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The ottomans ppt 15 april 2017

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Presentation by Syed Sajjadur Rahman at the MFGO Family Gathering at Chapman Mills

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The ottomans ppt 15 april 2017

  1. 1. ISLAMIC HISTORY The Ottomans (Osmaniyes) Syed Sajjadur Rahman 15 April 2017
  2. 2. Significant periods Year (AD) 570-632 The Prophet (pbuh) 632 - 661 ✔ The Khulafae Rashidun 661-750 ✔ The Umayyids 751-983 ✔ The Abbasids 984-1289 The Seljuks and the Fatimids 1290-1918 ✪ The Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals
  3. 3. Khalifa: Definition  A Khalifa is the successor (in a line of successors) to Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) position as the political, military, and administrative leader of the Muslims.  The prophetic role of the Rasul-Allah (pbuh) is strictly not included in this definition, as the Qur'an and Hadith clearly state that He (pbuh) was the last of the prophets.
  4. 4. The Khulafae Rashidun (632- 661)  Humility and Simplicity  Complete Commitment to the Quran and the Sunnah  Preserve, Consolidate and Expand the islamic Empire  Eventually captive of power and wealth  Parochial interests – Bani Hashim, Bani Shams  Political expediency  The Prophet (pbuh) , "Once the sword is unsheathed among my followers, it will not be sheathed until the Last Day."
  5. 5. The Umayyids (661 – 750): Origins pbuh
  6. 6. The Spread of Islam 622-750 AD
  7. 7. The Umayyids: Legacy  First Muslim Dynasty: transformed the caliphate from a religious institution to a dynastic one.  Largest empire at the time  Administrative innovations  Revenue, Postal and Justice systems  Arabaization – language, coinage  Construction of the Dome of the Rock  Khalifat Rasul Allah or Khalifat Allah ?  Discriminatory Social Organization
  8. 8. The Abbasids: Golden Age (775 – 983)  Reigns of Al-Mansour, Harun Al Rashid, Al- Mamun  Baghdad, Samarra – Global intellectual center for science, philosophy, medicine and education  Access to many different cultures and philosophies as empire expanded.
  9. 9. The Abbasids: The Zenith
  10. 10. Lessons  Righteous rulers interested in public welfare created the golden age.  Effective control over a large empire was not possible  Separation of the Ruler from the people created misperceptions which led to rebellions  Movement away from a representative process to dynastic regimes proved to be untenable  The search for legitimacy in an Islamic state
  11. 11. THE OTTOMANS (1290- 1918)  One of the largest and longest lasting Empires in the world  Ruled by a single family for 7 centuries  Reached it’s height from 1520-1566  Began to decline in 1571  1922 The Last Ottoman sultan was overthrown e
  12. 12. The Ottomans: The Beginning  Founded by Osman around 1307  Turkish tribal chief  Founded the dynasty called Osmaniye (Sons of Osman)  Seljuks- strongest tribe of the Turks who established themselves in Asia minor  The Mongols defeated the Seljuks in 1283 and Osman emerged as the leader of the Turks in the fight against the Byzantine Empire
  13. 13. Key Ottoman Rulers Osman(1258-1324) Mehmet II (the Conqueror)(1451-81) Beyazid (1481-1512) Suleyman (the Magnificent) (1520-66) Selim (1512-1520)
  14. 14. Causes for the Rise of Ottoman Empire  Control of trade link between Europe and Asia on the Dardanelles strait  Military power -Janissaries -Gun-powder based artillery  Encouragement of Commerce  The decline of the Christian Byzantine empire
  15. 15.  Main religion was Islam  Islamic ideals and laws formed the basis of society, government, and law  Other religions were ensured protection in the empire  Millet system (non-Muslims were allowed to keep their faith (Jewish or Christian) as long as they paid the jizyah. Role of Religion (1)
  16. 16. Role of Religion (2)  The Sultan was regarded de facto as the leader of the Muslims and as the protector of Makkah and Madinah during 1512- 20.  Suleiman the “Lawgiver”  Sultanic law codes  Reformed the government  Balanced the budget  Reinforced Islamic law
  17. 17. The Ottoman Bureaucracy SULTAN Divans Social / Military Divans Heads of Individual Religious Millets Local Administrators & Military Landowners / Tax Collectors Muslims Jews Christians
  18. 18. Sultan Ahmed (Blue) Mosque
  19. 19. Hagia Sophia
  20. 20. Other Achievements - Examples  Calligraphy  Science  Astronomy – Istanbul Observatory, Sextant, Astronomical Clock  Geography – World maps, Marine maps  Cultural, Scientific and artistic assimilation  from the Hindus of India about the concept of zero and the number symbols 1 through 9. This number system was eventually passed on to Europeans who called the numbers “Arabic”.
  21. 21.  Military alliance with France, England, and the Netherlands  Wars against Habsburg Spain, Italy, and Habsburg Austria  Many Europeans viewed the Turks as a threat to Christian civilization  Became less of a concern to Europe as the Renaissance continued Foreign Relations
  22. 22. The Decline of the Ottoman Empire  Slow decline from 1566 (loss of territory)  War against the Europeans  Alternative maritime routes  Incompetent Sultans: weak governments  Corrupt elite (Janissaries)  Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909)fought on the German side in World War I  Mohammed VI fled in 1922 after the Sultanate was abolished
  23. 23.  Integration of eastern and western civilizations  Propagation of Islam in Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean regions  Created a centralized political, military structure for ruling over a long lasting large, diverse empire.  Fell victim to inertia Significance of the Ottoman Empire

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