Good afternoon to the members of the Ladies and Gentlemen. It is a pleasure for me to speak with you about my research. And I would like to thank Caribbean Studies Association committee for the invitation to present at this Seminar. I would also like to acknowledge my department and faculty, Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work in the faculty of UWI, Mona for funding my trip.This study explored the relationship between work climate and Motivation in a Corporate organization in Jamaica. The study also explored the dimensionality (reliability and validity) of the measures used to capture the sample’s perceptions and motives.
Work Motivation has been studied since the late 1930’s as it was seen then and even more so now; as the driving force behind employee performance and organizational success.However it is important to note that not all types of motivation produce or maintain optimal performance or mutually beneficial outcomes for organizations and employees (Gagné & Deci, 2005; Vallerand et al, 2008)
The present study focused on the motivation that has been linked to optimal performance and mutually beneficial outcomes for the organization and employees. This type of motivation is called autonomous motivation and includes four of the known motivation types: Introjected Regulation, Identified Regulation, Integrated Regulation and Internalized Regulation also known as Intrinsic Motivation
Empirical studies suggests that Autonomy Supportive Work Climates produces autonomous motivation. Autonomy supportive work climate is set of measurable properties of the work environment, perceived directly or indirectly by the people who live and work in this environment and assumed to influence their motivation and behaviour (Litwin & Stringer, 1968). This includes the work environment, Supervisor support and top management support.
Remnants of Colonialism: includesa plantation style stratification system, distortion of power, breakdown in or lack of communication among and within ranks, demotivation among the mass to perform well, psychological jobdissatisfaction and a distaste for service role Majority of Jamaica’s Private and Public sector are characterized by TNC (Transnational Corporation) with absentee owners and a management structure that resembles the slavery plantations and post slavery colonies.As such it important that we have a universal or culturally relevant understanding of autonomy supportive work climate and autonomous motivation. This will allow us develop efficient and useful motivation tools and methods that will produce and maintain high levels of performance and satisfaction so we can compete on global platforms.
These are the same measures that are being employed in our region and on people with totally different experiences and cultures. It is important to examine perceptions of work climate in Caribbean organizations and relationship between these context specific climates and organizational outcomes such as autonomous motivation with valid and reliable measures.
If asked: The proportionate representation for levels of employment of the collected data was: 10% (n = 15) management, 46% (n = 69) specialist and 44% (n = 66) support staff and for departments it was: Consumer sales = 3% (n = 5), Customer Sales = 41% (n = 61), Business = 6% (n = 9), Foundation =.7% (n = 1), Facilities = 3% (n = 4), Finance (including Business Risk) = 3% (n = 5), Human Resources = 3% (n = 5), Information Technology (including Billings) = 7% (n = 11), Technical = 29% (n = 43), Wimax = 3% (n = 5). Given the almost proportionate ratio of female to male employees, approximately half of the sample was female.
A square root transformation was performed
It is a 31-item Likert scale that assesses employee’s satisfaction with: (a) nature of the job; (b) salary and benefits; (c) promotion potential and recognition; (d) working condition; (e) supervision, peers, and the organization; (f) job security; (g) geographical location of the workplace; and (h) comparative value of the job.
The covariates were dummy coded: Sex was dummy coded so that males = 1, with females as the reference as the reference categoryEmployment level was dummy coded and the support staff and management level was used in the regression and the specialist level was used as the reference category.The categories for department were collapsed into two broad categories in order to ensure adequate proportions for meaningful comparisons. There were collapsed into customer services and specialist category. Department was also dummy coded so that specialist department = 1, with customer services category as the reference category. The departments were collapsed into two categories: specialist and Customer Service in order to ensure adequate proportions for meaningful comparisons. There were a total of 74 employees from the specialist (Technical, Human Resources, Business, Finance and I.T) departments and 76 employees from the customer service departments (Consumer Sales, Customer Care, Foundation, Facilities and Wimax).Tenure was then dummy coded so that tenure of over five years to ten years =1, with tenure of less than five years as the reference category.Education level was collapsed to represent high school, post high school, tertiary (first degree) and tertiary (post graduate) levels. These new categories provided sizeable proportions for meaningful comparisons. Education level was also dummy coded so that high school, post high school and tertiary (post graduate) education level was entered into the regression with tertiary (first degree) education level as a reference category.
For WCQ and AUTMO 1 is the lowest and 7 is the highest For the Job Satisfaction and Attrition scale 1is the lowest and 5 is the highest
The items were only loading on one factor which is the work climate. It did not load on supervisory support or top management support. The measures had a reliability for the Jamaican Sample.
Hierarchical Regression was stepwise -1st the covariates were introduced-2nd Main Predictor Weak positive correlation between autonomy supportive work climate and autonomous motivation r(144)=.274, p<.05
Table: Concurrent and discriminant validity. N was reduced by pairwise deletion of cases with missing data. More Autonomously motivated is the more likely there are to stay More Autonomously motivated the less likely they will leaveMore satisfied less likely they will leave A higher mean score for autonomous motivation means that the individual is closer to the highest end of the continuum A higher mean score for the Attrition scale means the individual is more likely to leave.A higher mean score for Job Satisfaction means a higher level of Job Satisfaction.
