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Pest management in organic farming

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PEST MAANAGEMENT

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Pest management in organic farming

  1. 1. SUBMITTED TO, Prof. (Dr.) THOMAS ABRAHAM DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY ALLAHABAD SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE
  2. 2. Group no.:xii
  3. 3. light water crop nutrients Weeds & diseases harvest yield Market yield storage pests crop pests Disease 26 % Weeds 33 % Insects 26 %
  4. 4. A pest may be defined as any organism that interferes with production of the crop.In spite of the general category of pests such as insects, diseases and weeds,there are many other types including nematodes, arthropods etc. What is Pest????? The level of damage, or potential damage, that is equal to the Cost of Control, the pest is considered to be at Economic Injury Level.
  5. 5. Why Pest Management in OF:- To minimize losses To minimize environmental pollution To approach towards sustainability Maintain quality as well as quantity of produce Decrease Bio-hazards created in the food chain due to presence of Chemicals Nullify the negative Effects of Green Revolution Ensuring Food Security Controlling the pest and insects getting Resistant to chemicals, etc.
  6. 6. The How And Why Behind its Psychology and Working The physiology and morphology of the insect About the infecting Strategies of pest Pest management Natural enemies of the pest concerned Farmer
  7. 7. Management / control of rodents(Rats) Prepare concentrated sugar solution Dip cotton in that sugar solution Dry it in sun, and place the pieces of it in various part of the field When Rats consume it, it will hamper the Appetite and pathology of the rat Few rats dies few will suffer a serious pain The will leave the locality and so the colony Rats are social animals, lives in colony
  8. 8. Biological measures Behavioural Measures Cultural Measures Pest Management
  9. 9. Pheromones KairomoneImmuno- contraception
  10. 10. • Pheromones: chemical substances used by animals (mainly insects) to communicate – Moths and bark beetles • Kinds – aggregation – sexual - released by females to attract males : -
  11. 11. A Kairomone is a semiochemical mediating Inter-specific interaction emitted by an organism that benefits an individual of another species which receives it, without benefitting the emitter. Kairomone can be utilized as an 'attracticide' to lure a pest species to a location containing pesticide.
  12. 12. • Vaccine that reduces fertility – Glycoproteins (ZPG) inhibit egg fertilization • Effective against wildlife populations
  13. 13. BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL There are many beneficial insects, birds; animals that help suppress the population of insect pest. Providing them home and habitat within your farm will greatly lessen Incidents of serious infestation. Bacteria, yeast and fungus (BYM) that fight bad bacteria and fungus; and damage the egg as well as adult insect-pests can be very helpful at low cost while renewable as they live and grow.
  14. 14. The natural agents control the pest through: PREDATION – Killing & Eating PARASITIZATION - Feeding INFECTION -Disease
  15. 15. Predators such as ladybird beetle, spiders, dragonflies and mites. Parasites such as Trichogramma, Braconids Pathogens such as bacteria and fungi which cause diseases to pest.
  16. 16. * Trichogramma Braconid Pirate bug Spiders Praying Manthis Birds Frogs
  17. 17. Chemical Methods Pesticide applications that have minimal risks associated with their use. Using the least amount of chemicals that will still be effective
  18. 18. Advantages Of PM Reduce chemicals being used May reduce percentage of pesticide resistant insects Only uses chemicals if necessary Long term benefits (lower cost for chemicals, better for environment and human health)
  19. 19. Individual using PM must be educated about the options Takes more time to initiate than simply “spraying for pests” Must be closely monitored for best results Natural enemies of pests may become pests themselves
  20. 20. 1. Pests of Rice Green leafhopper: •Use resistant varieties like IR 50, CR 1009, Co 46, PTB 2 and PTB 18. •Nursery should not be raised near the lamp posts •Apply neem cake @ 12.5 kg/20 cent nursery as basal dose •Maintain the water level at 2.5 cm for 3 days
  21. 21. 2. Pests of Cotton Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) Release biocontrol agents viz., Coccinellid beetle Monochilus sexmaculatus and Coccinella septumpunctataand Aphelinus mali, A. flavipes. •Predators - Phylloscopus tristis •Monitor the nymphs and adults of early season sucking pests from the 14th day after sowing.
  22. 22. •3. Pests of Sugarcane Shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus) •Resistant varieties: CO 312, CO 421, CO 661, CO 917 and CO 853 •Planting – December – January escapes the incidence •Intercrop: Daincha – low shoot borer incidence •Earthing up – 30th day •Trash mulching: 10 – 15 cm thickness on 3 days after planting •Ensure adequate moisture •Remove and destroy dead hearts •Tachinid parasite: Sturmiopsis inferens @ 125 gravid females
  23. 23. 4. Pests of Sorghum •Shootfly (Atherigona varia soccata) •Use resistant varieties like Co-1, CSH 15R, Maldandi and Hagari. •Sow the sorghum immediately after the receipt of monsoon rain to minimise the shoot fly damage. •Use higher seed rate (12.5 kg/ha) and remove the shoot fly damaged seedlings at the time of thinning or raise nursery and transplant only healthy seedlings. •Pull out plants showing dead hearts and destroy at the time of thinning. •Set up hanging type of plastic fishmeal trap @ 12/ha till that is 30 days old. •Release larval parasitoids viz., Tetrastichus nyemitavus, T. coimbaborensis, Callitula sp., Diaulinopsis sp., •Pupal parasitoid - Cratalpiella sp. •Predator - Abrolophus sp.
  24. 24. No chemicals Low input Better quality Sustainability With the help of nature get benefited

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