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Cambridge IGCSE Biology
1. Cells and tissues
Biology
Edexcel international GCSE
Human Biology
1- cells and tissues
a) Recognise cell structures as seen with a light
microscope and with an electron microscope.
Describ...
1- cells and tissues
Under an electron microscope parts of the animal cell
such as
the ribosomes,
Endoplasmic reticulum
mi...
1- cells and tissues
The Functions of the parts of the cell:
1- Nucleus:
contains chromosomes (46 in humans) which carry
t...
1- cells and tissues
The Functions of the parts of the cell:
4- Mitochondria :
this carries out some of the reactions in r...
1- cells and tissues
b) Describe a DNA molecule as two strands coiled
to form a double helix,
the strands being linked by ...
1- cells and tissues
DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid contains
two strands of alternating sugar and phosphate groups
coiled to...
c) Understand the multiplication of cells with a
simple outline description of the four stages of
mitosis.
Understand that...
Mitosis:
Mitosis is a process of separating a cell into two with identical
sets of chromosomes.
This occursduring growth, ...
What happens during mitosis?
d) Understand the grouping of cells into tissues:
1- bone,
2- muscle (voluntary, involuntary and cardiac),
3- blood,
4- ne...
There are many types of tissues:
1.Bones
are collection of cells that secrete calcium salts.
2. Muscle
these can be volunt...
There are many types of tissues:
1.Bones
are collection of cells that secrete calcium salts.
2. Muscle
these can be volunt...
1- Tissues that perform the same function are
grouped together to form organs. e.g. Heart.
2- Organs that perform the same...
1- Tissues that perform the same function are
grouped together to form organs. e.g. Heart.
2- Organs that perform the same...
1 life style, health and risk
Bonds between Water molecules are
hydrogen bonds
Because of the Hydrogen bond weakness the
w...
1 life style, health and risk
Water is powerful solvent for polar substances
Ionic compounds are polar substance such as
S...
1 life style, health and risk
1 life style, health and risk
3- Distinguish between
A-monosaccharides,
B-disaccharides
C-polysaccharides
(glycogen and st...
1 life style, health and risk
Monosaccharide ( simple sugar )
1- they are the smallest molecule of carbohydrates
2-they ar...
1 life style, health and risk
Glucose structure
Molecular formula C6H12O6
We can write this formula on paper as linear but...
1 life style, health and risk
Other monosaccharide important in our cells
Fructose and galactose are example of hexose
Oth...
1 life style, health and risk
4- Describe how monosaccharides join to form
disaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose)
an...
1 life style, health and risk
Disaccharides
are carbohydrates made of 2 monosaccharides
Condensation is the chemical react...
1 life style, health and risk
Examples of disaccharides
Maltose made by condensation reaction of 2
glucose molecules
Lacto...
1 life style, health and risk
3- Distinguish between
A-monosaccharides,
B-disaccharides
C-polysaccharides
(glycogen and st...
1 life style, health and risk
Such as disaccharides , polysaccharides are made of
many MONOSACCHARIDE molecules linked tog...
1 life style, health and risk
Starch is a mixture of 2 poly saccharides
Amylose molecule is unbranched chain from
α glucos...
1 life style, health and risk
Glycogen is a polymer made of α glucose similar to
Amylopectin molecule is branched chain
Gl...
1 life style, health and risk
Starch test
1 life style, health and risk
Describe the synthesis of a triglyceride by the
formation of ester bonds during condensation...
Lipids can be found in animal as fats while it is
oils in plants
1 life style, health and risk
In room temperature
Fats ar...
Fats and oils are compound called triglyceride
1 life style, health and risk
Triglyceride is formed by condensation reacti...
Fats and oils are compound called triglyceride
1 life style, health and risk
Triglyceride classified as two types
Saturate...
1  edexcel igcse human biology -cell and tissues
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1 edexcel igcse human biology -cell and tissues

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this presentation is about the first topic in the Edexcel international GCSE for Human biology

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1 edexcel igcse human biology -cell and tissues

  1. 1. Cambridge IGCSE Biology 1. Cells and tissues Biology Edexcel international GCSE Human Biology
  2. 2. 1- cells and tissues a) Recognise cell structures as seen with a light microscope and with an electron microscope. Describe the functions of cell structures including 1- the nucleus, 2- cytoplasm, 3- cell membrane, 4- mitochondria, 5- endoplasmic reticulum, 6- ribosomes.