Covariates were the demographic variables; sex, department categories, level of employment and tenureAutonomy supportive work climate explains 7.5% of variance in autonomous motivation
This means that the Jamaican sample might have a significantly different understanding or conceptualization of perceived autonomy supportiveness in the work setting and autonomous motivation. Both measures were developed and normed in first world countries which are significantly different from Post Colonial Jamaica which has significant remnants of the plantation stratification system existing in its organization. Furthermore, the sample was taken from European owned service company with a significant number of North American, European or Caucasian directors and managers.Subsequently the psychometric properties of the measures might have affected the results of the other hypotheses. The results of the psychometric examination of the measures shows that the constructs have not been understood the same way in the Jamaican sample as they were in the prior studies. This means that the measures are not sufficiently capturing what they were assumed to capture as such the scores on the measures might have been distorted. The subsequent hypotheses explore the relationships between the variables and the relationships can not be adequately explored without employees describing their perceptions and motives accurately.Even though the climate influences or produces the experiences of autonomous motivation, the individual motivational orientation also determines what influences or produces the experience of autonomous motivation (Self Regulation). Additionally, even though the work climate predicts autonomous motivation , it is moderated by the individuals’ motivational orientation (general causality orientation) which maybe; autonomous, controlled or impersonal or self regulated. All in the same, this might mean that the sample had more controlled motivational orientated individuals, which would account for the small amount of variance accounted for by perceived autonomy supportive work climate.Psychological need satisfaction- autonomy, competence and relatedness This also ties into the results of the previous studies that states the Jamaican workforce is chronically demotivated and psychologically dissatisfied with their jobs. The SDT theory also states that individual psychological needs must be satisfied in order for the work climate to influence motivation. In other words psychological need satisfactions is mediating the relationship between work climate and intrinsic motivation. It might be that the relationship between work climate and motivation is not being exhibited as it was in developed countries because of the psychometric discrepancies in addition lack of psychological satisfaction that the Jamaican employees are experiencing.The sample of the study was also taken from a TNC with a large number of expatriates serving in senior and middle management. This organizational structure might still be effecting the same resistance and miscommunication that was characteristic of the plantation system and early post colonial systems.Given that the era is characterized by uncertainty, job cuts, pay cuts and a lack of job security, employees perception of their company’s autonomy supportiveness might be moderated by their perception of their job security and pay cuts and their organizations ability to successfully survive the recession.
Time the survey was conductedIt was not adequately introduced to the sample-resistanceThe organization is not fond of authorizing external surveysThere was no qualitative study to understand the operationalization of the variables in the Jamaica Society TNC are not too comfortable with outsiders coming into to do studies
Is the Jamaican workforce still as chronically demotivated and dissatisfied as it was a decade ago or are the measures inadequately measuring their motives and satisfaction?
Descriptive Analysis of Key Variables For WCQ and AUTMO 1 is the lowest and 7 is the highest For the Job Satisfaction and Attrition scale 1is the lowest and 5 is the highest
Work Climat and Motivation in a Corporate Organization in Jamaica
Work Climate and Motivation in aCorporate Organization in Jamaica Tashana Briscoe, M.Sc. 1
Overview• Introduction• Methodology• Research findings• Discussion• Recommendation 2
Motivation ContinuumName DescriptionIntrinsic Motivation Highest Level; where motivation internally generated.Integrated Regulations are adopted intoRegulation one’s values and needs but is contingent upon reward.Regulation Through Behaviour is personallyIdentification important, but contingent upon an external reward.Introjected Behaviour not fully acceptedRegulation as one’s own.External Regulation Behaviour’s performed to satisfy external demand or reward. 4
Autonomy Supportive Work Climates• Work Climate is a significant determinant of motivation (Baard, Deci & Ryan,2004; Cranmer, 20007; Deci &Connell, 1989; Gagné & Forest,2008; James & James,1985)• Autonomy supportive work climates will influence autonomous motivation ( Deci, 1975; Danovan,2001; Gagné & Forest, 2008; Litwin & Stringer, 1968; Patterson, Warr & West, 2004) 5
Country and Region• “Organizations are creatures or replicas of their environments” Locksley Lindo (1995)• Caribbean and Jamaican organizations as their wider societies are plagued with remnants of colonialism• Globalization, multi-cultural and trans- national organizations have added diversity to a already multi-cultural region 6
• There are no recorded Caribbean based studies on the relationship between work climates and motivation-existing empirical studies were conducted in developed regions• Existing literature on employee motivation in Jamaica states that the Jamaican workforce is chronically demotivated and that employees are dissatisfied with their jobs.• Measures were developed and normed in developed nations. 7
Self Determination Theory• Self Determination Theory states that individuals/employees can be motivated to perform by factors other than money or external rewards• SDT suggests: work climate motivation 8
