Ecosystem-based strategy that focuses on long-term prevention of pests or their damage through a combination of techniques such as biological control, habitat manipulation, modification of cultural practices, and use of resistant varieties.
Sanitation:- Removal or destruction of breeding refuges and alternate hosts to minimize host population buildup. Tillage & Intercultivation:-Ploughing and inter-cultivation brings about unfavorable conditions for multiplication of pests. Cultivar Selection:-Cultivar selection:- Cultivars with high yield and resistant/tolerant to pests and diseases should be preferred. Time Of Sowing:- It should be adjusted in such a way that the outbreak of diseases or pest should be outdone. Plant Population:-Plant population per unit area influence crop microclimate, dense plant canopy leads to high humidity build up congenial for pest and disease multiplication. Manures & Fertilizers:-Excess nitrogen increases susceptibility of crop to sucking and leaf eating pests. Balanced application of NPK help the crop to tolerate pests and diseases considerably. Water Management:-Irrigation can reduce the inhabiting pests by suffocation or exposing them to soil surface to be prayed upon birds.
Irrigation Potato crop at tuber formation can minimize potato scab. Anthracanose of beans, early blight and charcoal rot of potato can be checked by furrow irrigation than sprinkler irrigation. Habitat Diversification:- Many pests prefer feeding on a plant to others. This preference may be exploited to reduce the pest load on crop. Crop rotation, intercropping, trap cropping and Strip-cropping can bring down the pest load considerably.
Immunocontraception involves stimulating immune responses against gametes or reproductive hormones thus preventing conception. The method is being developed for the humane control of pest and overabundant populations of mammalian wildlife
Pest management in organic farming
Prof. (Dr.) THOMAS ABRAHAM
DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY
ALLAHABAD SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE
A pest may be defined as
any organism that interferes
with production of the crop.In
spite of the general category
of pests such as insects,
diseases and weeds,there are
many other types including
nematodes, arthropods etc.
What is Pest?????
The level of
that is equal to the
Cost of Control, the
pest is considered
to be at Economic
Why Pest Management in OF:-
To minimize losses
To minimize environmental pollution
To approach towards sustainability
Maintain quality as well as quantity of produce
Decrease Bio-hazards created in the food chain due to presence
Nullify the negative Effects of Green Revolution
Ensuring Food Security
Controlling the pest and insects getting Resistant to chemicals,
The How And Why Behind its Psychology and Working
of the insect
Management / control of rodents(Rats)
Dip cotton in that
Dry it in sun, and place
the pieces of it in various
part of the field
When Rats consume it,
it will hamper the
Appetite and pathology
of the rat
Few rats dies few
will suffer a
The will leave the
locality and so the
Rats are social
animals, lives in
• Pheromones: chemical substances used by
animals (mainly insects) to communicate
– Moths and bark beetles
– sexual - released by females to attract males
A Kairomone is a semiochemical
mediating Inter-specific interaction
emitted by an organism that benefits an
individual of another species which
receives it, without benefitting the emitter.
Kairomone can be utilized as an
'attracticide' to lure a pest species
to a location containing pesticide.
• Vaccine that reduces fertility
– Glycoproteins (ZPG) inhibit egg fertilization
• Effective against wildlife populations
There are many beneficial insects, birds; animals
that help suppress the population of insect pest.
Providing them home and habitat within your farm will
greatly lessen Incidents of serious infestation.
Bacteria, yeast and fungus (BYM) that fight bad
bacteria and fungus; and damage the egg as well as
adult insect-pests can be very helpful at low cost
while renewable as they live and grow.
The natural agents control the
PREDATION – Killing
Predators such as ladybird beetle,
spiders, dragonflies and mites.
Parasites such as Trichogramma,
Pathogens such as bacteria and fungi
which cause diseases to pest.
Pesticide applications that have minimal
risks associated with their use.
Using the least amount of chemicals that
will still be effective
Advantages Of PM
Reduce chemicals being used
May reduce percentage of pesticide
Only uses chemicals if necessary
Long term benefits (lower cost for chemicals,
better for environment and human health)
Individual using PM must be educated about
Takes more time to initiate than simply
“spraying for pests”
Must be closely monitored for best results
Natural enemies of pests may become pests
1. Pests of Rice
•Use resistant varieties like IR 50, CR 1009, Co 46, PTB 2
and PTB 18.
•Nursery should not be raised near the lamp posts
•Apply neem cake @ 12.5 kg/20 cent nursery as basal dose
•Maintain the water level at 2.5 cm for 3 days
2. Pests of Cotton
agents viz., Coccinellid
sexmaculatus and Coccinella
mali, A. flavipes.
•Predators - Phylloscopus tristis
•Monitor the nymphs and adults
of early season sucking pests from
the 14th day after sowing.
•3. Pests of Sugarcane
Shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus)
•Resistant varieties: CO 312, CO 421, CO 661, CO 917
and CO 853
•Planting – December – January escapes the incidence
•Intercrop: Daincha – low shoot borer incidence
•Earthing up – 30th day
•Trash mulching: 10 – 15 cm thickness on 3 days after
•Ensure adequate moisture
•Remove and destroy dead hearts
•Tachinid parasite: Sturmiopsis inferens @ 125 gravid
4. Pests of Sorghum
•Shootfly (Atherigona varia soccata)
•Use resistant varieties like Co-1, CSH 15R, Maldandi
•Sow the sorghum immediately after the receipt of monsoon
rain to minimise the shoot fly damage.
•Use higher seed rate (12.5 kg/ha) and remove the shoot fly damaged
seedlings at the time of thinning or raise nursery and transplant only
•Pull out plants showing dead hearts and destroy at the time of thinning.
•Set up hanging type of plastic fishmeal trap @ 12/ha till that is 30 days
•Release larval parasitoids viz., Tetrastichus nyemitavus, T.
coimbaborensis, Callitula sp., Diaulinopsis sp.,
•Pupal parasitoid - Cratalpiella sp.
•Predator - Abrolophus sp.
Better quality Sustainability
With the help of nature get