  3. 3. 1- cells and tissues Under an electron microscope parts of the animal cell such as the ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria can be seen. The main differences between a plant cell and an animal one is the lack of certain organelles such as a permanent vacuole, cell wall and chloroplasts. Apart from this plant cells also have a more regular structure.
  4. 4. 1- cells and tissues The Functions of the parts of the cell: 1- Nucleus: contains chromosomes (46 in humans) which carry the genetic information. It controls the activity of the cell by controlling which proteins the cell will synthesis. 2- Cytoplasm: this is where chemical reactions take place . 3- Cell membrane: this controls what substances can pass in and out of the cell. It is selectively permeable.
  5. 5. 1- cells and tissues The Functions of the parts of the cell: 4- Mitochondria : this carries out some of the reactions in respiration. Cell membrane: this controls what substances can pass in and out 5-Endoplasmic reticulum: an essential component in the synthesis and transport of protein. It is a network of membranes.. It is selectively Ribosomes: some endoplasmic reticulum are covered with minute granules 6-Ribosomes: some endoplasmic reticulum are covered with minute granules called ribosomes. These build and assemble proteins according to instructions from mRNA.
  6. 6. 1- cells and tissues b) Describe a DNA molecule as two strands coiled to form a double helix, the strands being linked by a series of paired bases: adenine (A) with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) with guanine (G). according to instructions from mRNA.
  7. 7. 1- cells and tissues DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid contains two strands of alternating sugar and phosphate groups coiled to form a double helix. The strands are linked by two nitrogen bases at each "rung". There are four different bases: Adenine(A), Thymine(T), Cytosine(C), and Guanine(G). In DNA the bases are always paired. So if on one strand the base is A, the other must be T and likewise if on one strand it is C then on the other it must be G..
  8. 8. c) Understand the multiplication of cells with a simple outline description of the four stages of mitosis. Understand that division of a diploid cell by mitosis produces two cells that contain identical sets of chromosomes. Understand that mitosis occurs during growth, repair , cloning and asexual reproduction. 1- cells and tissues
  9. 9. Mitosis: Mitosis is a process of separating a cell into two with identical sets of chromosomes. This occursduring growth, repair, cloning and asexual reproduction. 1. Prophase - the cell duplicates its DNA. 2. Metaphase - the centrioles (duplicated DNA) align themselves along the equator (middle) and send out tubules that connects to the centromere and connects the two strands of chromosomes (condensed DNA). 3. Anaphase - half of the chromosomes are pulled one way and vice versa. 4. Telophase - cell membranes closes in and splits the cell.. 1- cells and tissues
  10. 10. What happens during mitosis?
  11. 11. d) Understand the grouping of cells into tissues: 1- bone, 2- muscle (voluntary, involuntary and cardiac), 3- blood, 4- nervous tissue 5- epithelium (squamous ( scale like ) and ciliated, with reference to cells lining the cheek and trachea). 1- cells and tissues e) Recall the organization of cells into organs.
  12. 12. There are many types of tissues: 1.Bones are collection of cells that secrete calcium salts. 2. Muscle these can be voluntary, involuntary or also cardiac 1- cells and tissues 3. Blood collection of red and white blood cells. 4. Nervous tissue makes up the brain, nerves and spinal cord. 5. Epithelium these are tissues that line organs. They can be both squamous or ciliated.
  13. 13. There are many types of tissues: 1.Bones are collection of cells that secrete calcium salts. 2. Muscle these can be voluntary, involuntary or also cardiac 1- cells and tissues 3. Blood collection of red and white blood cells. 4. Nervous tissue makes up the brain, nerves and spinal cord. 5. Epithelium these are tissues that line organs. They can be both squamous or ciliated.
