But, in the early days of Islam, the Khalifas also served as spiritual leaders in an interpretational sense. Remember, at this time, the Quran was predominantly an oral document and the practice of the Sunnah was mainly from memory.
According to tradition, the Umayyid family (also known as the Banu Abd-Shams) and Muhammad (Pbuh) both descended from a common ancestor, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, and they originally came from the city of Mecca.
Muhammad (pbuh) descended from Abd Manāf via his son Hashim, While the Umayyids descended from Abd Manaf via a different son, Abd-Shams, whose son was Umayya. The two families are therefore considered to be different clans (those of Hashim and of Umayya, respectively) of the same tribe (that of the Quraysh). However Muslim Shia historians point out that Umayya was an adopted son of Abd Shams so he was not a blood relative of Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. Umayya was later discarded from the noble family.
The Umayyids, headed by Abū Sufyān, were a largely merchant family. They had initially resisted Islam, not converting until 627, but subsequently became prominent administrators under Muhammad and his immediate successors. After his conquest of Mecca, Muhammad gave many Quraysh elites, including members of Muawiya’s Umayyad family, high-ranking positions in his government. Muawiya joined the army of his older brother Yazid in the conquest of Syria. Yazid was granted governorship of Syria by Caliph Umar, and Muawiya continued to serve him.
The Umayyids' great expansion was primarily military and political, not religious; conversion to Islam was discouraged for some time since it would reduce the treasury's intake of taxes on non-Muslims. Its armies were originally exclusively Arab and Muslim, but clients were ultimately included, mostly of Iranian and Berber origin. During the Umayyad period, the majority of people living within the caliphate were not Muslim, but Christian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, or members of other small groups. These religious communities were not forced to convert to Islam, but were subject to a tax (jizyah) which was not imposed upon Muslims. There are reports that provincial governors actively discouraged such conversions.
One of Muawiya's first tasks was to create a stable administration for the empire. He followed the main ideas of the Byzantine Empire which had ruled the same region previously, and had three main governmental branches: political and military affairs, tax collection (revenue), and religious administration. A later caliph, Abd al-Malik , strengthened the organization of the empire, making Arabic the official language of government and replacing Byzantine and Sassanian coinage with coins with Arabic inscriptions.
The second major event of the early reign of Abd al-Malik was the construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Although the chronology remains somewhat uncertain, the building seems to have been completed in 692, which means that it was under construction during the conflict with Ibn al-Zubayr. This had led some historians, both medieval and modern, to suggest that the Dome of the Rock was built as a destination for pilgrimage to rival the Qaaba, which was under the control of Ibn al-Zubayr.
Muslim world became an intellectual center for science, philosophy, medicine and education as ]the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad; where both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars sought to translate and gather all the world's knowledge into Arabic. Many classic works of antiquity that would otherwise have been lost were translated into Arabic and Persian and later in turn translated into Turkish, Hebrew and Latin.
During this period the Muslim world was a cauldron of cultures which collected, synthesized and significantly advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Roman, Chinese, Indian, Persian, Egyptian, North African, Greek and Byzantine civilizations. "In virtually every field of endeavor — in astronomy, alchemy, mathematics, medicine, optics and so forth — the Caliphate's scientists were in the forefront of scientific advance.
The first three centuries of Abbasid rule were a golden age in which Baghdad and Samarra’ functioned as the cultural and commercial capitals of the Islamic world. During this period, a distinctive style emerged and new techniques were developed that spread throughout the Muslim realm and greatly influenced Islamic art and architecture.
Rulers interested in the good of the public, advancement of knowledge irrespective of the origin of the idea The creation of Emirs and Sultans who ultimately seized effective power Viziers, movement of capital to Samarra, the Turkish palace guards – the Mamluks One dynastic regime creates aspirations for another – Umayyids to Abbasids to Fatimids to Seljuqs to Mamluks and ultimately to the Osmaniyes What is a legitimate Islamic state – who should lead such a state – is it nearness to the Prophet (Abbasids vs. Fatimids), by force (Seljuqs, Mamluks) but then legitimized through a religious figurehead, or pure force (Mongols, Osmaniyes). The associated question is how it should be run.
As the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these Beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman (d. 1323/4), a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River. It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbors, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam. This theory, known as the Gaza Thesis, is now highly criticized and no longer generally accepted by historians, but no consensus on the nature of the early Ottoman state has yet emerged to replace i
Name came from “Osman,” a leader of a western Anatolian nomadic group who began expansionistic moves in the 14th century• Gradually these nomads took over Anatolia and became the border between Islam and Byzantine Christian.
