Depression, Memory, and Self Esteem


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Depression, Memory, and Self Esteem

  1. 1. Depression, Memory, and Self-Esteem Tara M. Irani Jutta Joormann, Ph.D. & Joelle Lemoult, M.A. Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 USA
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Depressed individuals (compared to non-depressed individuals) tend to have poorer memory and tend to recall more negative than positive material (Joormann, Hertel, Brozovich, & Gotlib, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem is an important component of depression and has been associated with high risk for the onset of depressive disorders (Rosenberg, 1965). </li></ul><ul><li>The relation between memory and self-esteem has not been thoroughly investigated (Tafarodi, Marshall, & Milne, 2003). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Depression and Memory Biases </li></ul><ul><li>Mathews and MacLeod (2005) noticed that enhanced recall of negative material is one of the strongest findings in the depression literature (e.g., Blaney, 1986; Matt, Vasquez, & Campbell, 1992). </li></ul><ul><li>Mood-congruent memory biases: Information that is consistent with one’s emotional state tends to be remembered more easily than information that is inconsistent or unrelated (Tafarodi, Marshall, & Milne, 2003). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Depression and Memory for Faces </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties identifying and remembering emotional faces may play an important role in perpetuating depression (Feinberg, Rifkin, Schaffer, & Walker, 1986). </li></ul><ul><li>Ridout et al. (2003): Clinically depressed and non-depressed participants were presented with a set of emotional facial expressions and were asked to identify the emotion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following this task, they were given a recognition memory test for these faces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No differences in overall recognition between depressed and non-depressed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, during the recognition memory test, depressed participants displayed enhanced memory for sad faces and impaired memory for happy faces, relative to neutral faces, and non-depressed participants displayed enhanced memory for happy faces and impaired memory for sad faces, relative to neutral expressions. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Depression and Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Low s elf-esteem tends to put individuals at risk for the onset of depression. Individuals with depression also tend to have lower self-esteem (Cheng & Furnham, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenberg (1965) defined self-esteem as a one-dimensional, </li></ul><ul><li>global sense of self-worth. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem has also been defined as an individuals’ view of what he/she can do and an individual’s view of who he/she is as a person (Tafarodi, Marshall, & Milne, 2003). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Memory and Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with low self-esteem tend to have improved memory for negative information and poorer memory for positive information, a pattern similar to that found in depression (Tafarodi, Marshall, & Milne, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>As previously mentioned, the relation between memory and self-esteem, however, has not been thoroughly investigated (Tafarodi, Marshall, & Milne, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Tafarodi et al. (2003) investigated two components of self-esteem: self-competence (value, where individuals are seen as good for what they can do and who they are); and self-liking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants were presented with trait words through a computer task, and later were asked to indicate how many words they recognize from the earlier task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants with lower levels of self-esteem tended to recognize words consistent with having low self-esteem. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Current Study <ul><li>Implicit , recognition memory for happy, sad, angry, and disgusted faces and </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem among </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hypotheses <ul><li>Depressive symptoms will be associated with poorer overall recognition of faces irrespective of emotional expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Depressive symptoms will be associated with better recognition of faces with negative expressions (i.e., sad faces). </li></ul><ul><li>Depressive symptoms will be associated with poorer recognition of faces with positive expressions (i.e., happy faces). </li></ul><ul><li>Depressive symptoms will be associated with lower self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem will be associated with poorer memory, and this relation will be particularly pronounced for faces displaying positive emotions (i.e., happy faces). </li></ul><ul><li>Both depressive symptoms and self-esteem will independently contribute to memory deficits. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Method <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>MDD: N = 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Age: 18 – 58 years old </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( M = 39.00, SD = 13.86) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sex: 14 females, 5 males. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Dot-Probe Task : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two pictures were presented side by side on the computer screen for 1000ms or 3000ms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Emotional face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(i.e. Happy, Sad, Angry, or Disgust ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and one Neutral face. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next, a dot appeared in the place previously occupied by one of the pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants indicated whether the dot was on the right “R” side or the left “L” side of the computer screen </li></ul>Method Cognitive Tasks
