6 not be an adverb p. 501,' ' : See on 1. bull of the Comp. V, dawn. Dyu (sky) may Dyaus 58, 6. let V, 59, bounded) roar for our feast. 8. 4. roar down, the Aditi (the un-
  36. 36. 26 VEDIC HYMNS. Note rests It j'u^uve, 2. The translation of j-vatra is purely conjectural. on the supposition that the word is related to j-avas, &c. (thus Grassmann). Boehtlingk-Roth connect it with svad, which they give the meaning ' impossible phonetically is ; schmackhaft,' and paraphrase our passage das mit einer Lockspeise (z. B. mit einem Spahn) von den Reibholzern abgenommene Feuer kann man hin und her tragen. Ludwig mit Geprassel. I do not see how this translation would fit for a number of the passages in which the word occurs. : : Verse Note 1. With the 5. Pada compare VI, third ahutim pari veda namobhi//. Note 2. Avi'vasasi cannot belong to the The accent must be changed accordingly. Verse Note 1. It is Ludwig 9. ya// relative clause. 6. very curious to find here Agni as the pro- tector of the v;7^inavartani, the ways. i, tries man who follows crooked to explain the passage by under- which Agni is here said to protect the sinner, as an asylum, but we have no reason to believe that the word could have this meaning. See the next note. standing the vidatha, Note 2. On the in and meaning of vidatha derivation various opinions have been pronounced in the last years, which have been collected by Prof. Max Miiller in his note on V, 59, 2 (vol. xxxii, p. 349 seq. see also Bartholomae, Studien zur indogermanischen Sprachgeschichte, I, 41). Without trying to discuss here all different theories, I im; my own mediately proceed to state far I from claiming certainty for opinion, though It it. will, believe, solve the difiiculties tolerably well. derive vidatha from vi-dha ; I I am however, propose to the dh was changed into d by the same 'Hauchdissimilationsgesetz'(Brugmann,Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik, vol. i, p. 355 seq.), accord- ing to which Arian *bhaudhati was. changed into Sanskrit
  37. 37. 6 ; MAA^DALA HYMN I, 3I. 27 bodhati. No one will doubt that the operation of this 'Hauchdissimilationsgesetz' could be annihilated by opposite forces, but it must be admitted that the forms with ' Hauchdissimilation vi-dha means The verb could also remain intact. ' to distribute, to arrange, to ordain thus the original meaning of vidatha must be, like the meaning of vidhana, distribution, disposition, ordinance.' In V, 3, ' ; ' ' we read vidatheshu ahnam this phrase receives its explanaye dadhu// j-aradam masam at aha/^ ahoratraV/i vidadhat, X, 190, 2 masam vidhanam, X, 138, tion by VII, 66, J : VI I. ; 6 ; ritun . . vi . also to VI, 51, dadhau, 2. veda We may 95, 3. ya/i tri;n vidathani ^anma, he who knows ' the gods;' VI, I, call attention esham devanam their threefold division, the birth of pra nii vo/^am vidatha ^atavedasa/^ proclaim the ordinances of 6^atavedas.' Within the sphere of the Vedic poets' thoughts, the most prominent ' 8, i. I will example of something most sacrifice sAvisati (comp. vi artificially ye dadhii/^ uktham ya^ate . . . vi u dha/i, ' vi'hita ' was the ya^;/am, VII, 66, 11 IV, 6, 1 1 ; [the ; moon] bhagam devebhya/i vi dadhati a-yan, X, 85, 19; and the following very significant passage: ya^/?asya tva vidatha pn'kk/iam atra kati hotara/^ XXIII, ' j^itusa/i ya^anti, Va^. Sawh. Thus ya^;7a and vidatha, 'sacrifice' and became nearly synonymous (comp. Ill, 3, 57). ordinance,' 3, &c.). number would be superfluous It of passages which show this, but attentive reader will discern at least in traces of the original quote the whole to meaning of vidatha believe that an I some of them the ; see, for instance, — Finally vidatha seems to mean the act 1,4; III, 28,4. of disposing of any business this meaning or the like II, ' ' ; well-known phrase, brz'hat vadema vidathe suvfra// (comp. suvTrasa// vidatham a vadema) may we with valiant men mightily raise our appears, I believe, in passages like the ' : voice at the determining (of ordinances, &c.).' Thus the words vidatha and sabha approach each other in their meaning a person influential in council is called both vidathya and sabheya (see Boehtlingk-Roth, s. v. vidathya). Note 3. The exact meaning of paritakmya is not quite ;
  38. 38. 28 VEDIC HYMNS. from free Beitrage, Comp. Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's doubt. XV, 203, note Max i. Thou man who has gone the wrong way in the thick battle, thou who art quick at the sacrifice thou who Note 4. Prof Miiller translates this verse ' : savest the of the ; in the strife of heroes, rounded (beset on when the The phrase 1. begins as follow attached to the words this, ' sur- is &c. all sides), killest,' Verse Note prize (or the booty) 7. a relative clause were to if that mortal.' But, instead of afterwards a relative clause follows referring to ' thou, Agni.' Note 2. Roth (Ueber gewisse Kiirzungen des Wortendes, p. 4) and Bartholomae (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXIX, 559) think that a dative (like tatrz'shawaya) is required Agni Roth gives comfort to both thirsty races, gods and men. ; takes tat;7'sha«a[//] for an abbreviation of tatr/sha;/aya ; It would be more Bartholomae conjectures tatr/shaya. easy to change the form into a dative with the ending -a (=:-ai); comp. Kluge, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXV, 309; Pischel-Geldner, I, 61 Aufrecht, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, But why not leave 1 J. Schmidt, Pluralbildungen, 234. Agni, being thirsty himself, quenches the nominative ? ; ; Comp. the thirst of other beings. J. Schmidt, Pluralbil- dungen, 309. Verse 11. Note 1. Ayum ayave. See verse 2, note 2. Note 2. The names Nahus, Nahusha have much the same value as Manus, Manusha. But it seems that not all the Aryan tribes, but only a certain part of them, were con- Comp. Bergaigne, sidered as descendants of Nahus. Vedique, Note II, 3. The last words are very obscure. Mamaka occurs only in one other passage, belonging to the collection of to ' hymns, I, 34, 6 bestow blessings on When Rel. 324. a son of my father ' my is same there the A^vins are invoked : son born ' ' (mamakaya sunave). may mean When ' I am
  39. 39. MAiVDALA 31. 29 'When a new issue is born within our may possibly supply the goddess born,' or then HYMN I. — thus we — tribe:' the teacher of mankind, will be the new-born child's teacher also. Another possible explanation would be to take Mamaka as a proper name. Or Prof. Max Miiller may be right, who writes ^ayate refer to putra//. Her 'Could not : Agni, who, father pitu// yat putra/^ in III, 29, 3, and husband (Manu) of mankind, therefore of the poet son of my father is born, who they made was mamakasya called i/aya/^ also the father is says I/a, : Whenever the I/a (his mother) the teacher of man.* Verse 12. Note 1. Trata tokasya tanaye seems to be nothing else but trata tokasya tanayasya, which would have had one syllable too much. Verse 13. Note 1. Comp. on this verse, Pischel, I, 216 seq. Note 2. Agni is to protect the man who has no quiver, and cannot, therefore, protect himself. The four eyes of the divine guardian seem to signify that he can look in all directions, and perhaps also that he has the power of seeing invisible bad demons. The watchdogs of Yama also are four-eyed, X, 14, 10. 11 474, note 4. 2; X, 103,3. Note Note Comp. ; comp. H. O., Religion des nishahgin, Rig-veda III, 30, 15 3. On 4. Ratahavya/^ means either a comp. Pischel kiri, god offerings, or a to stands here in the by VIII, whom first is Veda, V,S7, loc. cit. man who has made That offerings are made. sense ; it shown with great proba- where the khi/i rat£ihavya// man who, though poor, makes offerings and is a good sacrifices But if we are right in our translation of ratahavya/^, the verb vanoshi cannot belong to the relative clause; I propose to read vanoshi bility svadhvara/^ is 103, 13, described, the without accent. The way the accent of vanoshi, in which Pischel the words by taking tram manasd as a parenthesis, is too tries to kire/^ artificial. explain /('it man-