Built their empire by absorbing the Muslims of Anatolia (most Ottomans became Muslims) and by protecting the Greek Christians in Anatolia. – On the promise of obedience and payment of the jitza, Muslims guaranteed the lives and property of Jews and Christians. – The Ottomans came to rule: • Serbs • Bosnians • Croats • other Orthodox peoples – The people who submitted to Ottoman domination (voluntarily) were treated well, but those who opposed and fought the Ottomans…the Ottomans were ruthless. • The Ottoman empire became a “frontier empire” composed of many ethnicities and religions
1. Gained the northwest corner of the Anatolian Peninsula by the Seljuk Turks due to their assistance in fighting the Mongols 2. Expanded westward to control Bosporus and the Dardanelles, which were two straits that connected the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. (Byzantine Empire previously controlled this land) 3. They expanded into the Balkans Ottoman rulers claimed the name of sultan and built a strong military by developing an elite guard called janissaries 4. New Technology Janissaries used firearms to spread the Ottoman Empire 1400- defeated the Serbs and annexed Bulgaria
Mehmet II - Was one of the greatest Sultans • Called the Faith (the Conqueror). During his rule all of Turkey/Anatolia was brought under his control and the Byzantine Empire was defeated. The Conquest of Constantinople = the Imperial phase of the Ottomans. Constantinople was renamed Istanbul. Mehmet II cleaned up the city and began building mosques, markets, water fountains, baths, and other public facilities. Many Jewish people, who were cruelly oppressed in Western Europe moved to Istanbul and found Turkey to be a “haven” = a mass migration of Jewish people soon followed Beyazid – Ottomans become a naval power Suleyman - captured Belgrade in 1521, captured Rhodes in 1522, broke military power of Hungary, and waged three campaigns against Persia Istanbul? Turkish name of Constantinople; it developed in Turkish 16c. as a corruption of Greek phrase eis tan (ten) polin "in (or to) the city," which is how the local Greek population referred to it. Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam." Greek polis "city" has been adopted into Turkish as a place-name suffix -bolu.
– Christian youths captured(sometimes given) by the Ottoman agents and recruited for the Imperial civil service and standing army = Converted to Islam - The brightest 10% entered the Palace school and were trained for civil service The others were sent to Turkish farms and were trained for toughness = Janissaries were the elite army corps who were absolutely loyal to the Sultan
The Ottoman economic mind was closely related to the basic concepts of state and society in the Middle East in which the ultimate goal of a state was consolidation and extension of the ruler's power, and the way to reach it was to get rich resources of revenues by making the productive classes prosperous. The ultimate aim was to increase the state revenues without damaging the prosperity of subjects to prevent the emergence of social disorder and to keep the traditional organization of the society intact.
Built palaces, mosques, schools, libraries, hospitals, roads, bridges, etc.
Cultural explosion (pax Ottomanica) – literary, artistic, and scientific achievements
Taqi Al Din
The Sextant (mushabbaha bi-'l manātiq): used to measure the distances between the stars. Taqi al-Din's mushabbaha bi'l manātiq and Tycho Brahe's sextant should be considered among the great achievements of the 16th century astronomy. The astronomical clock: Taqi al-Din used a mechanical clock, which he made himself for his observations, and a wooden wall dial, which he set up in the observatory. a mechanical clock with a dial showing the hours, minutes and seconds and we divided every minute into five seconds. Pīrī Reis also wrote a book on marine geography entitled Kitāb-i Bahriye (Book of the Sea, 1521). In this work, he presents drawings and maps of the cities on the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts, and gives extensive information about navigation and nautical astronomy. Seydī ‘Ali Reis : al-Muhīt (The Ocean) containing the astronomical and geographical information required for long sea voyages as well as his own observations about the Indian Ocean.
The Battle of Lepanto (1571); Beginning of the downfall. Conflict between the Ottoman and Habsburg empires extended to Mediterranean Sea. Turkish navy fought against Spain and Venice. Destruction of the Turkish fleet
Parts of the empire began to act independently. The European Renaissance in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Enlightenment of the 18th century, and the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century had all brought new knowledge and technologies to Europe. While Europe became more resourceful and powerful, the Ottoman Empire was stuck in the past.
In 1920 a treaty known as the San Remo Agreement defined the new boundaries for the Middle East after WWI. Britain and France carved up most of the Ottoman Empire between themselves. They only left only what we now know today as Turkey for the Ottomans. Outraged by the weakness of their Ottoman leaders, a group of Turkish revolutionaries led by Mustafa Kemal formed a new government in what remained of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey. Humiliated by their defeat, former Ottoman leaders fled the country. In 1923 Turkey was declared a republic with Mustafa Kemal (later known as Ataturk, or “Father of the Turks”) as its president.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling much of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries.
