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Organic weed-management


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Organic weed-management

  2. 2. What is WEED….???? “Plant whose virtues are yet to be discovered” “A plant out of place” Weeds are unwanted or undesirable plants that compete with crops for water, soil nutrients, light and space (i.e. CO2) and thus reduce crop yields. Weeds account for 33% loss in agriculture alone.(Jethro Tull, 1731)
  3. 3. Successful Management Requires Multiple approaches Continual effort Knowledge of the biology of weeds species Reproduction, lifecycle, establishment annual, perennial, wandering perennial, broadleaf, grass. Weed : Top issues for Organic Farmers
  4. 4. Principles Involved: Eco Friendly :- i.e. it should cause no harm to our environment. Break the survival mechanism of the weed in soil. Easily acceptable by the progressive farmers. Crop husbandry ( Crop Rotation, Mulching etc.)
  5. 5. Multiple Prevention and Elimination Strategies (Practices): Cultural Biological Physical Mechanical “Many hammers approach.” Liebman and Gallandt, 1997
  6. 6. Cultural Strategies Buy quality crop seed with low/no weed seeds present. Do not allow weeds to form seed. Improve crop competitiveness Improve soil tilth, aeration, and fertility to optimize crop growth Increase crop density through narrow row spacing and increased seeding rate Use transplants, rather than seed, when possible
  7. 7. Cultural Practices Reduce weed numbers Mulch (wood chips, mow and blow, paper, living, plastic, etc) Use weed-suppressive cover crops Quick germinating, high biomass Field with high weed pressure may warrant full year of cover cropping and fallow to reduce weeds Crop rotations altering narrowly spaced crops with closely spaced crops, shallow rooted/deep rooted crops, cold/warm season crops Intercrop Clover underseeded in sweetcorn.
  8. 8. Mulches Wood chips Shredded paper Leave s Stra w
  9. 9. Cover Crops Field pea-oat- mustard cover crop Red Clover
  10. 10. Crop Rotations • Weeds tend to infest crops with similar life cycles. • Change crop ecology: shallow/deep roots, cold/warm season, row/drilled crops, foliage density, and heavy/light feeders. Change cultural practices: cultivation, mowing, fertilization, herbicide application, and planting/harvest dates
  11. 11. Biological Control Practices Insects: may consume large numbers of weed seeds or feeding injury to plant or vector virus Phyllocoptes fructiphilus has been shown to transmit rose rosette disease on young fast growing roses Selective grazing Sheep: clean fields after harvest Weeder geese: useful against grass weeds and in perennial systems Biofumigation Use of Brassica species (canola, Indian mustard) as cover crop or in rotation May be incorporated or left as residue Brassicas produce glucosinolates, which may by converted to cyanate compounds during decomposition. Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-Up to Market, Grubinger, 1999
  12. 12. Allelopathy Allelopathy is the direct or indirect chemical effect of one plant on the germination, growth or development of neighboring plants. Species of both crops and weeds exhibit this ability. Allelopathic crops include barley, rye, annual ryegrass, buckwheat, oats, sorghum, sudan sorghum hybrids, alfalfa, wheat, red clover, and sunflower. The alleopathic effect can be used to an advantage when oats are sown with a new planting of alfalfa.
  13. 13. Physical and Mechanical Practices Mowing Prevents seeding Depletes storage reserves Better control for broadleaves Soil solarization Effective control of winter annuals Limited control of perennials Cost prohibitive on large acreages Avoid tillage deeper than 3” after solarization Hand weeding Cultivation ( done with cultivators) Flaming
  14. 14. Flaming Intense heat sears the leaf, causing the cell sap to expand and disrupt cell walls seedlings are most susceptible Broadleaf weeds are more susceptible than grasses May be used in wet soil conditions Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-Up to Market, Grubinger, 1999
  15. 15. Crop Map Of Jharkhand:
  16. 16. Weed Management of RICE ( Major crop ) In Jharkhand. Few weed species are Echinochola crus-galli Echinochloa colona Eclipta alba Monochoria vaginalis Cynodon dactylon Cyperus iria Cyperus difformis Cyperus rotundus If these weeds are not controlled from very beginning the reduction in rice yield may be as high as 12-98%. Critical Period : 30 t0 70 DAS
  17. 17. Control: Cultural control : Keeping a layer of water (7 cm -15cm) on rice is said to suppress germination of weeds completely. Biological control : Very little is known about natural enemies of this sedge; the fungi, Corticum sasaki , and the nematode Meloidogyne graminicola, may be considered for biological control. Mechanical Control: Hand picking is the most commonly used process practiced for weed management in Jharkhand.
  18. 18. Weed Management of POTATO( Major crop ) In Meghalaya. Most common weed associated are:  Witchgrass-Panicum capillare Dense hairs cover the leaf blades on both sides and the sheath Leaves are rolled in the bud and lack auricles Leaves have a white mid-vein Its is a nuisance in lawns and gardens It has a fibrous root system Mature plants are 1 to 2’ tall A.K.A. ‘ticklegrass’
  19. 19. Control: Prevention:Learn to identify plants; start monitoring early in the season. Cultural Weed Control: Plant competitive grass or other cover crops. Witchgrass does not compete well with perennial grasses. Mechanical Weed Control Cultivation or mowing before seed develops will control this plant. Witchgrass can also be hand pulled. Biological Control : No known biological control in our area.
  20. 20. Weed Management of SUGARCANE ( Major crop ) In Uttar Pradesh. Most common weeds associated are:  Sorghum halepense  Cyperus rotundus  Eleusine indica  Saccharum spontaneum  Digera arvensis  Eclipta alba  Cynodon dactylon If these weeds are not controlled from very beginning the reduction in sugarcane yield may be as high as 10-70%. Critical period for weed competition is 4 months after sowing.
  21. 21. Control: Cultural Weed Control:  Selection of cultivars that have quick canopy closure.  Seed cane from clean fields.  Trash mulch at 45 DAP @ 7-10 t/ha,10 cm thick is effective against many weeds.  Mechanical Weed Control Plant cane-scratchers are used over the top of the cane and tines are removed as the can gets larger. Ratoon cane-disk cultivators are used for weed control in row middles. Biological Control : Not practiced in Uttar Pradesh.
  22. 22. Weed Management of PINEAPPLE ( Major crop ) In Nagaland Matricaria matricarioides ( Pineapple weed ): the most common associated weed.  Plant stems grow erect up to 1’ tall  Heads are cone-shaped and a yellowish green colour with each head surrounded by overlapping bracts with no ray petals  Crushed heads give off an odour likened to pineapple.  An annual plant reproducing by seeds  It is a nuisance in lawns and gardens and is also found in croplands and along roadsides.
  23. 23. Control: Prevention – Learn to identify plants; start monitoring early in the season Biological – No known biological control in our area Cultural –  One hand weeding in May/June.  For the treatment involving mulching, non-decomposed coffee husk was uniformly applied at a rate of 20 tons ha- 1 as per the schedule & mulched treatments significantly out- yielded treatments without mulch and the clean weeding with 100% weed control efficiency.
  24. 24. Conclusion Using multiple approaches (“many hammers”) to manage weeds will yield greater impact than relying on a few practices. Develop a weed management strategy that is designed for the needs of your farm. Although weeds can serve as host plants for pests, they can also serve as hosts to
  25. 25. Conclusion Today, however, with the increase in organic farming and the decrease in the use of herbicides, breeding for weed suppression has become a higher priority. Instead of eradicating weeds, farmers especially organic farmers-- are learning to manage weeds.
  26. 26. THANKING YOU GROUP NO # 13