  40. 40. VEDIC HYMNS. 30 Verse Note 1. I 14. we should think that here, as in verse 13, read vanoshi without accent. Note This must be at least the approximate meaning For adhrasya one expects radhrasya,' M. M. 2. of adhra. Note ' 3. I think that the quarters of the nothing to do here, but that instead of pra read (with Ludwig) pra.disa./i. A similar world have disa/i we should mistake regarding the word pradii' occurs several times in the text of the Rigveda. instructest the simple, well ments.' Thou command- propose to translate the corrected text I Comp. vayunani knowing the (divine) ' : vidvan, dutyani vidvan, &c. Verse 15. Der ist des himels ebenbild (Ludwig). But Note 1. word upama is, as far as we can see, not very ancient. I take upama, with Boehtlingk-Roth, as an adverbial instruProf. Max Muller mental like dakshi;m', madhya, &c. ' ' this translates ' close or near to heaven.' Verse Note 1. SarAm 16. designates in the Atharva-veda VI, 43, 3 a fault or defect, the exact nature of which cannot be deter- mined. Boehtlingk-Roth propose Widerspanstigkeit, Hart- Max Muller, Abweg, Fehltritt. On bhr/mi, comp. M. M.'s note on II, 34, i. 3. Comp. Ill, 43, 5. kuvi't ma ?7'shim papivawsam sutasya (supply karase), Wilt thou make me a /v/shi after I have drunk Soma ? nackigkcit Note Note ; 2. ' '
  41. 41. MAA^DALA MATV^Z^ALA ASHZAKA We 1. I, 2^- 31 HYMN I, ADHYAyA 3, 36. VARGA 8-11. implore^ with well-spoken words the Agni who belongs rous- HYMN I, to many people ^ to the whom clans that worship the gocls^ vi'o-o- other people (also) magnify. Men have placed Agni (on the altar) as the augmenter of strength. May we worship thee, rich in sacrificial food. Thus be thou here to-day gracious 2. to us, a helper in 3. We our striving for gain, good one ! choose thee, the all-possessor, as our mes- The senger and as our Hot;/. who O around art great, spread ; flames of thee, thy rays touch the heaven. The 4. gods, Varu;^a, The thee, the ancient messenger. who worships 5. O Thou Aryaman, kindle Mitra, mortal, art the cheerful firm laws are comprised which the In thee, the blessed one, god, all thou who to the 7. sacrificial is gods that we may be Him, the rich in all oblations all the gods have made'. Agni, youngest offered. king, verily the With having overcome 8. food In thee O art gracious to us to-day reverentially. Agni, Hotrz and householder, Agni, the messenger of the clans. 6. O thee, gains through thee every prize. Sacrifice then and afterwards valiant men. adorers men approach Agni, kindle failures. Destroying the foe they (victoriously) got through Heaven and Earth and the waters; they
  42. 42. VEDIC HYMNS. 32 May have made wide room for their dwelling. manly (Agni)^, after he has received the become the side of Ka;^va at brilliant horse .neig^h as a ; may he in battles. Take thy seat thou art great. thou who most excellently repairest 9. O O the oblations, ; Shine forth, to the gods. Agni, holy god, emit thy red, beautiful smoke, orlorious 10. Manu one ! Thou whom the gods have placed here for O carrier Ka;/va and Medhyatithi, whom as the best performer of the sacrifice, of oblations, whom Vr/shan and Upastuta^ winner of prizes. (have worshipped,) the That Agni's nourishment has shone brightly whom Medhyatithi and Ka;^va have kindled on Him do these hymns, him do we behalf of RitdK 11. extol. 12. Fill (us with) wealth, for thou, Thou O Agni, hast companionship with the gods. art lord upon us ; thou self-dependent one, over glorious booty. Have mercy thou art great. Stand up straight for blessing us, like the god Savitr/, straight a winner of booty, when we with our worshippers and with ointments^ call thee''^ in 1 3. emulation (with other people). 14. from Standing straight, protect us by thy splendour evil; burn down every ghouls Let us stand we may walk and live. Find out our straight that worship15. among Save us, the gods. O Agni, from the sorcerer, save us from mischief, from the niggard. Save us from him
  43. 43. ! MAiVZ)ALA who does us harm I, HYMN or tries to 36. kill us, 33 O youngest god with bright splendour As 16. with a smite the nieeards in club^ all and him who deceives us, O god with fiery jaws. The mortal w^ho makes (his weapons) very sharp by night, may that impostor not rule directions, over us. Agni has won abundance in heroes, Agni Agni and the two Mitras (i.e. Mitra and Varu/^a) have blessed Medhyatithi, Agni (has blessed) Upastuta in the acquirement (of 1 7. prosperity (for Kauva). w^ealth) Through Agni we call hither from afar TurYadu, and Ugradeva. May Agni, our strength against the Dasyu, conduct Navavastva, B/'^hadratha, and Turviti^ 18. vai-a, 19. Manu has established thee, O Agni, as a light for all people. Thou hast shone forth with Kanva., born from grown strong, thou 7?/ta, whom the human races worship. 20. Agni's flames are impetuous and violent are terrible and not to be withstood. down ; they Always burn the sorcerers, and the allies of the Yatus, every ghouls NOTES. The to authorship of this hymn, and of the whole collection which it belongs (I, 36-43), is ascribed to Ka/^va Ghaura. Numerous passages show indeed that it was the family of the Ka;zvas, or rather, to speak more accurately, a branch of that family, among which this group of hymns has been composed. [4»S] But it is as great a mistake in this as in D
  44. 44. VEDIC HYMNS. 34 a number of similar cases to accept the founder of one of the great Brahmanical families as an author of Vedic Comp. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg, XLII, 215 seq. poems. schaft, The metre hymn the Verse i is alternately Brzliati and Satob/'zhati, so that = SV. I, Verse 9 = VS. XI, 37 59. 20, ; TAr. IV, 5, 2 (V, 4, 6) MS. II, 7, 3 IV, 9, 3I, SI VS. XI, 42 TS. IV, 1, 4, 2 (V, i, 5, MS. II, 7, 4. Verses 13, i4=TB. Ill, 6, i, 2 TAr. IV, I MS. IV, 13, I. Verse i9 = SV. I, 54. 3 (V, ; two verses. TS. IV, i, 3, consists of strophes (Pragatha) of 1, 4, 5) ; ; ; Verse i3 = SV. 3) Gesell- ; ; ; Verse Note we Literally, 1. use of the pronoun va//, 1. Comp. on entreat for you. this Delbrlick, Altindische Syntax, 206. See also Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XX, 64. Note 2. The meaning of yahva cannot be determined with full certainty. Note There 3. no is sufficient reason to change with Ludwig (IV, 254) puruwam to Puru;/am, and thus to convert the metrically correct Pada into an irregular one. Comp. — Bollensen, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XXII, 593- Note 4. On devayatfnam, comp. Lanman, Verse Note 'On 1. thee all 5. the eternal works are united, depend, which the gods have wrought lightning.' verse 2. 1. With the It is third such as sun, i.e. stars, 6. Pada compare the third Pada of a galita. Verse 8. 1. The word the foe (vr/tra) alludes to the name demon conquered by Indra see H. O., Religion des Note of the ; M. M. Verse Note p. 399. Veda, 135, note ' ' ; 2.
