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Is digital disruption coming to the university near you?


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Presentation by Dr Tatiana Zalan, Associate Professor at the American University in Dubai, on 1 March, 2016, Dubai, UAE.

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Is digital disruption coming to the university near you?

  1. 1. XXXX  e-­‐learning   Presenta.on  by  Ta.ana  Zalan,  PhD   Associate  Professor  –  Management,   American  University  in  Dubai   Linkedin  page     1  March  2016      
  2. 2. Is  digital  disrup.on  coming  to   the  university  near  you?     Presenta.on  by  Ta.ana  Zalan,  MA,  MBA,  PhD,  AFAIM   Associate  Professor  –  Management,   American  University  in  Dubai   1  March  2016,  AUD,  Dubai    
  3. 3. A  VERY  Short  Quiz   •  The  tradi.onal  university  will  disappear  in  a  decade.  True  or  False?     •  MOOC  is  an  acronym  which  means….   •  Coursera  is  …(pick  as  many  as  are  applicable)   A.  A  university   B.  An  online  pla[orm   C.  A  popular  management  book   D.  Same  as  Blackboard   E.  An  edtech  company   F.  None  of  the  above     •  A  flipped  classroom  is  ….  (pick  as  many  are  applicable)     A.  A  classroom  without  the  professor   B.  A  classroom  without  the  students   C.  A  classroom  without  the  lecture   D.  A  classroom  where  students  do  pre-­‐readings  before  class  and  discuss  the  material  in  class   E.  A  classroom  where  the  students  do  not  do  any  work       •  E-­‐learning  is  inferior  to  face-­‐to-­‐face  learning.  True  or  False?     3  
  4. 4. My  long  online  journey     •  Started  in  academia  in  the  early  2000s,  on  comple.on  of  my  PhD  in   interna.onal  strategy  from  Flinders  University  (Australia).   •  Joined  the  University  of  Melbourne  straight  aaer  (2003),  taught  in  UG  and   PG  programs.   •  Lea  the  UoM  (2007)  to  join  IGSB,  University  of  South  Australia,  taught  in   the  MBA  program  (Strategic  Management,  Corporate  Strategy,   Entrepreneurship  &  Innova.on).   •  Started  teaching  online  at  the  IGSB  in  2008.   •  In  early  2014  moved  to  Torrens  University  Australia,  a  start-­‐up  university   owned  by  Laureate  Interna.onal  (PBC),  the  largest  private  higher  ed   provider.   •  Was  one  of  the  first  senior  academics  and  MBA  Program  Director.  TUA   runs  F2F  and  fully  online  degrees.     •  Joined  AUD  in  August  2015.     •  Audited  several  MOOCs,  including    Learning  How    to  Learn,  the  largest  /   most  popular  MOOC  on  Coursera.   •  Post  regularly  on  LinkedIn  on  issues  related  to  e-­‐learning.     •  Currently  researching  barriers  to,  and  enablers  of  e-­‐learning  adop.on  in   the  UAE  and  am  generally  interested  in  all  things  digital  and   entrepreneurial.       4  
  5. 5. Agenda   •  What’s  wrong  with  the  current  higher  educa.on  system   •  Digital  disrup.on  in  the  higher  educa.on  industry   •  The  benefits  of  e-­‐learning   •  Meet  the  disruptors  and  incumbents:   –  MOOCs   –  New  entrants   –  Incumbents’  response   •  The  economics  of  e-­‐learning  and  MOOCs   •  Online  MBA   •  The  future  of  the  university         5  
  6. 6. •  “The  cost  disease”  (Baumol  &  Bowen,  1966)  =>  leads  to  higher   costs  of  educa.on   •  A  report  by  HSBC  (2014)    found  the  UAE  to  offer  the  sixth  most  expensive   educa.on  globally  at  $30,472,  coming  ahead  of  Canada  ($29,947)  and  France   ($16,777).       •  Student  debt  -­‐  $1  trillion  in  the  U.S.  alone,  or  $25,000  per   student  (more  than  credit  card  debt)   •  67%    of  parents  in  the  UAE  simply  do  not  have  adequate  funds  to  meet   the  aspira.ons  they  have  for  their  children’s  higher  educa.on  (HSBC,  2014)       •  More  educa.on  does  not  mean  bexer  job  outcomes.     •  Poor  learning  outcomes  for  students,  as  a  consequence  of  a  lack   of  lack  personaliza.on  and  flexibility             The  modern  higher  ed  system  is  plagued  with  inefficiencies   6  