The ottomans ppt 15 april 2017
15 April 2017
570-632 The Prophet (pbuh)
632 - 661 ✔ The Khulafae Rashidun
661-750 ✔ The Umayyids
751-983 ✔ The Abbasids
984-1289 The Seljuks and the Fatimids
1290-1918 ✪ The Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals
A Khalifa is the successor (in a line of
successors) to Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh)
position as the political, military, and
administrative leader of the Muslims.
The prophetic role of the Rasul-Allah (pbuh) is
strictly not included in this definition, as the
Qur'an and Hadith clearly state that He (pbuh)
was the last of the prophets.
The Khulafae Rashidun (632- 661)
Humility and Simplicity
Complete Commitment to the Quran and the
Preserve, Consolidate and Expand the islamic
Eventually captive of power and wealth
Parochial interests – Bani Hashim, Bani Shams
The Prophet (pbuh) , "Once the sword is
unsheathed among my followers, it will not be
sheathed until the Last Day."
The Umayyids: Legacy
First Muslim Dynasty: transformed the
caliphate from a religious institution to a
Largest empire at the time
Revenue, Postal and Justice systems
Arabaization – language, coinage
Construction of the Dome of the Rock
Khalifat Rasul Allah or Khalifat Allah ?
Discriminatory Social Organization
The Abbasids: Golden Age (775 –
Reigns of Al-Mansour, Harun Al Rashid, Al-
Baghdad, Samarra – Global intellectual center
for science, philosophy, medicine and
Access to many different cultures and
philosophies as empire expanded.
Righteous rulers interested in public welfare
created the golden age.
Effective control over a large empire was not
Separation of the Ruler from the people created
misperceptions which led to rebellions
Movement away from a representative process to
dynastic regimes proved to be untenable
The search for legitimacy in an Islamic state
THE OTTOMANS (1290-
One of the largest and longest lasting Empires in the
Ruled by a single family for 7 centuries
Reached it’s height from 1520-1566
Began to decline in 1571
1922 The Last Ottoman sultan was overthrown e
The Ottomans: The Beginning
Founded by Osman around 1307
Turkish tribal chief
Founded the dynasty called Osmaniye (Sons of
Seljuks- strongest tribe of the Turks who established
themselves in Asia minor
The Mongols defeated the Seljuks in 1283 and
Osman emerged as the leader of the Turks in the
fight against the Byzantine Empire
Key Ottoman Rulers
Mehmet II (the Conqueror)(1451-81)
Suleyman (the Magnificent) (1520-66)
Causes for the Rise of Ottoman
Control of trade link between Europe and
Asia on the Dardanelles strait
-Gun-powder based artillery
Encouragement of Commerce
The decline of the Christian Byzantine
Main religion was Islam
Islamic ideals and laws formed the basis of
society, government, and law
Other religions were ensured protection in the
Millet system (non-Muslims were allowed to
keep their faith (Jewish or Christian) as long as
they paid the jizyah.
Role of Religion (1)
Role of Religion (2)
The Sultan was regarded de facto as the
leader of the Muslims and as the protector of
Makkah and Madinah during 1512- 20.
Suleiman the “Lawgiver”
Sultanic law codes
Reformed the government
Balanced the budget
Reinforced Islamic law
The Ottoman Bureaucracy
Social / Military
Other Achievements - Examples
Astronomy – Istanbul Observatory, Sextant,
Geography – World maps, Marine maps
Cultural, Scientific and artistic assimilation
from the Hindus of India about the concept of
zero and the number symbols 1 through 9. This
number system was eventually passed on to
Europeans who called the numbers “Arabic”.
Military alliance with France, England, and the
Wars against Habsburg Spain, Italy, and
Many Europeans viewed the Turks as a threat
to Christian civilization
Became less of a concern to Europe as the
The Decline of the Ottoman
Slow decline from 1566 (loss of territory)
War against the Europeans
Alternative maritime routes
Incompetent Sultans: weak governments
Corrupt elite (Janissaries)
Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909)fought on the
German side in World War I
Mohammed VI fled in 1922 after the Sultanate
Integration of eastern and western
Propagation of Islam in Eastern Europe and
the Mediterranean regions
Created a centralized political, military
structure for ruling over a long lasting large,
Fell victim to inertia
Significance of the Ottoman