  45. 45. MAiVDALA HYMN T, 36. 35 The metre would become more correct by reading vrishahhi/i instead of v;7sha. Or V;-/sha«i, with V;7shan'? Comp. verse 10. Note 2. ' Verse 10. Note 1. Medhyatithi or Mcdhatithi is very frequently mentioned in connection with Ka;^va. Vrz'shan is taken as a proper name by Boehtlingk-Roth and by Grassmann (not by Ludw^ig) in VI, 16, 15. Possibly they are right, but in no case can Vr/shan of the sixth book, named by the side of DadhyawX' and Atharvan, be identified with any probability with the Vr/shan mentioned in our passage, who evidently belongs to the ancestors of the Ka;^vas. Upastuta Medhyatithi inVIII, is mentioned again together with Ka;/va and in verse 17 of 5, 25. Comp. Bergaigne, Rel. Ved., I, II, our hymn, together with Kawva 112,15; VIII, 103, 8; X, 115, 8. 9; 448. Verse 11. Comp. I, 139, 2. yat ha tyat mitrivaru;^av r/tat adhi adadathe anntam svena manyuna; X, 73, 5. manNote 1. damana// r/tat adhi. Verse 13. mean 'who have salved no reason to think of the anointing of the yupa (sacrificial post), to which Saya;/a refers the Note 1. Auoihh/i can possibly themselves.' There is word. Note 2. On vi-hva, comp. Pischel-Geldner, 1, must be a technical reason, unknown to me, nection in which this verb repeatedly occurs, as in our passage, with the noun vaghat below); VIII, 5, 16. purutra >^it manishiwa/^ vaghadbhi/^ asvin^ si Verse Note Note hi : comp. vam There 144. for the con- the case is Ill, <S, 10 (see nara vihvayante gatam. 14. unknown. 1. The exact meaning 2. Geldner's conjectures on duvas seem rather bold D of atn'n 2 is
  46. 46. VEDIC HYMNS. 2,6 to me (Kuhn's pp. 203-206 Zeitschrift, XXVII, Verse Note On 1. On 1. 16. 17. Medhyatithi and Upastuta, see the note on verse 10. Aufrecht (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, that in mitrota (X, ^'^, is 7) contained This XXVI, he translates ; is ' : and Upastuta very ingenious, but the reason which Aufrecht gives understood, he says, why should be mentioned in a is 612) beheves name an abbreviation of the Mitratithi, Medhyatithi, of wealth.' vol. xxxii, ghaneva, see Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 334. Verse Note Comp. 233). 165, 14). (I, Mitratithi Agni has promoted in the I acquirement do not think that sufficient it : cannot be Mitra (or Mitra and Varu;za) hymn exclusively addressed to — But similar cases are quite frequent, Prof. Max M tiller writes Could mitra stand for mitra;n ? Agni has Comp. also protected his friends and also Medhyatithi.' Agni. ' : Lanman, p. 342. Vdrse Note 18. On Turva^a and Yadu, comp. Muir, V, 2H6 354 seq. Zeitschr. der D. Morg. Ges. XLII, 220. There is not the slightest reason for Ludwig's statement (IV, 254) that this hymn is a gebet um sig fiir den auf einem kriegszuge befindlichen Turva^akonig.' Ugradeva is not mentioned again. On Navavastva and on Turviti, the VI, 20, 11 BrzTiadratha, comp. X, 49, 6 1. Bergaigne, ; II, ; ' ; ; materials collected by Bergaigne, Rel. Ved., Verse 20. Note 1. See verse 14, note i. II, 358 seq.
  47. 47. MAiVDALA T, MAiVi9ALA ASHTAKA 1. I, HYMN I, 44. HYMN ADHYAYA 3, 37 44. VARGA 28-30. Agni, at the rising of the dawn^ bring splendid wealth, immortal 6"atavedas, to the worshipper, (and bring hither) to-day the gods awakening with the dawn. 2. of For thou art the accepted messenger, the bearer sacrificial food, O Agni, the charioteer of worship. United with the two Ajrvins and with the Dawn bestow on us abundance of valiant heroes, and high glory. We choose to-day as our messenger Agni, the Vasu, the beloved of many, whose banner is smoke, 3. whose ... Ms light, at the dawning of the day, the beautifier of sacrifices^. 4. I magnify at the dawning of the day Agni G"atavedas, the best, the youngest guest, the best welcome the gods^ receiver of offerings, he may go to 5. lives, O I shall praise thee, O to pious people, that food on which everything immortal one', Agni, the immortal protector. holy god, the best sacrificer, O bearer of sacrificial food. 6. Be kind-spoken to him who praises thee, O youngest god, honey-tongued, the best receiver of Lengthening Praska;^va's life, that he offerings. may reach old age, do homage' to the host of the gods. 7. The clans kindle thee, the all-possessing Hotr/:
  48. 48. — ! VEDIC HYMNS. '^S J conduct therefore hither speedily, much-invoked Agni, the provident gods Dawn, the two A^vins, Bhaga, dawning (of the day), (at the end) of The Ka;^vas, having pressed Soma, inflame Savitr/, the 8. Agni at the night". O thee, the bearer of sacrificial food, best performer of worship. As 9. O thou, Agni, art the lord of worship, the messenger of the clans, conduct hither to-day the gods awakening with the dawn, of sun-like aspect, that they may drink Soma. 10. Agni, rich in splendour! thou hast shone Thou art the after the former dawns, visible to all. guardian lono^est to 1 1. Manus fice, O the hamlets, the in men Agni, did, O Purohita ; thou be- at the sacrifices let down us put thee (on the altar) as god, to be the performer of the sacri- the Hotr^, the wise priest, the quick immortal messenger. 12. When thou, the Purohita of the gods, who art great like Mitra, goest on thy errand as messenger in their midst, then the flames of Agni shine like the roaring waves of the Sindhu^ 1 3. Agni with thy attentive ears, hear me, together who accompany thee. May Mitra and Aryaman sit down on the sacrificial grass, they who come to the ceremony with the gods driven (on their chariots)^ early in the morning. 14. May the Maruts, they who tongued increasers of Rita, hear give rain, the my praise. fire- May whose laws are firm, drink the Soma, united with the two Ai-vins and with the Dawn Varu//a,