  7. 7. The  costs  of  higher  educa7on   have  been  rising…   ..and  are  projected  to  increase  even   further   Source:  hJp://   Costs  based  on  2008-­‐2009  es.mate  of  average   tui.on  and  room  and  board  in  current  dollars  for   four-­‐year  public  and  private  according   to  the  2008  Trends  in  College  Pricing,  published  by   the  College  Board.  Projected  pricing  assumes  a  6%   annual  rate  of  increase  in  college  costs.   7  
  8. 8. Clayton christensen institute@christenseninst   What  do  college  students  learn?   •  Study  of  2,300  undergraduates  at  two  dozen  who  took  the  Collegiate  Learning   Assessment   •  45%  demonstrated  no  gains  in  thinking,  reasoning,  and  wrixen  communica.ons   during  first  two  years   •  32%  did  not  typically  take  courses  with  more  than  40   pages  of  reading  per  week   •  50%  did  not  take  a  single  course  in  which  they  wrote   more  than  20  pages   The  quality  of  higher  educa7on?     Source:  Arum  &  Roksa  (2010)  quoted  in  Clayton  Christensen  InsWtute  (n.d.)      
  9. 9. CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE#  christenseninst   •  3.6  million  job  openings  for  which   employers  say  they  can’t  find  qualified   employees   •  49%  of  US  employers  struggle  to  fill   vacant  jobs  because  of  lack  of  talent,   compared  to  34%  globally   •  The  signaling  effect  of  a  college  degree   appears  to  be  an  imprecise   encapsula.on  of  one’s  skills  for  the   knowledge  economy  of  the  .mes.     •  McKinsey  analysts  es.mate  that  the   number  of  skillsets  needed  in  the   workforce  has  increased  rapidly  from   178  in  September  2009  to  924  in  June   2012     The  job  mismatch  paradox  
  10. 10. Clayton christensen institute@christenseninst   48%  of  employed  U.S.  college  graduates  are  in  jobs   that  don’t  require  a  four-­‐year  degree   42%  of  visual  and  performing  arts  students  said   college  didn’t  prep  them  for  employment   The  average  2013  college  graduate  will  owe  $35,200   in  debt  (and  will  likely  be  paying  it  off  in  a  job  they   hate)   Six  .mes  as  many  graduates  are  working  in  retail  or   hospitality  as  had  originally  planned  –  they’re   becoming  waiters,  Gap  salespeople  and  baristas,   because  it’s  the  only  work  they  could  find   284,000  of  college  graduates  (37,000  of  those  have   advanced  degrees  like  JD’s  or  PhD’s)  will  be  working   minimum  wage  jobs  –  like  flipping  burgers   75%  of  people  say  they  aren’t  living  up  to  their   Source:  McKinsey  (2012)   And  we  already  know  that  studies  from  Gallup  and  Deloixe  show  that  70-­‐80%  of  workers   are  ac.vely  disengaged  and  don’t  enjoy  the  work  they  do   Voice  of  the  US  college  graduate  
  11. 11. Source:  Hirt  &  WillmoJ  (2014)  Strategic  principles  for  compeWng  in  the  digital  age,  McKinsey  &  Company,  May.     But  digital  disrup7on  is  eventually  coming  to  higher  educa7on…   11  
  12. 12. 12   Time Performance Performance that customers can utilise and absorb Range of performance that customers can utilise 1   2   3   3  innova.ons  –     New  entrants  almost  always  win     Incumbents  nearly  always   win  in  sustaining   innova.ons   hxps://     Sustaining  vs  disrup7ve  innova7ons  (Clayton  Christensen)    