  14. 14. 1- Tissues that perform the same function are grouped together to form organs. e.g. Heart. 2- Organs that perform the same function are grouped together to form organ systems. e.g. The circulation system 3- Organ systems are grouped together to form organisms. e.g. Humans. 1- cells and tissues
  15. 15. 1- Tissues that perform the same function are grouped together to form organs. e.g. Heart. 2- Organs that perform the same function are grouped together to form organ systems. e.g. The circulation system 3- Organ systems are grouped together to form organisms. e.g. Humans. 1- cells and tissues
  16. 16. 1 life style, health and risk Bonds between Water molecules are hydrogen bonds Because of the Hydrogen bond weakness the water molecules attract to any charged molecules more than water molecules themselves
  17. 17. 1 life style, health and risk Water is powerful solvent for polar substances Ionic compounds are polar substance such as Sodium chloride ( NaCl ) Carbon containing molecule ( organic )with ionised groups ( carboxyl –COO , Amino group –NH2) Can be soluble in water ( glucose one of them) Because it contains hydroxyl group –OH Then glucose called solute and water called solvent
  18. 18. 1 life style, health and risk
  19. 19. 1 life style, health and risk 3- Distinguish between A-monosaccharides, B-disaccharides C-polysaccharides (glycogen and starch ) ( amylose and amylopectin) relate their structures to their roles in providing and storing energy ( ß-glucose and cellulose are not required in this topic).
  20. 20. 1 life style, health and risk Monosaccharide ( simple sugar ) 1- they are the smallest molecule of carbohydrates 2-they are soluble in water and test sweet 3- glucose the most important monosaccharide -All green leaves produce glucose in photosynthesis - our bodies transport glucose in the blood - all cells use glucose in respiration as energy source -Glucose used as building block for many large molecule
  21. 21. 1 life style, health and risk Glucose structure Molecular formula C6H12O6 We can write this formula on paper as linear but it can not exist in linear form Because each carbon arranges its four bonds into TETRAHEDRON So oxygen attaches carbon atom number 5 , 1
  22. 22. 1 life style, health and risk Other monosaccharide important in our cells Fructose and galactose are example of hexose Other monosaccharide important in our cells Such as ribose / deoxyribose which are components of NUCLIC ACIDS ( DNA / RNA )
  23. 23. 1 life style, health and risk 4- Describe how monosaccharides join to form disaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose) and polysaccharides (glycogen and amylose) through condensation reactions forming glycosidic bonds, and how these can be split through hydrolysis reactions.
  24. 24. 1 life style, health and risk Disaccharides are carbohydrates made of 2 monosaccharides Condensation is the chemical reaction name to form disaccharide with glycosidic bond Hydrolysis is the chemical reaction name to add water molecule to break down the glycosidic bond
  25. 25. 1 life style, health and risk Examples of disaccharides Maltose made by condensation reaction of 2 glucose molecules Lactose made by condensation reaction of one galactose molecule and one glucose molecule
  26. 26. 1 life style, health and risk 3- Distinguish between A-monosaccharides, B-disaccharides C-polysaccharides (glycogen and starch ) ( amylose and amylopectin) relate their structures to their roles in providing and storing energy ( ß-glucose and cellulose are not required in this topic).
  27. 27. 1 life style, health and risk Such as disaccharides , polysaccharides are made of many MONOSACCHARIDE molecules linked together by GLYCOSIDIC bond Monomer changes into polymer Starch and glycogen are poly saccharides and their function is storing energy
  28. 28. 1 life style, health and risk Starch is a mixture of 2 poly saccharides Amylose molecule is unbranched chain from α glucose Amylopectin molecule is branched chain
  29. 29. 1 life style, health and risk Glycogen is a polymer made of α glucose similar to Amylopectin molecule is branched chain Glycogen is found in liver cells and muscles fibers as source of energy
  30. 30. 1 life style, health and risk Starch test
  31. 31. 1 life style, health and risk Describe the synthesis of a triglyceride by the formation of ester bonds during condensation reactions between glycerol and three fatty acids and recognise differences between saturated and unsaturated lipids.
  32. 32. Lipids can be found in animal as fats while it is oils in plants 1 life style, health and risk In room temperature Fats are solid oils are liquids Number of Oxygen atoms are less than in carbohydrates Lipids are hydrophobic ( could not dissolve in water ) They are dissolved in organic solvents such as ALCOHOL
  33. 33. Fats and oils are compound called triglyceride 1 life style, health and risk Triglyceride is formed by condensation reaction Glycerol and fatty acid
  34. 34. Fats and oils are compound called triglyceride 1 life style, health and risk Triglyceride classified as two types Saturated ( fats ) with single bond in carbon chain Unsaturated (oils ) with at least one double bond in carbon chain which are called ( monounsaturated lipids) while oils with more than one double bond are called (Polyunsaturated lipids )

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