  49. 49. MAiVDALA HYMN T, 44. 39 NOTES. The hymn is ascribed to Praska;/va Kd/^va, who reputed author of the whole group of the hymns, that these It is certain hymns name the great Ka;/va family, for which the Comp. characteristic. The metre my Prolegomena, Barhata Pragatha. is 1-2— SV. II, T130-J131. Verse 13 =SV. I, 50; VS. Verses 12, 6. is the 44-50. really belong to a branch of I, Praska;/va is p. 260. Verse i Verse ii y^, 15 ; = SV. = TB. TB. II, 7, I, 40. II, 7, 12,5. This Agni-hymn contains a number of allusions which show that it was destined for the morning service. The same may be said of the next hymn, 1, 45, and of the whole collection of Praska/^va hymns, which are addressed exclusively to the deva// prataryava;^a/^, viz. Agni in his special character as a matutinal deity, the two Aj'vins, the Dawn, the rising Sun. From the mention of the Soma tiroahnya 45, 10 47, i, and from other circumstances, Bergaigne has very ingeniously drawn the conclusion that ; in an ancient Aj'vinaj'astra is Recherches sur Thistoire de la Liturgie the Praska;/va collection preserved ; see Vedique, 45. Verse Note 1. I believe that the text, requires, but very strongly The tradition gives amartya. 1. To ague I invites, may a perhaps not say slight correction. vi'vasvat ushasa/^ kxivAm. radha// connect vi'vasvat with radha/^ and to make the genitive ushasa// depend on radha// would give an is not, strictly speaking, impossible but expression which in Nothing, on the other hand, every case very unusual. more frequent than combinations of the locative of a noun derived from vi-vas with the genitive ushasa//, at the rising of the dawn' (ushasa/^ vyush/au, vyush/ishu, vyushi comp. the phrase vasto usra// treated of by Kaegi, is ' ; Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 48 Bezzenberger's Beitrage, ; XV, vasto/^ usra//, 185). I Bartholomae, think that such
  50. 50. VEDIC HYMNS. 40 and propose a phrase should be restored in our verse, to The word vivasvan occurs vivasvabhi/^ The expression read agne vivasvan ushasa//, &c. in VIII, 102, 22. agni'm idhc used here would thus be similar to that of na/z asya/z ushasa// I, 5, vyush/au . . tvam comp. IV, III, 15, 2. bodhi gopa/i . ; &c. Verse Note The The meaning 1. 3. of bha7/-rzVika quite uncertain. is accent would well agree with the explanation of the word as a possessive compound dhumaketum bha/'-r/^ikam would then be exactly parallel whose banner is smoke, whose rigika. is light. We have then go-rz^ika as an epithet of Soma, 'he whose rig'ika. the cows are,' i.e. whose rigkdi is milk,' and avi7/-rz^ika as an epithet of Dadhikravan (' he whose rigika. is visible '). All this taken together is clearly insufficient for giving a result, and there ; : ' is scarcely a Bergaigne's ' fleche better would do ' tempting prospect (Rel. Ved., in for for etymological guesses. 206) translation I, but bha7/-rz^ika, the cases of go-rigika. and (Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Ges. 48, of rigika. is it Roth avi/i-rigika.. ii<S) translates by very not licht- ' glanzend.' Note 2. Studien, Pischels explanation of adhvaraj-ri (Vedische I, j;^, ' Zum Opfer kommend ') does not seem con- vincing to me. Verse Note 1. 4. Ludwig's translation As ' dasz er die gotter her- meaning of our passage, comp. VII, 9, 5. agne yahi dutyam devan akkha, Agni, go as a messenger ... to the gods.' bringe is ' not exact. to the real . . . ' Verse Note ^ana. 1. I vi.yvasya regard 5. Boehtlingk-Roth propose to read amr/tabho- think the traditional text bho^ana to similarly, as Ushas), vi'ivasya Amr/ta may be vocative Lanman, 339. s. it hi is is right. Agni is said in I; 4(S, 10 (with called pra;/anam ^u'anam neuter or masculine. tve. Comp.
  51. 51. 1 MAiVDALA T, Verse HYMN 44. 4 6. Note 1. Benfey (Qiiantitatsverschiedenheiten, IV, and Ludwig take namasya for a first person. Verse 2, 27) 8. Note 1. If the accusative agni'm is right, as it probably is, Agni would be invoked to conduct Agni to the sacrifice. This is Comp. quite a possible idea. the formula of the devatanam avahanam,' agnim agna avaha, somam avaha, agnim avaha,' i. e. Agni, conduct hither Agni, conduct hither Soma, conduct hither Agni.' See Hillebrandt, Das Altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 84. Note 2. Lanman, 482, takes kshapa/^ as an ace. plur. I think it is gen. sing., and the accent should be kshapa/-. Comp. VIII, 19, 31 III, 49, 4, and the phrase akto/i ' ' ' ; vyush/au. Verse Note human Prof. 1. guardian in Max Muller translates: Note ' 'Thou the hamlets, the chief-priest; art the thou art the chief-priest at the sacrifices.' Verse is 10. 1. With said that the si'ndho/^ 12. Pada comp. IX, 50, i, where it mighty strength of Soma shows itself the third urme/i iva svana/^,' i. e. ' like the roar of the waves of the Sindhu.' Verse Note 1. I 13. cannot follow the translation of Dr. Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVIII, 316.
  52. 52. VEDIC HYMNS. 42 MAA^/^ALA ASHTAKA ADHYAyA I, O Sacrifice here, thou, 1. HYMN I, 3, 45. VARGA 31-32. Agnl, to the Vasus, the Rudras, and the Adityas, to the (divine) host that good receives offspring of The 2. the to sacrifices Manu O wise gods, worshippers thirty-three, O ^, the Gh/Vta-sprinkhng ^. : Agni, are ready to listen conduct them hither, who lord of red horses, thou the lovest our praises. As 3. O thou hast heard Priyamedha and Atri 6"atavedas, thou as Ahgiras, thus hear the O hast heard invocation Virupa and of Praska;^va, lord of high laws. The 4. Mahikerus^, Priyamedhas the have invoked for their protection the lord of worship, Agni with 5. O thou to good out, his bright splendour. whom Ghr/ta oblations are poured (Agni), hear these praises with which the sons of Ka;^va invoke thee for their protection. 6. O Agni, whose glory is brightest, beloved of many, the people in the clans invoke thee, the radiant-haired, to 7. in The the priests convey the sacrificial food. have established thee, O Agni, striving ministrant, attentive ears, the 8. The for day as their Hotri, the greatest acquirer of wealth, wise the with most widely extended^. pressed Soma have made who have thee speed hither to the feast (which is offered to the gods), bringing great light ^ and sacrificial food, O Agni, on behalf of the mortal worshipper.