  13. 13. 13   •  We  dis.nguish  between   –  Sustaining  innova,ons  –  new  and  improved  products  aimed  at  our,  high-­‐margin   customers;   –  Disrup,ve  innova,ons  –  innova.ons  that  are  inferior  to  the  current  offering,  but  offer  features   that  customers  value  (affordability  +  flexibility),  or  are  non-­‐consumers.   •  In  every  market  there  is  a  rate  of  improvement  in  performance  that  customers   can  u.lize  or  absorb.   •  In  every  market  there  is  a  dis.nctly  different  trajectory  of  improvement  that  companies  provide  as  they  introduce  new  and  improved  products.     •  The  pace  of  technological  progress  almost  always  outstrips  the  ability  of   customers  in  any  given  .er  of  the  market  to  use  it  .   •  Once  the  product  gains  a  foothold  in  new  or  low-­‐end  markets,  the   improvement  cycle  begins:   –  The  pace  of  technological  progress  outstrips  customers’  ability  to  use  it…   –  The  previously  not-­‐good-­‐enough  technology  eventually  improves  enough  to   intersect  with  the  needs  of  more  demanding  customers…   –  Disruptors  are  on  a  path  that  will  ul.mately  crush  the  incumbents.   •  Disrup.ons  paralyze  industry  leaders  as  their  resource  alloca.on  processes  are   geared  toward  sustaining  innova.ons.     How  disrup7ve  innova7on  works    
  14. 14. Clayton christensen institute@christenseninst   •  Is  the  innova.on  people  who  are  non-­‐consumers  or  overserved   by  products?   •  Is  the  innova.on  not  as  good  as  products  as  judged  by  historical   measures  of  performance?   •  Is  the  innova.on  simpler  to  use,  more  convenient,  and  more  affordable?   •  Is  there  a  technology  enabler  that  can  carry  the  new  value  proposi.on  up-­‐ market?   •  Is  the  technology  paired  with  a  business  model  innova.on  that  allows  it  to   be  sustainable?   •  Are  providers  mo.vated  to  ignore  the  new  innova.on  and  not   threatened  at  the  outset?   How  to  spot  a  disrup7ve  innova7on   Source:  Clayton  Christensen  Ins.tute  (n.d.)    
  15. 15. CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE@christenseninst   Industries  without  an  upwardly  scalable  technology  are  not  disrupted   Where  does  disrup7on  not  apply?     Source:  Clayton  Christensen  Ins.tute  (n.d.)    
  16. 16. Subs7tu7on  in  higher  ed  is  following  the  S-­‐curve  of  adop7on   16  
  17. 17. CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE@christenseninst   Personaliza7on   Data  and  Feedback   Factory    -­‐  the  current  model   based  on  standardiza7on   Teacher  effec7veness   Cost  control     Poten7al  benefits  of  e-­‐learning   vs   Source:  Clayton  Christensen  Ins.tute  (n.d.)    
  18. 18. CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE#  christenseninst   Student  achievement  in  online   courses  when  administered  by   faculty  in  core   4.6   Student  achievement  in   tradi.onal  classes  taught   by  faculty  in  core   5.6   Student  achievement  in  online   courses  when  administered  by   focused  online  faculty   5.7   Another  analysis  of  over  1000  studies  of  online-­‐course  results  conducted  by  US’   Department  of  Educa.on  found  that  people  who  complete  such  courses  do  bexer  on   average  than  students  in  face-­‐to-­‐face  instruc.on.   But:  students  need  to  be  mo7vated  self-­‐starters!!!   Sound  learning  design  boosts  student  outcomes     Sources:  Clayton  Christensen   Ins.tute  (n.d.),  USDE  
  19. 19. CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE@christenseninst   Deliver  content    to   students  &   assessment   Progress  to  next  grade,   subject,  or  body  of   material   Receive  results   Fixed-­‐7me,  variable  learning  in  tradi7onal  universi7es   Source:  Clayton  Christensen  Ins.tute  (n.d.)    
  20. 20. CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE@christenseninst   Offer  learning   experiences  to   students  &   assessment   Receive  real-­‐.me  feedback   Progress  to  next  body   of  material   Learning  is  fixed  and  7me  is  variable   The  new  model  -­‐  Competency-­‐based  learning   Source:  Clayton  Christensen  Ins.tute  (n.d.)    
