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Work Climate and Motivation in aCorporate Organization in Jamaica       Tashana Briscoe, M.Sc.                            ...
Overview•   Introduction•   Methodology•   Research findings•   Discussion•   Recommendation                              2
Importance of Topic                      3
Motivation ContinuumName                      DescriptionIntrinsic Motivation      Highest Level; where                   ...
Autonomy Supportive Work Climates• Work Climate is a significant determinant of  motivation (Baard, Deci & Ryan,2004; Cran...
Country and Region• “Organizations are creatures or replicas of  their environments” Locksley Lindo (1995)• Caribbean and ...
• There are no recorded Caribbean based studies on  the relationship between work climates and  motivation-existing empiri...
Self Determination Theory• Self Determination Theory states that  individuals/employees can be motivated to  perform by fa...
Research Questions and Hypotheses• Is the Work Climate measure (WCQ) valid and  reliable for the Jamaican sample?  – The W...
• Do higher levels of perceived autonomy  supportive work climate predict higher levels  of autonomous motivation?  – High...
Method• Sample n=150 employees were randomly  stratified by three levels of employment and  ten departments  – 10% Managem...
Measures• Predictor Variable: Autonomy supportive work climate   – Work Climate Questionnaire (Deci et al, 1989)       15...
Measures• Criterion Variable- Autonomous motivation  – Autonomous Motivation Subscale (AUTMO)    (Tremblay et al, 2009)   ...
Measures• To establish concurrent validity of AUTMO  – Job Satisfaction Scale (Hackman & Olham, 1975)      31-item multid...
Measures• To establish discriminant validity of AUTMO  – Turnover intentions (Attrition Scale, adapted from    Bernard, 20...
Descriptive Analyses of key variables              Specialist Departments (N= 74)                Customer Services Departm...
Results for RQ 1              Results for RQ 2• Is the Work Climate         • Is the Autonomous  measure (WCQ) valid and  ...
Results for RQ 3• Do higher levels of perceived autonomy  supportive work climate predict higher levels of  autonomous mot...
Correlations between AUTMO, Job Satisfaction            and Attrition measures                              Autonomous    ...
Summary of Findings• Reliability of scales were established• Concurrent and discriminant validity of  autonomous motivatio...
Summary of Findings• Significant positive weak correlation between  autonomy supportive work climate and  autonomous motiv...
Discussion• Dimensionality of both scales are significantly  different than those in the previous samples• Relationship mi...
Limitations• Sample size  Need to replicate findings• Length of questionnaire tool• Lack of qualitative understanding of ...
Recommendations• Adequate operationalization of construct• Quantitative and qualitative research to  understand the presen...
Take Home Messages• Employees’ perceptions and motivation levels  need to be adequately assessed using reliable  and cultu...
tashana.briscoe@gmail.com     Special thanks to the department ofSociology, Psychology and Social Work and the  Faculty of...
Specialist (N= 74)                         Customer Services (N=76)                Management     Specialist    Support   ...
Reference•   Baard, P.P., Deci, R. & Ryan, R. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction: A motivational    basis of performance ...
•   Deci, E.L. (1975). Intrinsic Motivation. New York, NY: Plenum.•   Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causa...
•   Holmeck, G.N. (1997). Toward terminological, conceptual, and statistical clarity in    the study of mediators and mode...
•   Litwin, G.H. & Stringer, R.A. (1968). Motivation and organizational climate. Boston:    Harvard University Press.•   M...
•   Porter, L., Bigley, G. & Steers, R. (2003). Motivation and Work behaviour (7th ed.).    Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Pag...
•   Tremblay, M.A., Blanchard, C.M., Taylor, S., Pelletier, L.G. & Villeneuve.(2009).    Work extrinsic and intrinsic moti...
•   Zuckerman, M., Porac, J., Lathin, D., Smith, R. & Deci, E.L. (1978). On the    importance of self-determination for in...