Research Questions and Hypotheses• Is the Work Climate measure (WCQ) valid and reliable for the Jamaican sample? – The Work Climate measure (WCQ) will have different reliability and dimensionality for the Jamaican sample.• Is the Autonomous Motivation measure (AUTMO) valid and reliable for the Jamaican sample? – The Autonomous Motivation measure (AUTMO) will have different reliability and dimensionality for the Jamaican sample. 9
• Do higher levels of perceived autonomy supportive work climate predict higher levels of autonomous motivation? – Higher levels of perceived autonomy supportive work climate will predict higher levels autonomous motivation, controlling for sex, education, tenure at company, rank in company, and departmental affiliation within the company. 10
Method• Sample n=150 employees were randomly stratified by three levels of employment and ten departments – 10% Management staff (n=15) – 46% Specialist staff (n=69) – 44% Support staff (n=66)• Both male (51%) and female (49%) employees, age ranged 21-53 yrs old• Data were collected July-October 2010 11
Measures• Predictor Variable: Autonomy supportive work climate – Work Climate Questionnaire (Deci et al, 1989) 15-item scale measuring employees’ perceived autonomy supportiveness (Cronbach’s = .96 ) 7-point response scale ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 7=strongly agree Sample item: “My manager listens o how I would like to do things” Items were standardized and averaged Variable was transformed to improve the fit of the data 12
Measures• Criterion Variable- Autonomous motivation – Autonomous Motivation Subscale (AUTMO) (Tremblay et al, 2009) 18-item scale measuring employee’s motivation levels (subscales were intrinsic motivation, Integrated, Identified and introjected regulations, Cronbach’s = .67 to .83) 7-point response scale ranging from 1=does not correspond at all to 7=corresponds exactly Sample item: “Why do you work? For the satisfaction I experience from taking on interesting challenges” Items were standardized and averaged Variable was transformed to improve the fit of the data 13
Measures• To establish concurrent validity of AUTMO – Job Satisfaction Scale (Hackman & Olham, 1975) 31-item multidimensional scale measuring employee’s job satisfaction (Cronbach’s = .90) 5-point response scale ranging from do not agree at all to 5=agree completely Sample item: “I am satisfied with the personal development I get doing my job” Items were standardized and averaged Variable was transformed to improve the fit of the data 14
Measures• To establish discriminant validity of AUTMO – Turnover intentions (Attrition Scale, adapted from Bernard, 2001) 7-item scale measuring employee’s intentions to stay or leave organization (Cronbach’s = .63) 5-point response scale ranging from do not agree at all to 5=agree completely Sample item: “I intend pursue another posting outside of ______ as soon as possible” Items were standardized and averaged Variable was transformed to improve the fit of the data• Covariates- sex, level of employment, department, level of education, tenure 15
Results for RQ 1 Results for RQ 2• Is the Work Climate • Is the Autonomous measure (WCQ) valid and Motivation measure reliable for the Jamaican (AUTMO) valid and reliable sample? for the Jamaican sample?• Principal Component • Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed Analysis (PCA) showed different dimensionality different dimensionality for for WCQ in Jamaican AUTMO in Jamaican sample sample • Reliability established• Reliability established - Cronbach’s alpha = .92 - Cronbach’s alpha = .96 17
Results for RQ 3• Do higher levels of perceived autonomy supportive work climate predict higher levels of autonomous motivation?• Hierarchical Regression• Autonomy supportive work climate explained 7.5% of variance in autonomous motivation• Autonomy supportive work climate and covariates explained 24.5% of variance in autonomous motivation 18
Correlations between AUTMO, Job Satisfaction and Attrition measures Autonomous Attrition Job Motivation Satisfaction Autonomous 1 Motivation (n=150) Attrition (n=148) -.361** 1 Job Satisfaction .527** -.443** 1 (n=146) **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) 19
Summary of Findings• Reliability of scales were established• Concurrent and discriminant validity of autonomous motivation scale was established• Dimensionality of scales in Jamaican sample are different from previous samples 20
Summary of Findings• Significant positive weak correlation between autonomy supportive work climate and autonomous motivation• Autonomy supportive work climate and covariates explain 24.5% of variance in autonomous motivation 21
Discussion• Dimensionality of both scales are significantly different than those in the previous samples• Relationship might be moderated or mediated• Remnants of colonialism might be affecting the organization and employees perceptions• Recession experienced might have affected employees’ perception of work climate and motivation 22
Limitations• Sample size Need to replicate findings• Length of questionnaire tool• Lack of qualitative understanding of variables in Jamaican context• Population is not familiar with industrial/organizational psychology• No qualitative research to understand conceptualization of constructs 23
Recommendations• Adequate operationalization of construct• Quantitative and qualitative research to understand the present state of Jamaican organizations and employees motivation and satisfaction profile• Revision of measures and norming for Jamaican sample• Further research to examine mediators and moderators of relationship 24
Take Home Messages• Employees’ perceptions and motivation levels need to be adequately assessed using reliable and culturally valid measures• Good measurement = Design of tools and programs can improve satisfaction and performance 25
firstname.lastname@example.org Special thanks to the department ofSociology, Psychology and Social Work and the Faculty of Social Sciences, UWI Mona forfunding my trip to the annual CSA Conference 2011 26
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