  21. 21. Meet  the  disruptors  -­‐  the  avalanche  of  MOOCs…   21  
  22. 22. Private  equity  and  venture  capital  are  increasingly  inves7ng  in   higher  educa7on  …   22  
  23. 23. And  other  new  kids  on  the  block     23   [In  April  2015]  Linkedin  made  a  surprise   purchase  of  the  online  learning  website  for  a  cool  $1.5  billion.  While   many  in  the  tech  industry  scratched   their  heads  over  the  acquisiWon,  I  want   to  tell  you  firsthand  why  this  is  not  only   a  smart  fit,  but  a  great  purchase  as  well   (Owsinski  /  Forbes)   The  Economist  Group  launched,  a  catalog  of  proprietary   online  courses,  on  January  12,  2016.   The  pla[orm  offers  professional   development  courses  curated  by  the   staff  of  The  Economist  and  taught  by   experts  from  different  fields.    
  24. 24. How  incumbents  are  responding   hxps://­‐ &v=M2jgSXP0ra4   hxps:// v=zihmiLx3Xlk&list=PLl2dezBNo_BkaJhG2IWePTtSA58MF8Xx-­‐&index=2     Georgia  Tech  on  the  Need  for  OMS   The  Georgia  Ins7tute  of  Technology,  Udacity  and  AT&T  have  teamed  up  to  offer   the  first  accredited  Master  of  Science  in  Computer  Science  that  students  can  earn   exclusively  through  the  Massive  Open  Online  Course  (MOOC)  delivery  format  and   for  a  frac.on  of  the  cost  of  tradi.onal,  on-­‐campus  programs.   This  collabora.on—informally  dubbed  "OMS  CS"  to  account  for  the  new  delivery   method—brings  together  leaders  in  educa.on,  MOOCs  and  industry  to  apply  the  power  of  massively  open  online  teaching  to  widen  the  pipeline  of  high-­‐ quality,  educated  talent  needed  in  computer  science  fields.     Accredited.  Affordable.  Accessible.   "I  had  been  searching  for  the  right  degree  program  for  years.  It's  hard  to  find  a   high-­‐quality  master's  program  that  I  could  do  while  keeping  my  full-­‐Wme  job.  The   incepWon  of  OMS  CS  was  like  the  answer  to  prayer.  It  has  exceeded  my   expectaWons."  -­‐Yeeling  Lam,  December  2015  graduate  of  OMS  CS   24  
  25. 25. CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE#  christenseninst   Is  the  allure  of  the  F2F  full-­‐7me  MBA  diminishing?   An  MBA  from  a  mid-­‐ranking  school  is  no  longer  the  investment  it  once  was.  In  2010  the  average  tui.on   fee  charged  by  American  ins.tu.ons  ranked  within  our  top  100,  but  outside  of  the  top  15,  was   $81,911  for  the  full  two  years.  The  average  basic  salary  of  those  schools’  freshly-­‐minted  MBAs  was   $81,178  a  year.  Five  years  ago  tui.on  at  the  same  cohort  of  schools  was  nearly  $22,000  cheaper— $60,247—while  the  average  salary,  $78,442,  was  barely  less  than  today’s.  This  price  rise  comes  at  a   .me  when  enrolment  is  falling;  for  American  mid-­‐level  schools  it  is  down  20%  over  the  decade   —  “Trouble  in  The  Middle,”  The  Economist,  October  15,  2011     Dr  Gino,  a  senior  director  with  GlaxoSmithKline  is  studying  for  an  MBA  with   Liverpool  University.  Being  an  excep.onally  busy  man  –  he  runs  a  scien.fic  support  group   in  the  company’s  Essex  development  laboratories  and  has  a  family  –  he  cannot  spare  the   .me  to  axend  lectures  or  summer  schools.    (The  Times,  26  Nov,  2008)     U.S.  News  &  World  Report  had  commented  that  “while  the  quality  of  online  M.B.A.  degrees   lea  much  to  be  desired  during  their  early  days,  their  axributes  have  steadily  improved  over   the  past  few  years,  as  have  their  pedigrees”.       The  dean  of  the  Columbia  University  Business  School  was  quoted  as  saying,  “I  think  people   will  look  at  different  formats  .  .  .  I  think  people  may  want  to  get  an  MBA  in  a  slightly   different  way”.       Source:  Driving  towards  a  disrupWon?  HBS  #9-­‐612-­‐101    
  26. 26. CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE#  christenseninst   Performance Time Time DifferentMeasure ofPerformance $150,000  !!!   Part-­‐.me  MBA   Online  “Garbage”   2-­‐year  MBA   Corporate  against   nonconsump.on   Help  me  solve  this  problem   Teach  me  what  I  need  to  know  to  become   a  great  manager   Give  me  the  creden.als  I  need  to  get  the   next,  more  job   Help  me  switch  careers   Help  me  join  a  pres.gious  network   •   Brand   •   Connec.ons   Harvard  Business  School  is  being  disrupted!     Source:  Clayton  Christensen  Ins.tute  (n.d.)    