  53. 53. MAA^DALA 9. O HYMN I, 45. make Strength-made, good (Agni), who come 43 the morning, the divine host, in here to-day on our sacrificial grass, O the gods down sit Vasii, to drink the Soma. 10. O Sacrifice, Agni, with joint invocations, and O Drink rain-giving gods. is the Soma, Soma) which has This bring hither the divine host. (the been kept over nights NOTES. The hymn ascribed to Praska;/va. is addressed to Agni note on I, 96. 44. I, Verse 6 It The metre VS. XV, Anush/ubh. is =. 31 TS. IV, ; evidently is comp. the Verse i = SV. his matutinal character in 4, 4, ; 3 ; MS. II, i3> 7- Verse Note Note Comp. VIII, 1. As 2. 5, ;^;^. 1, akk/ia. svadhvaram ^anam. to the gods being considered here as off- spring of Manu, comp. especially X, S3, 6. manu// bhava ^anaya dai'vyam ^anam, become Manu, procreate the ' See also Bergaigne, Rel.Vedique, divine hosts.' Verse Note This passage 1. is 69. I, 3. one of those which show that the Atris stood in especially friendly connection with the Of Kawvas. perhaps we the Priyamedhas the may branch of the Ka;/vas. questions I same may be said, or even go further and consider them as one refer to my For a fuller discussion paper, ' Ueber of these die Liedverfasser des Rig-veda,' Zeitschr. der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XLII, 213 seq. Verse Note name, 1. it I have translated as a proper be an adjective belonging to Priyamedha//. Mahikerava//, which may Possibly 4. is derived from the root kar, ' to praise : ' ' the
  54. 54. VEDIC HYMNS. 44 Priyamedhas with mighty hymns/ Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 341. Verse Note As 1. go-ish/i means diV-ish/i ' and 7. the striving for cows,' thus ' the striving for day,' or possibly Ludwig striving for heaven.' genopfer,' means Comp. Bartholomae, it is true that (III, takes 2)''^'^) most of the passages, the word occurs, are addressed to matutinal hymn our passage belongs to a Agni I, ; 48, 9 is for it in ' the mor- ' which Thus deities. addressed to the matutinal addressed to Ushas ; I, 139, 4 VII, 74, ; VIII, 87, 3 to the Ajvins IV, 46, i 47, i to V^yu who was invoked in the Praiiga-j-astra belonging to the ] ; ; Prata/^-savana, and other deities. the who ; received the There is, Soma nevertheless, offering before piba 76, 9. ' Drink, O it indra marutsakha sutam Indra, with the somam Maruts thy one least at passage which shows that Ludwig has gone too far : VIII, di'vish/ishu, friends the Soma which has been pressed at the divish/is.' The Soma oblation offered to Indra Marutvat formed part of the second (midday) Savana. Note 2 Saprathastamam, the most renowned, repandu,' ' M. M. Verse Note 1. Comp. IV, 5, i. 8. katha da^ema agnaye brzliat how may we offer great light to Agni ? seems to mean, how may we make Agni brilliant bha/^, ' ' in our passage the meaning seems to be Agni and perform : ' — which ? ' Thus the priests kindle oblations. Verse 10. Note 1. The tira//-ahnya Soma, which was kept from one day to the next day (not, as Ludwig translates, der von vorgestern '), was offered to the A^vins at the Atiratra sacrifice. Comp. Rig-veda I, 47, i III, 58, 7 VIII, '3,S, XXIV, 3, 42. KAtyayana vSVautasutra XII, 6, 10 19 There the commentary says, aj-vina^astrakayagasamban' ; dhina/^ >tamasastha// soma/^ hnya ; ; ; ity Uy^yante. purvadinanishpannatvat tiro-
  55. 55. MAiVDALA MAA^i9ALA ASHTAKA 1. The tired ^ HYMN I, HYMN I, ADHYAyA I, 58. 45 58. VARGA 4, 23-24. strength-begotten immortal never grows when the he, Hotr/, He messenger of Vivasvat^. air on the best paths. In has passes become the through the the divine world he invites (the gods) with the sacrificial food. 2. own food Seizing his the undecaying, greedy (Agni) stands on the brushwood wishing to drink. When he has been sprinkled (with ghee), he shines Thunderinor he has his back^ like a racer with roared like the ridge of heaven. 3. him As soon as ^ Purohita, the immortal sitting their made down as the Rudras, the Vasus have Hotrt, the conqueror of wealth, pressing forward A like a chariot among among the clans, the Ayus^, the p^od in due course discloses desirable boons. 4. Stirred brushwood ladles, wnih O thou, by the wind he spreads among the by the sacrificial lightly^ (driven forward) his Agni, sickle ^ thirstily sticks like a bulP, loudly rushest thy course, O roaring. When wooden never-aging god on the with fiery waves, becomes blacks 5. He who blazes has fiery jaws, stirred by the wind, down on the forest^ as a strong bull (rushes) When he proceeds ^ with his stream atmosphere, then what moveable and immoveable (and) the winged (birds) on the herd. of light to the imperishable is are afraid. 6. The Bhr/gus have placed thee w^ho art beautiful like a treasure, who among men, art easy to
  56. 56. ! ! VEDIC HYMNS. 46 invoke for people the Hotr/, thee ; O Agni, the excellent guest, a delightful friend like Mitra to the divine race 7. of I ! worship with good cheer Agni the steward^ whom treasures, all the worshippers choose as the Hotr/, the priests), best sacrificer at the 8. the seven ladles- (of the Son of O praises thee, Be a who magnify the generous. him who to praises thee, O be protection, generous giver, to Agni guard him who praises thee May he who gives wealth for our ; ! distress. prayer, thee. offspring of vigour shelter resplendent one from pray for treasured Agni with strongholds of iron him guard from distress 9. I strength, great like Mitra, grant to-day flawless protection to us who and rites, come quickly the morning^ in NOTES. The hymn is ascribed Nodhas Gautama, who to considered as the 7?zshi of the whole collection, This tradition is based passages of the text: The metre None of the I, I, is 58-64. and confirmed by, several on, 61, 14; 62, 13 ; 64, 1. Cagati verses 1-5, Trish/ubh verses 6-9. verses of this hymn occurs in the other is Sa;«hitas. Verse Note schrift, believe that Professor Aufrecht (Kuhn's Zeit- XXV, amrha./i VI, I 1. 37, 3 nii ; 1. is 435) tandate. VII, 32, duta/i or similarly. 8. right in Comp. Agni as Possibly tandate, ni tandate, though is reading nu to nii /('it lit nu, sa.ha/i-£-a/i I, 120, 2 ; frequently called atandra/^ we might mi com- read, instead of parallel passages for the bination of this root with ni are not known. — Prof Max