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Work Climat and Motivation in a Corporate Organization in Jamaica

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Work Climat and Motivation in a Corporate Organization in Jamaica

  1. 1. Work Climate and Motivation in aCorporate Organization in Jamaica Tashana Briscoe, M.Sc. 1
  2. 2. Overview• Introduction• Methodology• Research findings• Discussion• Recommendation 2
  3. 3. Importance of Topic 3
  4. 4. Motivation ContinuumName DescriptionIntrinsic Motivation Highest Level; where motivation internally generated.Integrated Regulations are adopted intoRegulation one’s values and needs but is contingent upon reward.Regulation Through Behaviour is personallyIdentification important, but contingent upon an external reward.Introjected Behaviour not fully acceptedRegulation as one’s own.External Regulation Behaviour’s performed to satisfy external demand or reward. 4
  5. 5. Autonomy Supportive Work Climates• Work Climate is a significant determinant of motivation (Baard, Deci & Ryan,2004; Cranmer, 20007; Deci &Connell, 1989; Gagné & Forest,2008; James & James,1985)• Autonomy supportive work climates will influence autonomous motivation ( Deci, 1975; Danovan,2001; Gagné & Forest, 2008; Litwin & Stringer, 1968; Patterson, Warr & West, 2004) 5
  6. 6. Country and Region• “Organizations are creatures or replicas of their environments” Locksley Lindo (1995)• Caribbean and Jamaican organizations as their wider societies are plagued with remnants of colonialism• Globalization, multi-cultural and trans- national organizations have added diversity to a already multi-cultural region 6
  7. 7. • There are no recorded Caribbean based studies on the relationship between work climates and motivation-existing empirical studies were conducted in developed regions• Existing literature on employee motivation in Jamaica states that the Jamaican workforce is chronically demotivated and that employees are dissatisfied with their jobs.• Measures were developed and normed in developed nations. 7
  8. 8. Self Determination Theory• Self Determination Theory states that individuals/employees can be motivated to perform by factors other than money or external rewards• SDT suggests: work climate motivation 8
  9. 9. Research Questions and Hypotheses• Is the Work Climate measure (WCQ) valid and reliable for the Jamaican sample? – The Work Climate measure (WCQ) will have different reliability and dimensionality for the Jamaican sample.• Is the Autonomous Motivation measure (AUTMO) valid and reliable for the Jamaican sample? – The Autonomous Motivation measure (AUTMO) will have different reliability and dimensionality for the Jamaican sample. 9
  10. 10. • Do higher levels of perceived autonomy supportive work climate predict higher levels of autonomous motivation? – Higher levels of perceived autonomy supportive work climate will predict higher levels autonomous motivation, controlling for sex, education, tenure at company, rank in company, and departmental affiliation within the company. 10
  11. 11. Method• Sample n=150 employees were randomly stratified by three levels of employment and ten departments – 10% Management staff (n=15) – 46% Specialist staff (n=69) – 44% Support staff (n=66)• Both male (51%) and female (49%) employees, age ranged 21-53 yrs old• Data were collected July-October 2010 11
  12. 12. Measures• Predictor Variable: Autonomy supportive work climate – Work Climate Questionnaire (Deci et al, 1989)  15-item scale measuring employees’ perceived autonomy supportiveness (Cronbach’s = .96 )  7-point response scale ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 7=strongly agree  Sample item: “My manager listens o how I would like to do things”  Items were standardized and averaged  Variable was transformed to improve the fit of the data 12
  13. 13. Measures• Criterion Variable- Autonomous motivation – Autonomous Motivation Subscale (AUTMO) (Tremblay et al, 2009)  18-item scale measuring employee’s motivation levels (subscales were intrinsic motivation, Integrated, Identified and introjected regulations, Cronbach’s = .67 to .83)  7-point response scale ranging from 1=does not correspond at all to 7=corresponds exactly  Sample item: “Why do you work? For the satisfaction I experience from taking on interesting challenges”  Items were standardized and averaged  Variable was transformed to improve the fit of the data 13
  14. 14. Measures• To establish concurrent validity of AUTMO – Job Satisfaction Scale (Hackman & Olham, 1975)  31-item multidimensional scale measuring employee’s job satisfaction (Cronbach’s = .90)  5-point response scale ranging from do not agree at all to 5=agree completely  Sample item: “I am satisfied with the personal development I get doing my job”  Items were standardized and averaged  Variable was transformed to improve the fit of the data 14