  27. 27. The  economics  of  e-­‐learning  –  example  of  HBS’  MBA  program       Cost  item     $$$   Tui.on,  not  including  fees  for  materials     $51,200   Courses  /  year   10   Sessions  /  course   28   Hours  /  session   1.33   Tui.on/class-­‐hr/student   $137.1   Students  /  class   90   Tui.on  revenues  /  class/hr   $12,342.85   Major  costs   $$$   Professor   ???    -­‐  really  nice  ones!!!   ???   Admin  and  support  staff  (5:1  professor  ra.o)     ???   27   Source:  Driving  towards  a  disrupWon?  HBS  #9-­‐612-­‐101    
  28. 28. Tradi7onal  university  costs     Need  for  for  physical  proximity   Adding  students  is  expensive—they   require  more  buildings  and  instructors— and  so  a  university’s  marginal  cost  of   produc.on  is  high.  That  means  that  even   in  a  market,  where  price   converges  towards  marginal  cost,   modern  educa.on  is  dear.   Difficult  to  raise  produc7vity   University  lecturers  can  teach  at  most  a   few  hundred  students  each  semester— the  maximum  that  can  be  squeezed  into   lecture  halls  and  exam-­‐marking  rosters.     Because  it  is  so  labor  intensive  higher   educa.on  relies  on  large  numbers  of   instructors  paid  rela.vely  modest   salaries.   E-­‐learning  /MOOC   Classic    informa7on  goods   High  fixed  costs  of  produc.on  and  rock-­‐ boxom  marginal  costs  of  reproduc.on  -­‐   teaching  addi.onal  students  is  virtually  free.  prices  converge  towards  marginal  cost,   there  will  be  lixle  scope  for  undercu•ng  the   compe..on.  Instead  MOOCs  are  likely  to   compete  on  quality…Higher  produc.on  costs   are  a  small  price  to  pay  to  axract  much   greater  numbers  of  students.     Winner-­‐take-­‐all  dynamic     The  best  pla[orms  axract  the  most   customers  and  profit  handsomely  as  a  result.       See  more  at:   hxp:// the-­‐economics-­‐of-­‐online-­‐ educa.on.html#sthash.HkYJK37w.dpuf   The  rise  of  e-­‐learning  may  upend  the  economics  of  higher  educa7on     28   What  will  ensue  is  moun7ng  price  compe77on!      
  29. 29. Bifurca7on  of  higher  educa7on…  and  ensuing  price  compe77on     Two  quotes  by  Clayton  Christensen:     “Some  []  will  survive.  Most  will  evolve  hybrid   models,  in  which  licence  some  courses  from   an  online  provider  like  Coursera  but  then  provide  more   specialized  courses  in  person.  Hybrids  are  actually  a   principle  regardless  of  industry.  If  you  want  to  use  a  new   technology  in  a  mainstream  market,  it  has  to  be  a   hybrid.”   hxp://­‐christensen-­‐ higher-­‐educa.on-­‐on-­‐the-­‐edge-­‐2013-­‐2     “Historically  there  has  never  been  compe..on  on  the   basis  of  price.  For  online,  like  Liverpool  and   the  University  of  Phoenix,  if  prices  drop  by  60%  they  s.ll   make  money.  But  for  the  vast  majority  of  tradi.onal,  if  the  prices  fall  by  10%  they  are  bankrupt;   they  have  no  wriggle  room.  So  I'd  be  very  surprised  if  in   ten  years  we  don't  see  hundreds  of  in   bankruptcy”.   hxp://­‐ christensen-­‐s.ll-­‐     Buyervalue Relative cost High Low LowHigh University     of  Phoenix   Harvard  University   A   tradi.onal   university     13   29  