  57. 57. — ; MANDALA opinion Miiller's Funke HYMN T, He different. is schlagt oder fiingt. Why 58. 47 writes We : der say, should not the Hindu have said that Agni strikes out. That would be vi tundate, Agni schlagt aus im Augenblick. But even ni tundate may have been used in the sense of the spark striking down on the tinder the atas^s, mentioned in verse 2 — which he strikes translate down or ' : The strength- breaks forth (vi) whenever the Hotri (Agni) becomes the messenger of the sacrificer Note should I immortal begotten quickly, ignites. 2. I (?).' cannot follow Aufrecht translation his in zum boten des opfernden.' Comp. on Agni as the messenger of Vivasvat, Rergaigne, Rel. Vedique, I, 87 H. O., Religion des Veda, 122, 275. ' ; Verse Note 1. 2. back shines Literally, his like a racer. On this kind of comparison, see Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, 86 Vedische Studien, Pischel, I, 107. Verse Note 1. Kra;/a Mazdi und I, : 3. comp. von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, Ahura Pischel, Vedische Studien, die Asuras, p. ^6 ; 70. Note 2. Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, Verse Note 1. On Note 2. vr/tha, see Geldner, Vedische Studien, The meaning Sr//n is ences are not quite on s;-/;/ya, : rare, mit verkiirzter I, 116 ; seq. here as a paroxytonon ; an oxytonon. Such differand there is no reason for taking it account srinyk as an ' XIX, 148 with his flames which are sharp written is in several other passages this 59 seq. 4. Neisser, Bezzenberger^s Beitrage, like a sickle. I, is instr. plur. Endung' fem. of the adjective (Geldner, loc. sickle is the sharp edge of Agni.' M. M. comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, H, iii. cit.). ' His — On ^uhubhi//,
  58. 58. VEDIC HYMNS. 48 Note As 3. Gaedicke, 74. shayase. Note ema to v/7shayase with the accusative, RV. X, With the 4. 44, last 4. nrgih skambham Pada comp. IV, 7, 9. . comp. . . vr/- kr/sh;/am te ruj-ata// pura/^ bha//. Verse Note Note 1. That 2. course, this is, among 5. the fuel. — we have here probably (though, of explanation can be avoided) an anacoluthon. I think that — The poet began with the nominative (abhivra^an), and then he changed the construction and went on as if he had begun with the ablative, taking sthatu/^ >^aratham (comp. Lanman, 422) as the subject instead of Agni. PatatnV/a// seems to be nom. pi. comp. I, 94, 11 (see below). — ; Verse 7. Note 1. The translation of arati is only approximative and conjectural. Note 2. Comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 113. Note 3. Comp. Ill, 54, 3. saparyami prayasa yami ratnam. Verse Note 1. The last Pada Nodhas hymns. is 9. the standing conclusion of the
  59. 59. — MAArZ)ALA MAiV/^ALA ASHrAKA The 1. 59. O ADHYAYA Agni. human In thee settlements ; 59. VARGA 4, Vai^vanara themselves^ centre- of 49 HYMN I, other Agnis (the other thy branches, enjoy I, HYMN I, fires) are verily the immortals all Thou ! 25. a like the art supporting column thou holdest men^ 2. The head of heaven, the navel of the earth is Agni; he has become the steward^ of both worlds. Thee, a god, the gods have engendered, O Vai5vanara, to be a light for the Arya. As 3. in the sun the rays are firmly Acrni Vaii"vanara (The all fixed, thus in down^ treasures have been laid treasures) which dwell in the mountains, in the herbs, the waters, and among men — of all that thou art the king. 4. a As the two great worlds to their son like Hotri, like a skilful man, (we bring) praises who is united with the sun, new (praises) to Vaii"vanara, manifold (praises) to him to the truly strong one, the manliest god. 5. Thy greatness, O 6'atavedas, Vaii'vanara, has exceeded even the great heaven. Thou art the king of the human tribes thou hast by fighting gained wide space for the gods. of the 6. Let me now proclaim the greatness ; bull whom of enemies the Piirus Agni Dasyu, shook the worship as Vaii"vanara, (aerial) 6'ambara. [46] E the having arena and destroyer slain cut the clown
  60. 60. VEDIC HYMNS. 50 Agni Vabvanara, extending by 7. over one, praised) of dominions, all bright rich among Puru;^itha who be worshipped, the to is loveliness, in awake (or, is the homestead is the Bharadva^as, in with 6'atavaneya, his greatness his hundredfold blessings. NOTES. The same Rishi as in I, hymn of the verses of this Verse Note ante, ' 1. Comp. VII, None Metre, Trish/ubh. 58. occurs in the other Sa;//hitas. 11, i. 1. na maday- rite tvat amr/ta/z the immortals do not enjoy themselves without thee.' Note Note 2. 3. Literally, Comp. ' Comp. Muir, the navel.' IV, 5, i (see below), V^, 214. upa stabhayat upami't na rodha/^. Verse Note 1. Comp. 2. the remark on Verse I, 58, 7 (note i). 3. Note 1. I cannot follow Prof, von Roth (Zeitschrift der D. Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 116), who explains dadhire as a third person sing, of dhri. Verse 4. Note 1. The incompleteness both of the construction and of the metre shows that the text of the first Pada is corrupt. I doubt whether it ever will be possible to restore the correct reading with full certainty, but I shall be glad if others succeed better than I did — and I may add, better than Prof, von Roth (Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 117 seq.) seems to me to have succeeded recting and in interpreting the text. I — think that after in cor- sunave
  61. 61. ; MANDALA HYMN I, 59. 5 rodasi clearly one syllable possibly verse 2, is wanted to complete the Pada read therefore sunave rodasyo/^ (comp. we should Pada I 2, arati/i : rodasyo/^, which words form the end Agni, as is well known, is the son of the two worlds, the sunu// rodasyo//. In the beginning of the Pada br/hati' must either refer to the two worlds in this case we have to read hrihatyo/i (instead of br/hati' iva) of the Pada). : or brzTiati' the (as may But of course the refer, as this adjective frequently does, to and we shall possibly have to read hrihatUi vsi/i to va./i, comp. Delbrlick, Altindische Syntax, 206). gi'ra/z, all these are mere guesses. verb on which the accusative bring,' or something like that) Note 1. (' we 6. Or, as the killer of Vr/tra. 3. E In every case depends must be supplied. Verse des Veda, 135, note gira/i 2 See H. O., Religion
  62. 62. VEDIC HYMNS. 52 MAiVZ^ALA ASHZAKA I, HYMN I, ADHYAYA 60. VARGA 4, 26. Matarijvan brought (Agni) to Bhr/gu as a gift precious like wealth, of double birth ^, the carrier, the famous, the beacon of the sacrifice -, the ready and 1. immediately successful messenger. Both follow his command, the Ui"i^s ^ offering sacrificial food, and the mortals. The Hotrz (Agni) has sat down before daybreak among the clans, the lord of the clans, whose leave should be asked, the 2. performer of worship. May 3. our new, beautiful praise, born^ from our heart, reach him the honey-tongued (Agni), whom A the human priests our settlement ^ in the Ayus, enjoyment have engendered. offering The Vasu has been established among men, the best Hotr/ among the 4. the clans, house Us'ig-^, domestic^ master of the house Agni : the purifier, the has become the in treasure-lord the of treasures. 5. the Thus we, lord of the Gotamas, praise thee, treasures, with our (pious) O Agni, thoughts, rubbing thee as (they rub down) a swift racer that wins the prize. May he who gives wealth for our prayer, come quickly in the morning ^ NOTES. Rishl and metre are the same. No verse occurs in the other Sawhitas. Verse 1. Note 1. The celestial and the terrestrial Comp, Bergaigne, Rel. Ved., II, 52. birth of Agni.
