A Short Seminar On
Deepak Paranjape Sir
Here I come to my topic i.e. Keys in DBMS.
• DBMS has Five types of Keys in it and they all has different functionality.
• The Keys are as follows:
• Super Key
• Candidate Key
• Primary Key
• Foreign Key
• Composite Key
Let’s discuss one by one all of the five keys.
Super Key is a set of attributes whose set of values can uniquely identify an entity
instance in the entity set.
A Super Key can contains one or more than one attributes.
Super Key is the broadest definition of unique identifiers of an entity in an entity
The combination of “SSN” and “Name” is a super key of the following entity set
The value of attributes “SSN” and “Name”, such as 558-36-1234 and
Susan, can uniquely identify that particular customer in customer entity set,
which is the pool of all customers.
We are unsurprisingly very interested in the most
economical combination(s) of attributes that can
uniquely identify any particular entity.
Therefore, we introduce Candidate Key next.
Candidate key is a set of one or more attributes whose set of values can
uniquely identify an entity instance in the entity set.
Any attribute in the candidate key cannot be omitted without destroying the
uniqueness property of the Candidate key.
It is minimal Super Key.
While most entity sets have only one candidate key, some entity sets could
have more than one candidate key.
Candidate key could have more than one attributes.
In building a database in a database software, the software will only allow to
use one candidate key to be the unique identifier of an entity for an entity set.
Properties of Candidate Key…..
• (SSN, Name) is NOT a candidate key, because taking out “name” still leaves “SSN”
which can uniquely identify an entity. “SSN” is a candidate key of customer.
• Example: Both “SSN” and “License #” are candidate keys of Driver entity set.
Overall, Super Key is the broadest unique identifier; Candidate Key is a
subset of Super Key; and Primary Key is a subset of Candidate Key.
In practice, we would first look for Super Keys. Then we look for Candidate
Keys based on experience and common sense.
If there is only one Candidate Key, it naturally will be designated as the
If we find more than one Candidate Key, then we can designate any one of
them as Primary Key.
The Primary Key is an attribute or a set of attributes that uniquely identify a specific
instance of an entity.
Every entity in the data model must have a primary key whose values uniquely identify
instances of the entity.
To qualify as a primary key for an entity, an attribute must have the
It must have a non-null value for each instance of the entity
The value must be unique for each instance of an entity
The values must not change or become null during the life of each entity instance
Properties Of Primary Keys....
Primary and Foreign keys are the most basic
components on which relational theory is based.
Each entity must have a attribute or attributes, the
primary key, whose values uniquely identify each
instance of the entity. Every child entity must have
an attribute, the foreign key, that completes the
association with the parent entity.
A Foreign key is an attribute that completes a relationship by identifying the parent
Foreign keys provide a method for maintaining integrity in the data (called referential
integrity) and for navigating between different instances of an entity.
Every relationship in the model must be supported by a foreign key.
Every dependent and category (subtype) entity in the model must have a
foreign key for each relationship in which it participates.
Foreign keys are formed in dependent and subtype entities by migrating the
entire primary key from the parent or generic entity. If the primary key is
composite, it may not be split.
Properties Of Foreign Key….
When a primary key is created from a combination of 2 or more columns, the
primary key is called a composite key.
Each column may not be unique by itself within the database table but when
combined with the other column(s) in the composite key, the combination is