Principles of Earthquake resistant design of Structures
Principles of Earthquake resistant
design of Structures
K . TARUN KUMAR
• According to building codes, earthquake-resistant
structures are intended to withstand the largest
earthquake of a certain probability that is likely to
occur at their location.
• This means the loss of life should be minimized by
preventing collapse of the buildings for rare
earthquakes while the loss of functionality should be
limited for more frequent ones.
• The range from appropriately sizing the structure to
be strong and ductile enough to survive the shaking with an
acceptable damage, to equipping it to minimize the forces.
• BASE ISOLATION
• STRUCTURAL VIBRATION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
• Base isolation is one of the most powerful tools
of earthquake engineering pertaining to the passive
structural vibration control technologies.
• It is meant to enable a building or non-building structure to
survive a potentially devastating from seismic impact.
• The isolators work in a similar way to car suspension,
which allows a car to travel over rough ground without the
occupants of the car getting thrown around.
• A fixed-base building (built directly on the ground) will
move with an earthquake’s motion and can sustain
extensive damage as a result.
• Base isolation technology can make medium-rise masonry
(stone or brick) or reinforced concrete structures capable of
withstanding earthquakes, protecting them and their
occupants from major damage or injury.
STRUCTURAL VIBRATION CONTROL
In earthquake engineering, vibration control is
a set of technical means aimed to
mitigate seismic impacts in building and non-
1. Passive seismic control.
2. Active seismic control.
3. Hybrid seismic control.
Passive seismic control:
• Passive seismic control system in which they do not
require any additional energy source to operate and are
activated by earthquake input motion only.
Active seismic control:
• This system provides seismic protection by imposing forces
on a structure that counterbalance the earthquake forces.
• This system is active in that it requires an energy source and
computer – controlled to operate dampers throughout the
• Active seismic control is comparatively newest invention in
the field of seismic control systems that applies a 3
• This technology is highly sophisticated and expensive one
and may not be feasible one for small projects even in far
Hybrid seismic control:
• This system combines features of both passive and active
seismic control systems.
• In general, it has reduced power demands, and reduced cost
when compared to fully active systems.
• Hence it utilizes the advantages of both passive and active
seismic control systems.