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Advertising   dagmar approach
Advertising dagmar approach
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  1. 1. DAGMAR is …………… Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results.
  2. 2. • An approach to advertising planning and a precise method for selecting and quantifying goals and for using those goals to measure performance. • Russel H Colley (1961) developed a model for setting advertising objectives and measuring the results.
  3. 3. According to DAGMAR, before purchase, prospect goes through 4 steps: 1. Awareness 2. Comprehension 3. Conviction 4. Action These steps are also known as ACCA advertising formula.
  4. 4. Advertising Objective • An advertising objective involves a communication task, intended to create awareness, impart information, develop attitudes or induce action. • ACCA/DAGMAR is a descendant of AIDA advertising formula and considered to be more popular and comprehensive than AIDA.
  6. 6. A Measurable Objective The DAGMAR approach emphasises the importance of objectives, we must have some form of measurement to indicate the effectiveness of the advertising/ promotional campaign. So if you are thinking of a promotional campaign, it must have an objective. And an objective that is measurable.
  7. 7. • Your measurable objective must be written, clear and unambiguous. Goals like 'Improve store image'/Increase awareness of our store' etc are too vague and do not lead to anywhere. • A good starting point to work on the goal would be • Increase awareness of our store by 10%
  8. 8. A Conceivable Benchmark: • When we talk of measurement, its both current and future. We must, first, know where we stand now, and know in quantitative terms. for example: • If you know that already many customers are visiting your store, you may probably have some idea of their behaviour related to purchases. Now you know that your advertising can be aimed at converting your visitors to customers.
  9. 9. • As an example, if you are selling premium car accessories, you should target customers who are either stylish, sophisticated or own premium cars. • Let's reconstruct our goal now: • Increase awareness of our store from the current level of 20% to 30%
  10. 10. Well-Defined Target Audience • The first lesson you should learn in marketing is target audience. Not everyone is going to buy your product. Not everyone needs your product, So, identify your target audience, to whom you are going to aim your ad campaign. Most likely, this is going to be your user segment as well. • Working further on the advertising goal, we now have: Increase awarenes of our store from the current level of 20% to 30% among the owner of product X
  11. 11. Fixed time period • You should have a fixed time period, six months or a year, within which you should aim at attaining certain goals. There should also be some time allocated to test the campaign, make amendments, if required to the campaign . So, we finally have our advertising goal as follows: • Increase awarenes of our store from the current level of 20% to 30% among the owner of product X before the launch of product Y which is expected within the next six months.
  12. 12. Characteristics of Objectives A major contribution of DAGMAR was Colley’s specification of what constitutes a good objective. Four characteristics of good objectives were : • Concrete and measurable—the communications task or objective should be a precise statement of what appeal or message the advertiser wants to communicate to the target audience. Furthermore the specification should include a description of the measurement procedure • Target audience –The target audience should be well defined. For example –if the goal was to increase awareness, it is essential to know the target audience precisely.
  13. 13. Benchmark and degree of change sought— another important part of setting objectives is having benchmark measures to determine where the target audience stands with respect to variables such as awareness, knowledge, attitudes, image, etc. • The objectives should also specify how much change or movement is being sought such as increase in awareness levels, creation of favorable attitudes or number of consumers intending to purchase the brand, etc.
  14. 14. Specified time period—a final characteristic of good objectives is the specification of the time period during which the objective is to be accomplished, e.g. 6months, 1 year etc. Written Goal - finally goals should be committed to paper. When the goals are clearly written, basic shortcomings and misunderstandings become exposed and it becomes easy to determine whether the goal contains the crucial aspects of the DAGMAR approach.
  15. 15. Communication Process in DAGMAR Approach
  16. 16. Awareness • The initial communication task of the advertising activity is to increase consumer awareness of the product or offer. • From unawareness to Awareness—the consumer must first be aware of a brand or company. • Awareness needs to be created, developed, refined or sustained.
  17. 17. Awareness grid Involvement HIGH LOW Awareness HIGH Sustain current levels of awareness Refine awareness LOW Build awareness quickly. Create association of awareness of product with product class need
  18. 18. Buyer experiences high involvement: • Awareness levels need only be sustained and efforts need to be applied to other communication tasks. • Sales promotion and personal selling are more effective. • The LG golden eye ads were repeatedly shown in spite of high awareness to ensure top of mind awareness and retain the existing awareness levels.
  19. 19. • Where low levels of awareness are found, getting attention needs to be the prime objective. • Sahara Homes ad featuring Amitabh Bachhan saying “ jaha base Bharat”. Awareness level is low, however it is a high involvement decision. Thus adequate attention is required and awareness levels are raised with use of well- known and trusted celebrities.
  20. 20. Buyer experiences low involvement • Buyers have sufficient level of awareness, recognition and brand image would be required to refine and strengthen the level of awareness so that it provokes interest and stimulates greater involvement during recall or recognition. • Parle G ad that talks about it being the largest seller “ Duniya ka sabse Zyada bikne waala biscuit”. Parle G as a brand already enjoys high levels of awareness and requires low involvement decision, thus communication is mainly intended to refine awareness.
  21. 21. • If buyers have low level of awareness, the prime objective has to be to create awareness of the focus product in association with the product class. • When coils were popular in use and then the different repellants entered the market, awareness had to be created about their benefits and use.
  22. 22. Comprehension • Knowledge about the product or the organization is necessary. This can be achieved by providing specific information about key brand attributes. • In attempting to persuade people to try a different brand of water, it may be necessary to compare the product with other mineral water products and provide an additional usage benefit, such as environmental claims.
  23. 23. • The ad of Ganga mineral water, featuring Govinda, which banked on the purity aspect. They related the purity of the water with that of river Ganga.
  24. 24. Conviction • Establish a sense of conviction. By creating interest and preference, buyers are convinced that a particular product in the class should be tried at the next opportunity. • Audience’s beliefs about the product have to be moulded and this is often done through messages that demonstrate the product’s superiority over a rival or by talking about the rewards as a result of using the product. • Many ads like Thumbs Up featured the reward of social acceptance as ‘grown up’. It almost hinted that those who preferred other drinks were kids.
  25. 25. Action • Communication must finally encourage buyers to engage in purchase activity. Advertising can be directive and guide the buyers into certain behavioural outcomes. • The action phase involves some overt move on the part of the buyer such as trying a brand for the first time, visiting a showroom, or requesting information.
  26. 26. Criticism of DAGMAR 1. Problems with the Response Hierarchy For e.g. a child accompanying mother to a grocery store is likely to demand a product without indulging in stages like becoming aware about it, being interested by it and then buying it. He may just be lured by the display. 2. Sales objectives are absent. 3. Impractical and costly.
  27. 27. The Dagmar approach to set objectives gave emphasis on communication task related to a defined audience in a given time period, so that each and every advertisement can only be successful if they are relate to involving awareness,comprehension,attitude and action.
  28. 28. THANK YOU