  63. 63. MAiVDALA Note note The 2. HYMN I, 6o. 5'* O Comp. text has vidathasya. I, 31, 6, 2. Verse Note On 1. us{£- mythical priests (' the vvilh'ng one who have sacrificed as the 2. '), as denoting the Agni and have 57 seq. The be these mythical ancestors and the established comp. Bergaigne, first, ubhayasa/^ seem to first I, actual sacrificers. Verse Note I 1. stoma// . mantram 3. . propose to read ^ayamana. . h;'/da tashta/i II, ;^^, ; 2. Comp. I, 171, 2. hrtda/i a siitash/am agne ^anami sush/utim V, 42, 13. Comp. Lanman, 356. Note 2. On the meaning of vrz'^ana, see Max Miiller, Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, vol. xxxii, pp. XX, 208, 304 gi'ram , . ; VIII, 43, 2. ; ^ayamanam, &c. . — ; 139 seq., with my remarks, Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen. 1890, 410 seq.; Liidwig, Ueber Methode bei Interpretation Les Principes de I'Exegese Vedique d'apres MM. Pischel et Geldner, 28 seq.; von Bradke, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, des i?zg-veda, 27 seq. XLVIII, 500 ; ; Colinet, Bechtel, Nachrichten der Gottinger Gesell- schaft der Wiss., 1894, 392 seq. Verse Note Note 4. See verse 2, note i. Bartholomae's theory (Bezzenberger's Beitrage. XV, 194) that the stem damunas has been developed out of the 1. 2. phrase damu na/i, our house,' does not 'in conviction. Verse Note 1. See I, 58, 9, note i. 5. carry
  64. 64. — — VEDIC HYMNS. 54 MAA^Z^ALA ASHTAKA I, I, HYMN ADHYAYA 5, 65. VARGA 9. Thee who hidest thyself in secret like a thief with an animaP (which he has stolen) — who hadst I harnessed The 2. marks ^ sat ^ adoration and carriedst adoration wise unanimously followed by thy footAll (gods) deserving worship (reverentially) down near The X. thee. orods followed the laws of i?/ta. There was an encompassing as the heaven (encompasses) the earth ^ In the lap, in the 4. womb of 7?/ta, nourish the fine child with praise, him the waters who is well born. Like good fortune, like a broad abode, 5. like the like the refreshing stream, Like a racer urged forward in the race, like the fertile hill 6. rapids of the Sindhu (He 7. is) e. —who can hold him back the kinsman of the of his sisters. i. ^ He rivers, as a ? brother eats the forests as a king (eats, takes the wealth of) the rich 8. When he has through the spread forests, driven by the wind, Agni shears the hair of the earth. he hisses like a swan. (He is) most famous by his power of mind, he who belongs to the clans, awakening at dawn 10. A performer of worship like Soma, the god 9. Sitting in the waters born from R/ta., like far-shining. a young (?)^ beast, far-extending,
  65. 65. — MA;Vi)ALA I, HYMN 65. 55 NOTES. The authorship of the whole collection, I, 6^-^^, is These hymns are addressed exclusively to Agni. The greater part of them (65-70) is composed in the Vira^ metre comp. on this metre my Prolegomena, 95 seq. I have given there my reasons for ascribed to Para^-ara vSaktya. ; considering that each verse consists of twenty, not of forty syllables. This section ascribed to Paraj-ara has been treated of by Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XXII, Bollensen, No 569 seq. hymns composed in the metre 65-70) occurs in the other Sa/whitas. verse of these Dvipada Vira^ (I, Verse Note 1. Professor Max 1. Miiller proposes the following 2 The wise (gods) together when in hiding, by means of footsteps, a thief by the animal they followed thee translation for verses and i : followed thee (Agni) as one follows who ; accepts and carries adoration (to the gods). worshipful gods sat Note down All the (reverentially) near thee. There is no reason for reading with Earth olomae (Studien zur indogermanischen Sprachgeschichte, I, 48) paj"van (gen. plur.) na tayum. Note 3. Ludwig proposes yuvanam, which is quite unnecessary. See also Gaedicke, 173. 2. — Verse 2. Note 1. We have here the well-known myth of the hidden Agni discovered by the gods. The wise ones,' * (dhfra/^) are no doubt the searching gods, the same who are and who are expressly called ya^atra/z in the last Pada, designated as dcva/i in verse 3. Verse Comp. Bergaigne, I, no. 3. Regarding the construction, see Gaedicke, 192. Professor Max Muller's opinion on this phrase differs from Note 1.
  66. 66. VEDIC HYMNS. 56 He writes I should prefer parish/i. But parish/i seems to mean a running about, reconnoitring, searching. " There was searching on earth as in heaven," Ht, earth, like heaven, was reconnoitring-ground.' mine. ' : Verse Note 1. Comp. VIII, 50, 5. 2. glri/i na bhu^ma. that Boehtlingk-Roth, Bollensen, and in correcting passage our I believe Grassmann are accordingly ; right ranva, pr/thv", j"ambhu follow the gender of the corresponding substantives, and the same may be expected here. Comp. Lanman, 530. The meaning is that Agni yields nourishment to all beings as a mountain fertilises the country by the waters which come down from it comp. VIII, 49, 2. glre/i iva pra rasd// ; asya pinvire datra«i purubhq^asa/^. Verse Note 1. 6. Regarding the construction, comp. Gaedicke, 252 seq. Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, 95. Joh. Schmidt (Die Pluralbildungen der indogerm. Neutra, 305) and Ludwig (V, 524J are wrong in taking kshoda// as a locative or ; as an instrumental respectively. Verse Note 1. 7. Comp. Pischel-Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, p. xvi. Verse 10. Note 1. Can sisva be the nominative of a stem j'uvan which stands by the side of sisu as r/bhvan of ribhu ? Prof. Max Muller proposes Large like a cow with young, : like a pregnant cow.' '
  67. 67. — MA^DALA HYMN I, MAiV/^ALA ASH^AKA I, I, HYMN ADHYAyA Like unto excellent wealth, 1. 66. 5, 57 66. VARGA like 10. unto the shine of the sun, like unto living breath, like unto one's own son ^ Like unto a quick takvan ^ he (Agni) holds the wood, like milk, like a milch cow ' bright and 2. shininof. He 3. holds safety, pleasant like a homestead, conqueror of men, like ripe barley, a Like a 4. among /?/shi uttering (sacred) shouts, praised the clans ; like a well-cared-for race-horse ^, Agni bestows vigour. 5. He to whose flame men do not grow accustomed who is like one's own mind ^, like a wife on a couch, enough for all (happiness). When 6. the bright (Agni) has shone forth, he white (horse like a [?])^ among people, like a chariot with golden ornaments, impetuous Like an army which 7. his vehemence, like is is in fights. sent forward he shows an archer's shaft with sharp point. 8. He who is born is one twin ; he who will be — born is the other twin the lover of maidens, the husband of wives ^. 9 ^ As cows go to their stalls, all that moves and we, for the sake of a dwelling, reach him who has ^ been kindled. 10. Like the flood of the Sindhu ^ he has driven forward the downwards-flowing (waters)^. The cows lowed at the sight of the sun ^
  68. 68. ' : VEDIC HYMNS, 58 NOTES. The same Rishi and metre. Verse 1. Note 1. Comp. I, 166, 2; 185, 2; X, 39, 14. The second passage (ni'tyam na sunum pitro/^ updsthe dyava rakshatam pr/thivi na// abhvat) would be sufficient to show that we cannot translate wie ein iiberlebender sohn ' (Ludwig). Verse 2. Note 1, We do not know what animal the takvan is. Comp. I, 134, 5 with M. M.'s note. Note 2. See Bergaigne, Mel. Renier, loi Gaedicke, ; ^53- Verse Note 1. Comp. X, 101, 7. 4. priwita asvan Verse hitam ^ayatha. 5. Note L Comp. VII, 4, 3. durokam agni// ayave susoka.. Note 2. Prof. Max Muller believes that kratu here means, ' like kartr/, a sacrificer, so that kratu// sounds like sunu// na But all this is nltya/i, own na nhya/i sacrificing son. very obscure.' Verse Note one's 6. The second Pada is translated by Grassmann Hausern ;' by Ludwig: fast weiss, bei den menschenstammen.' I think that there can be no doubt that the words sveta/i na contain a comparison like all the other comparisons of which these hymns are full this 1. 'wie Licht in * ; Nor Grassmann right in translating sveta/i bei 'Licht;' the word is an adjective meaning 'white' and nothing else. We must supply here, as in many passages, a substantive, and I do not see any reason why this should not be that comparison is is unduly effaced in Ludwig's translation.
