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9. development communication


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9. development communication

  1. 1. Development communication
  2. 2. What is development communication? • This describes an approach to communication which provides communities with information they can use in bettering their lives, which aims at making public programmes and policies real, meaningful and sustainable.
  3. 3. • Such information must be applied in some way as part of community development but it must also address information needs which communities themselves identified. • The outcome of this approach, in short, is to make a difference in the quality of life of communities.
  4. 4. • Nora Quebral (1971) defines development communication as follows: • Development communication is the art and science of human communication applied to the speedy transformation of a country and the mass of its people from poverty to a dynamic state of economic growth that makes possible greater social equality and the larger fulfillment of the human potential.
  5. 5. Comparison of diffusion and participatory approaches • The diffusion model assumes that a proper combination of mass-mediated and interpersonal communication strategies can move individuals from poor to not-poor via a process starting with awareness (of a new technology or practice) through interest, evaluation, trial and finally to adoption of the technology or practice that is assumed to lead to improved livelihoods.
  6. 6. Summary of diffusion approach (Waisbord 2000) Diffusion model • Definition of communication: information transfer - vertical • Definition of development communication: information dissemination via mass media • Problem: lack of information • Solution: information transfer: Knowledge - Attitudes - Practice • Goal: outcome oriented: behavior change
  7. 7. • In the early 1970s an intellectual shift occurred in the basic conception of development communication when predominately Latin American scholars challenged the diffusion approach to development communication. • Critics of the diffusion model were unsettled by its pro-innovation, pro-persuasion and top-down nature that is, its strong emphasis on adoption and lack of emphasis on recipient input into the development decisions and processes. (Colle, 1989).
  8. 8. • Therefore in the 1970s, there was a shift to the participatory approach, which is based on a systems framework with an emphasis on horizontal communication through which the poor/disadvantaged are directly involved in the communication process. • They not only adopt but are part of the creation of the new technology/knowledge.
  9. 9. The effectiveness of participatory development communication: Some contextual factors The participatory approach is made effective by a number of factors. Among these factors are: • creating a participatory communication environment that not only gives room for the expression of diverse ideas on societal developmental concerns, but also facilitates grassroots-level interaction; • strengthening the flow of public information and opportunities of public dialogue on development policies and programmes;
  10. 10. • producing and disseminating information content that reflects as well as responds to the local values and information needs of the people at the grassroots level; • using culturally appropriate communication approaches and content; • using community communication-access points, especially community radio • harnessing the strengths of traditional media (drama, dance, songs, story-telling, etc.) and combining them with new information and communication technologies;
  11. 11. Summary of participatory approach (Waisbord 2000) Participatory model • Definition of communication: information exchange/dialogue - horizontal • Definition of development communication: grassroots participation via group interaction • Problem: structural inequalities/local knowledge ignored • Solution: information exchange/ participation • Goal: process-oriented: empowerment, equity, community
  12. 12. • Frameworks: Types of interventions • Social change/praxis (Freire) Empowerment education • Social mobilization/activism Participatory Action Research (PAR) • Rapid Participatory Appraisal (RPA)
  13. 13. Use of various media in development communication • The two main techniques adopted in the use of various media in development communication is social marketing and its subset education entertainment., as many development interventions are in effect advertising campaigns for such “products” as contraception, the use of the latest seeds or fertilizers, or the use of a new technological equipment or knowledge.
  14. 14. Social Marketing Definition • The use of established advertising techniques to promote development goals via media such as TV, radio, newspapers and billboards etc, is termed social marketing (Kotler and Roberto, 1989: 24). • Social marketing has adopted not only the forms of marketing, but also its tools: consumer research, pretesting, and audience segmentation (Backer, Rogers and Sopory, 1992: 32). Most media-based development projects can be placed into the social marketing category.
  15. 15. Education Entertainment Definition • A subset of social marketing is entertainment-education, which has been defined by leading U.S. proponents in classic diffusion terms as “the process of purposely designing and implementing a media message to both entertain and educate, in order to increase audience knowledge about an educational issue, create favorable attitudes, and change overt behavior” (Singhal and Rogers, 1999: xii).
  16. 16. • Entertainment education messages may be carried by, for example, a soap opera or popular song specifically written for that purpose, or in vignettes inserted into variety shows. The key characteristic is that the media fare is not presented in an overtly didactic way; it is presented and meant to be consumed as entertainment.
  17. 17. • Big claims have been made about the power of the entertainment education strategy. For instance, “[e]ntertainment –through television, radio and music– is one of the most effective communication strategies for reaching the public to promote family planning and other public health issues.”
  18. 18. • For example, an examination of a radio soap opera in Zambia designed to disseminate information about AIDS found changes over time in some behaviors, in a family planning campaign in Nigeria.
  19. 19. • Entertainment-education interventions combine entertainment with education by incorporating educational messages into entertainment programming on radio or television. These messages may be carried by, for example, a soap opera or popular song specifically written for that purpose, or in vignettes inserted into variety shows.
  20. 20. • The key characteristic is that the media fare is not presented in an overtly educational way; it is presented and meant to be consumed as entertainment. It is based on Albert Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory that posits that individuals imitate the behaviour of role models.
  21. 21. • As Lettenmaier et al put it (1993: 5), enter-edu projects “can persuade listeners to change attitudes and practices because people tend to adopt the behaviour of those they admire, whether that person is real or a fictional character.”
  22. 22. • Entertainment-education has been enthusiastically embraced by many development communication practitioners (Singhal and Rogers, 1999). Entertainment-education television and radio programs tend to be highly popular with audiences because the programs are produced in local languages, and feature local settings and situations.
  23. 23. • Media exposure leads to increased knowledge and attitude change. For example, farmers basically utilize mass media for entertainment, relaxation, to escape from problems and to enliven their houses, so the use of a new herbicide can be promoted, for example, through television or radio.
  24. 24. Some of the various media that can be used in social marketing and education entertainment are: • Electronic media • television and radio broadcasts • The programme may comprise of interviews with experts, officials and farmers, folk songs and information about weather, market rates, availability of improved seeds • and implements, etc
  25. 25. Radio forums • Live broadcasts or programming for the developing community on the intervention concerned. This can take many forms, for example, the form of a studio panel discussing a relevant topic, where communities can phone or write in, where possible.
  26. 26. Casette tapes • People can record their own experiences and this gets fed - decision makers indigenous forms of in-depth interviewing - while the community member is busy with their work or the task which is the one in question (local unemployed youth sitting in a tavern)
  27. 27. Print media • newspapers/local magazines, etc. • Written articles for national programming can be featured in newspapers or local magazines where the national broadcaster has specific programme which are developmental in nature.
  28. 28. Traditional media Folk drama/Street theatre • Telling community stories or events in this medium is one good way of handling sensitive things which people may not openly talk about…after all, it is the characters talking! This could be done through humorous skits and plays through which the importance of literacy, hygiene etc. are enacted.
  29. 29. It is important, however, to understand that development communication using various media is possible only with the active involvement of the following: (i) Development agencies like departments of agriculture. (ii) Voluntary organizations (iii) Concerned citizens (iv) Non governmental organizations (NGOs) These groups help the government in implementing development programmes.