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# Optimization in the world of 64-bit errors

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In the previous blog-post I promised to tell you why it is difficult to demonstrate 64-bit errors by simple examples. We spoke about operator[] and I told that in simple cases even incorrect code might work.

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### Optimization in the world of 64-bit errors

1. 1. Optimization in the world of 64-biterrorsAuthor: Andrey KarpovDate: 11.01.2010In the previous blog-post I promised to tell you why it is difficult to demonstrate 64-bit errors by simpleexamples. We spoke about operator[] and I told that in simple cases even incorrect code might work.Here is such an example:class MyArray{public: char *m_p; size_t m_n; MyArray(const size_t n) { m_n = n; m_p = new char[n]; } ~MyArray() { delete [] m_p; } char &operator[](int index) { return m_p[index]; } char &operator()(ptrdiff_t index) { return m_p[index]; } ptrdiff_t CalcSum() { ptrdiff_t sum = 0; for (size_t i = 0; i != m_n; ++i) sum += m_p[i]; return sum; }
2. 2. };void Test(){ ptrdiff_t a = 2560; ptrdiff_t b = 1024; ptrdiff_t c = 1024; MyArray array(a * b * c); for (ptrdiff_t i = 0; i != a * b * c; ++i) array(i) = 1; ptrdiff_t sum1 = array.CalcSum(); for (int i = 0; i != a * b * c; ++i) array[i] = 2; ptrdiff_t sum2 = array.CalcSum(); if (sum1 != sum2 / 2) MessageBox(NULL, _T("Normal error"), _T("Test"), MB_OK); else MessageBox(NULL, _T("Fantastic"), _T("Test"), MB_OK);}Briefly, this code does the following: 1. Creates an array of 2.5 Gbytes (more than INT_MAX items). 2. Fills the array with ones by using the correct operator() with ptrdiff_t parameter. 3. Calculates the sum of all the items and writes it into the variable sum1. 4. Fills the array with twos by using the incorrect operator[] with int parameter. Theoretically, int does not allow us to address the items whose numbers are more than INT_MAX. There is one more error in the loop "for (int i = 0; i != a * b * c; ++i)". Here, we also use int as the index. This double error is made for the compiler not to generate warnings about a 64-bit value converting to a 32-bit one. Actually, an overflow and addressing an item with a negative number must take place what will result in a crash. By the way, this is what happens in the debug-version. 5. Calculates the sum of all the items and writes it into the variable sum2. 6. If (sum1 == sum2 / 2), it means that the impossible became true and you see the message "Fantastic".
3. 3. Despite the two errors in this code, it successfully works in the 64-bit release-version and prints themessage "Fantastic"!Now let us make out why. The point is that the compiler guessed our wish to fill the array with thevalues 1 and 2. And in the both cases it optimized our code by calling memset function:The first conclusion is: the compiler is a clever guy in the questions of optimization. The secondconclusion - stay watchful.This error might be easily detected in the debug-version where there is no optimization and the codewriting twos into the array leads to a crash. What is dangerous, this code behaves incorrectly only whendealing with large arrays. Most likely, processing of more than two milliards of items will not be presentin the unit-tests run for the debug-version. And the release-version might keep this error a secret for along time. The error can occur quite unexpectedly at a slightest change of the code. Look what canhappen if we introduce one more variable, n:void Test(){ ptrdiff_t a = 2560; ptrdiff_t b = 1024; ptrdiff_t c = 1024; ptrdiff_t n = a * b * c; MyArray array(n); for (ptrdiff_t i = 0; i != n; ++i) array(i) = 1; ptrdiff_t sum1 = array.CalcSum(); for (int i = 0; i != n; ++i) array[i] = 2; ptrdiff_t sum2 = array.CalcSum(); ...
4. 4. }The release-version crashed this time. Look at the assembler code.The compiler again built the code with a memset call for the correct operator(). This part still works wellas before. But in the code where operator[] is used, an overflow occurs because "i != n" condition doesnot hold. It is not quite the code I wished to create but it is difficult to implement what I wanted in asmall code while a large code is difficult to examine. Anyways, the fact remains. The code now crashesas it should be.Why have I devoted so much time to this topic? Perhaps I am tormented with the problem that I cannotdemonstrate 64-bit errors by simple examples. I write something simple for the purpose ofdemonstration and what a pity it is when one tries it and it works well in the release-version. Andtherefore it seems that there is no error. But there are errors and they are very insidious and difficult todetect. So, I will repeat once again. You might easily miss such errors during debugging and whilerunning unit-tests for the debug-version. Hardly has anyone so much patience to debug a program orwait for the tests to complete when they process gigabytes. The release-version might pass a largeserious testing. But if there is a slight change in the code or a new version of the compiler is used, thenext build will fail to work at a large data amount.To learn about diagnosis of this error, see the previous post where the new warning V302 is described.