Attention deficit disorders

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Dr Chavda's presentation at Tata Learning Disability Forum (TLDF), 2013.
The Forum for Learning Disabilities centred on the theme ‘Learning Disabilities – a more inclusive perspective’. The forum this year included in its purview three additional Learning Disabilities (LD), namely Specific Learning Disability (SpLD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

In line with the TATA Group’s corporate sustainability endeavors, TIS initiated the Tata Learning Disability Forum (TLDF) in 2006 to ensure that students with special education needs receive the required attention as well as to spread awareness about LD which had been receiving scant attention in India. Since then, via the TLDF platform, TIS has been successful in generating an increased level of awareness and enabling progress in remediation activities for students with LD.

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Attention deficit disorders

  1. 1. ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDERSWith/Without hyperactivity Dr. Kersi Chavda
  2. 2. FACT: This is one of the most common diagnosed and treated paediatric mental health problems, and is increasingly being diagnosed in adults as well There is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactive/impulsive behaviours that are developmentally inappropriate, chronic and interfere with normal function.
  3. 3. ALSO Some features should have been present before seven years of age The ADHD features should have affected at least two domains of function>>>academic/functional/social/ occupational They should have persisted for at least six months
  4. 4. ETIOLOGYGenetic: Heritability in ADHD is amongst the highest of psychiatric disordersNeurological: Functional imaging suggests abnormality of the prefrontal cortexCathecholamine hypothesis: attributes ADHD to dysregulation of dopamine or norepinephrine in the CNS or PNS
  5. 5. CO-MORBIDITY: SLD(60%) CD and ODD (40%) Depression(15 to 32%) Anxiety Disorder(25%) High incidence of substance abuse
  6. 6. CLINICAL FEATURESInattention: might include poor attention to details, tendency to make careless mistakes , easy distractibility , difficulty in sustaining attention, poor listening, poor task completion disorganization, avoidance of tasks requiring sustained attention, tendency to lose things necessary for tasks, forgetfulness
  7. 7. HYPERACTIVITY/IMPULSIVESymptoms might include Fidgetiness, inability to stay seated, running or climbing inappropriately, noisiness in play, seeming “on the go” or as if driven by a motor, excessive talkativeness, prematurely blurting out answers, inability to take turns, interrupting others
  8. 8. SUBTYPES Predominantly Inattentive : with at least six inattentive symptoms Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive :with at least six hyperactive/impulsive symptoms Combined : with at least six symptoms from both categories
  9. 9. OUTCOMEHyperactive and impulsive symptoms may remit with maturityInattentive symptoms often persist
  10. 10. ADULTS WITH ADHD Substantial impairments in multiple domains Higher arrest rates, more marital problems, involved in more car accidents, academic and occupational underachievement Substance abuse is very common
  11. 11. Thank you

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