  11. 11. Cognitive Tasks <ul><li>Computerized Recognition Memory Task : </li></ul><ul><li>Actors of same sex and same emotional </li></ul><ul><li>expression (i.e., angry, disgusted, sad, happy ). </li></ul><ul><li>One actor presented in the dot probe task, </li></ul><ul><li>one not presented before. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants identified which face they </li></ul><ul><li>recognized from the dot probe task by </li></ul><ul><li>indicating “ L ” on the keyboard for the face on the left and “ R ” for the face on the right. </li></ul><ul><li>17 of each face (i.e., angry, disgusted, happy, sad) presented from </li></ul><ul><li>dot probe task combined with 72 new faces . </li></ul><ul><li>Faces presented for a maximum of 3seconds or until the participant indicated a response . Order faces were presented was random . </li></ul><ul><li>72 trials and a total of 144 faces (i.e., a total of 36 faces of each emotion; 18 from the dot probe task and 18 novel faces). </li></ul>Method
  12. 12. Materials <ul><li>Questionnaires : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Beck et al., 1961) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21-items, measures characteristic attitudes and symptoms of depression from “0” (neutral) to “3” (presenting depressed symptoms). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher scores represent higher levels of depression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) (Rosenberg, 1965): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10-item, self-report, rated on a point likert scale: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Totally disagree (7) Totally agree. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher scores represent lower levels of self-esteem. </li></ul></ul>Method
  13. 13. Procedure <ul><li>Phone screen </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Dot-probe task </li></ul><ul><li>Distractor </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition memory task </li></ul><ul><li>BDI and RSE </li></ul>Method
  14. 14. Results <ul><li>Table 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlations of BDI, RSE, Mean Recognition Accuracy, and Recognition Accuracy for Angry, Sad, Disgusted, and Happy Faces.   </li></ul><ul><li>Mean Accuracy Angry Sad Disgust Happy </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>BDI r = .12 r = -.41 r = .14 r = .11 r = .21 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>RSE r = -.44 r = -.41 r = -. 41 r = -.31 r = -.41 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>* p < .05. ** p < .01. N = 19 </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Table 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Regression Table for BDI, RSE, and Mean Recognition Accuracy . </li></ul><ul><li>β t p </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>BDI -.60 -2.61 .02 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>RSE .38 1.65 .12 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>F (2, 16) = 3.57, p = .05, R 2 = .31 </li></ul>Results
  16. 16. Results Table 3 Regression Table for BDI, RSE, and Recognition Accuracy for Happy faces. β t p   BDI .47 2.11 .05   RSE -.61 -2.73 .02   F (2, 16) = 4.27, p = .03, R 2 = .59
  17. 17. Results Table 4 Regression Table for BDI, RSE, and Recognition Accuracy for Sad faces. β t p   BDI .49 1.66 .12   RSE -.57 -2.45 .03   F (2, 16) = 3.23, p = .07, R 2 = .29
  18. 18. <ul><li>Table 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Regression Table for BDI, RSE, and Recognition Accuracy for Angry faces. </li></ul><ul><li>β t p   </li></ul><ul><li>BDI .17 67 .52 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>RSE -.48 -1.91 .07 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>F (2, 16) = 1.85, p = .19, R 2 = .19 </li></ul>Results
  19. 19. Discussion <ul><li>I expected memory deficits to be associated with the level of depressive symptoms in this sample of participants diagnosed with MDD, and my hypothesis was supported as I found evidence for a relation between depressive symptoms and accuracy in the recognition of faces expressing different emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, I predicted that the severity of depression would be associated with biased recall of positive and negative facial expressions. The hypothesis for impaired recognition of positive facial expressions was supported because depressive symptoms were associated with poorer recognition for positive emotions (i.e., happy faces). </li></ul>
  20. 20. References <ul><li>Please see hard copy of Depression, Memory, and Self Esteem for a full list of references. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Thank you Dr. Jutta Joormann, Joelle Lemoult, and the Mood and Anxiety Lab for all your hard work and support. 