  30. 30. Is  this  good  enough?  –  You  judge!  (see  Christensen’s  lecture  on  innova.on   at  U  of  Phoenix)  hxps://     Percep.ons  of  online  degrees  has  changed  as  top-­‐ranked  schools  have   started  offering  more  distance  educa.on  op.ons  and  MOOCs.       New  avenues  and  associated  credenWals  will  conWnue  to  open  up…  When  MOOCs   burst  onto  the  scene,  companies  were  skepWcal.  Now,  they  are  accepted  by   employers  from  Accenture  to  Amazon  to  Google  and  Goldman  Sachs.  Companies  are   re-­‐examining  their  hiring  pracWces.        Anant  Agarwal,  edX  CEO  and  professor  at  MIT       In  the  past  couple  of  years  schools  like  MIT,  Stanford,  Duke  and  Johns  Hopkins  have   joined  the  online  educaWon  landscape.  It  elevates  the  concept  of  online  higher  ed.   Just  by  their  parWcipaWon  the  category  is  liled.   Cullen,  managing  director  at  Infinia  DC  (brand  consultant  for  colleges  and     Employers  are  embracing  e-­‐learning  degrees   30  
  31. 31. Imagine  if  you  aJended  your  next  finance  class  in  a  virtual  reality  through   3D  goggles.     Or  if  you  networked  with  alumni  through  an  avatar  of  your  likeness   projected  onto  your  laptop.   Or  if  your  strategy  professor  beamed  live  feedback  to  your  tablet  device   during  a  heated  case  study.   •  Some  of  these  innova.ons  may  seem  outlandish  to  MBAs   who  have  spent  their  semesters  learning  around  bricks   rather  than  clicks.  But  as  the  world’s  top  business  schools   begin  to  harness  the  power  of  innova.on,  such  whizzy   technologies  are  closer  to  becoming  a  reality.   •  Top  schools  are  heavily  in  in-­‐house  learning   technologies  and  some  are  with  the  likes  of   Coursera,  edX  or  Udacity.   •  But  now  schools  are  exploring  eccentric  tech  tools  such  as   Second  Life,  robo.cs  and  ar.ficial  intelligence.       Exo7c  technologies  are  becoming  a  reality  in  e-­‐learning…     31   Source:  BusinessBecause,  2016  
  32. 32. •  The  future  of  higher  educa.on  is  blended  learning.     •  Likewise,  the  future  of  MBA  /  b-­‐school  programs  is  blended   learning,  flexibility  and  customiza.on.   •  Learning  is  life-­‐long,  with  MOOCs  and  the  like  filling  in  the  gap   for  short,  on-­‐demand,  just-­‐in-­‐.me,  inexpensive  courses.     •  will  need  to  carve  unique  strategic  posi.ons.   •  “Me  too”  ins.tu.ons  will  be  displaced  by  MOOCs  (and  similar   pla[orms)  which  are  close  subs.tutes.     •  Top  will  survive  the  disrup.on,  and  their  best  bet   might  be  to  preserve  exclusivity  –  but  they,  too,  will  need  to   change  and  embrace  the  disrup.on!  Harvard,  Wharton  and   GeorgiaTech  are  prime  examples  that  this  is  feasible.     The  Future  of  higher  educa7on  and  learning     32  
  33. 33. CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE@christenseninst   Unit  of   accredita.on:   The  ins.tu.on   Unit  of   accredita.on:   the  course   A  different  type   of  university   Standards:   thru  course   acceptance       How  future  universi7es  may  look  like   Source:  Clayton  Christensen  Ins.tute  (n.d.)    
  34. 34. CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN INSTITUTE@christenseninst   Benefits  of  blended   learning  for  teachers     1.  Eager  students   2.  Bexer  informa.on   3.  Team  teaching   4.  Extended  .me  with  students   5.  Individualized  PD  plans   6.  Mo.vate  hard  to  reach  kids   7.  More  leadership  roles   8.  More  earning  power   9.  Focus  on  deeper  learning   10.  New  op.ons  to  teach  at   home   Source:  Digital  Learning  Now!   And  what’s  in  there  for  professors?    
  35. 35. Thank  you!     Ques.ons?