  69. 69. MANDALA HYMN I, substantive with which sveta. 66. 59 most frequently combined comp. I, 116, 6; 118, 9 VII, 77, 3 X, 39, 10. In V, I, 4 it is said of [119, 10] Agni sveta/i va^i' ^ayate agre ahnam, the white racer is born in the beginning of the days.' in the Rig-veda, is namely a^va ; ; ; ' : "Verse 8. Note 1. ^anitvam. The traditional text Ludwig translates bewaltiger auch scarcely be against means this was des, yama// ha ^atd/i yama// bewaltiger des gebornen, erst geboren wird.' Yama// translation. . , leave the text unchanged, . . make yama/^ evidently . Now the other twin.' . we cannot but if ^atam the : that is — we have we ' translate one twin is he who has been born, the other twin which will be born' which sounds very strange. 89, 10 will It necessary to state the reasons which the one twin ' : is ' In I, ^anitvam IV, 18, 4. anta/^^ateshu uta ye^anitva// X, 45, 10. ut^atena bhinadat lit ^anitvai/A In all these cases ^ata and ^anitva stand parallel there is no such difference as in our passage, aditi/^ aditUi ; ; ; according to the traditional text, between and that him (masc.) who which will be Thus I propose to read ^anitva//, of which conjecture Ludwig has thought is . . . (neuter) . . . Agni who has also (see his note, IV, 259): that present been born, and that future Agni who twins. Prof Max Muller has discussed — Science of Language, II, He 630 seqq. will this be born, are passage in his interprets the twin who has been born as Agni representing the morning the twin who will be born as the evening. Note Prof. The maidens very probably are 2. Max Miiller's discussion quoted ; the dawns (comp. in the last note). Are the wives the sacrificial ladles which approach Agni, or the offerings of ghee, or the prayers Vedique, II, Verse Note 1. ? See Bergaigne, Rel. 9 seqq. This verse is 9. very obscure, and I am quite aware of the merely tentative character of the translation which
  70. 70. 6o I VEDIC HYMNS. propose. I leave va.h untranslated (comp. Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, 206), which must be done in most of the numerous verses beginning with the words I then read i-aratha (comp. 68, i ; 70, 3. 7). tam va/^. Vasatya seems to be either a dative similar to the newly-discovered datives in -a of a-stems, or we possibly should read vasatyai (vasatya in the Sa7«hita-pa///a). — Prof. of a correction ^arama/^ and would (whom you know — va//) Max Miiller thinks translate when lighted we go ' : To him for our dwelling, as the cows reach their home.' Verse Note Note and the Note 10. Comp. above, 6q, 6. Or the downwards-streaming libations of like ? Comp. below, I, 73, 10 with note 4. 3. Comp. below, 69, 10. 1. 2. Ghrz'ta
  71. 71. — — MAiVDALA MAiVZ^ALA ASHTAKA 1. IIY^rN I, ADHYAyA I, 6 67. HYMN I, 1 67. VARGA 5, Victorious^ in the forests, a friend he demands obedience one ^. 2. Like good peace, like a king, the 11. among men, undecaying like fortunate wisdom, mayhe (Agni) be a kind Hot;V, a carrier of offerings. 3. Having taken in his hand all manly powers, he has made the gods fear, when sitting down in his hiding-place. 4. There the thoughtful men find him, when they have recited the spells which they had fashioned in their heart. 5. As the goat^ (supports) the earth-, thus he supports the earth ^ he upholds the sky by his ; efficacious spells. 6. O Protect Agni, thou the dear^ footsteps who hast a from covert to covert 7. He who full has seen him the hidden one, he to They who him 9. ^ plants, get him off, he then indicates He who cattle^. thou hast gone ^. has got near to the stream of Rit2i 8. of the life, who ' doing service to RiX2., riches. might within the and within the children and within the grows up with sprouting grass 10. The splendour the full-lived. a seat. The [?] in sages the home made him of the waters as if building
  72. 72. 62 VEDIC HYMNS. NOTES. The same Rtshl and metre. Verse Note Gayuk ' 1. ^esh//^a// : aus ^yayu/^, wie der compar. ^yayan But what shows that ^yayan Ludwig. zeigt,' 1. is the comparative of ^ayuZ; and that the utterly impossible ^ change of ' iiberwindend Note I 2. conjectures into ' is ' possible is comp. ; propose to read — as may mean g right Roth who ; Miiller jrush^i He desires Prof. is : ' not aged.' 5. mythical goat whose the support the worlds, comp. 82, 6 Max done— that has he translates ;' obedient, servant On 3. a.£nrya./i. Verse 1. Ludwig's translation ? 119, (Pet. Diet.) a servant (or worshipper) Note I, office it is to 6; VIII, 41, 10; X, Veda, 72. the text has two different words, Bergaigne, III, 21 ; I, H. 164, O., Religion des Note 2. For earth ksham and prz'thivi'm. Prof. Max Miiller conjectures dyam He, Agni; supports the earth, as the buck for ksham ' : ' ' the sky.' Verse Note of priya his Literally, 1. may ' 6. the dear footsteps be compared ; ' but the meaning to that of the Homeric 0tAos, own. Note One could be tempted to refer the word whose footsteps (padani) the wise ones follow and whom they find out in his hiding. Thus we 2. to Agni, [6^, 2), could translate, ' Look But the comparison of at the dear footsteps of the beast.' 70, 6 the imperative ni pahi is makes it more probable that addressed to Agni. Grassmann is right der Heerden schiitze.^ Statten therefore that ' ' in translating I ' believe Die lieben Ludwig's translation is