  15. 15. Measures• To establish discriminant validity of AUTMO – Turnover intentions (Attrition Scale, adapted from Bernard, 2001)  7-item scale measuring employee’s intentions to stay or leave organization (Cronbach’s = .63)  5-point response scale ranging from do not agree at all to 5=agree completely  Sample item: “I intend pursue another posting outside of ______ as soon as possible”  Items were standardized and averaged  Variable was transformed to improve the fit of the data• Covariates- sex, level of employment, department, level of education, tenure 15
  16. 16. Descriptive Analyses of key variables Specialist Departments (N= 74) Customer Services Departments (N=76) Management Specialist Support Management Specialist Support M (SE) M(SE) Staff M(SE) M(SE) Staff M(SE) M(SE) WCQ 5.09 (.58) 4.68 (.18) 5.01 (.41) 5.33 (.49) 5.39 (.30) 4.46 (.17) (original) AUTMO 3.39 (.10) 3.12 (.07) 3.40 (.17) 3.29 (.25) 3.29 (.17) 3.0 3 (.16) (Original) Job 4.24 (.30) 4.05 (.15) 3.99 (.39) 4.44 (.35) 4.11 (.47) 2.88 (.07)Satisfaction (Original) Attrition 2.16 (.20) 2.11 (.20) 1.79 (.16) 1.70 (.15) 2.19 (.17) 2.34 (.7) (Original) 16
  17. 17. Results for RQ 1 Results for RQ 2• Is the Work Climate • Is the Autonomous measure (WCQ) valid and Motivation measure reliable for the Jamaican (AUTMO) valid and reliable sample? for the Jamaican sample?• Principal Component • Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed Analysis (PCA) showed different dimensionality different dimensionality for for WCQ in Jamaican AUTMO in Jamaican sample sample • Reliability established• Reliability established - Cronbach’s alpha = .92 - Cronbach’s alpha = .96 17
  18. 18. Results for RQ 3• Do higher levels of perceived autonomy supportive work climate predict higher levels of autonomous motivation?• Hierarchical Regression• Autonomy supportive work climate explained 7.5% of variance in autonomous motivation• Autonomy supportive work climate and covariates explained 24.5% of variance in autonomous motivation 18
  19. 19. Correlations between AUTMO, Job Satisfaction and Attrition measures Autonomous Attrition Job Motivation Satisfaction Autonomous 1 Motivation (n=150) Attrition (n=148) -.361** 1 Job Satisfaction .527** -.443** 1 (n=146) **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) 19
  20. 20. Summary of Findings• Reliability of scales were established• Concurrent and discriminant validity of autonomous motivation scale was established• Dimensionality of scales in Jamaican sample are different from previous samples 20
  21. 21. Summary of Findings• Significant positive weak correlation between autonomy supportive work climate and autonomous motivation• Autonomy supportive work climate and covariates explain 24.5% of variance in autonomous motivation 21
  22. 22. Discussion• Dimensionality of both scales are significantly different than those in the previous samples• Relationship might be moderated or mediated• Remnants of colonialism might be affecting the organization and employees perceptions• Recession experienced might have affected employees’ perception of work climate and motivation 22
  23. 23. Limitations• Sample size  Need to replicate findings• Length of questionnaire tool• Lack of qualitative understanding of variables in Jamaican context• Population is not familiar with industrial/organizational psychology• No qualitative research to understand conceptualization of constructs 23
  24. 24. Recommendations• Adequate operationalization of construct• Quantitative and qualitative research to understand the present state of Jamaican organizations and employees motivation and satisfaction profile• Revision of measures and norming for Jamaican sample• Further research to examine mediators and moderators of relationship 24
  25. 25. Take Home Messages• Employees’ perceptions and motivation levels need to be adequately assessed using reliable and culturally valid measures• Good measurement = Design of tools and programs can improve satisfaction and performance 25
  26. 26. tashana.briscoe@gmail.com Special thanks to the department ofSociology, Psychology and Social Work and the Faculty of Social Sciences, UWI Mona forfunding my trip to the annual CSA Conference 2011 26
  27. 27. Specialist (N= 74) Customer Services (N=76) Management Specialist Support Management Specialist Support M (SE) M(SE) Staff M(SE) M(SE) Staff M(SE) M(SE) SQWCQ 1.66 (.17) 1.78 (.05) 1.69 (.12) 1.59 (.14) 1.58 (.09) 1.85 (.05)(Transformed) SQAUTMO 1.86 (.09) 1.88 (.04) 1.90 (.11) 1.79 (.10) 1.86 (.13) 2.19 (.04)(Transformed) Job 1.61 (.03) 1.69 (.02) 1.60 (.05) 1.63 (.08) 1.64 (.05) 1.76 (.09) Satisfaction(Transformed) Attrition 1.68 (.06) 1.69 (.08) 1.79 (.05) 1.81 (.04) 1.66 (.05) 1.62 (.02)(Transformed) 27
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