Multiple Intelligences in the
• Traditional Intelligences Vs. Multiple
• Howard Gardner
• Definition of Intelligences
• Impact on the classroom
How do we measure intelligence?
• Who in the last picture is the most
• How would we test that?
– IQ test?
– What does an IQ test measure?
• Traditionally in schools, which type of
knowledge is most valued?
• According to a traditional definition,
intelligence is a uniform cognitive capacity
people are born with. This capacity can be
easily measured by short-answer tests.
at Harvard University
*1983 Developed a theory of
Multiple Intelligences (7)
* 1999 Developed an 8th
intelligence (and a
Gardner’s Definition of Intelligence
• According to Howard Gardner, intelligence
– The ability to create an effective product or
offer a service that is valued in a culture;
– A set of skills that make it possible for a
person to solve problems in life;
– The potential for finding or creating solutions
for problems, which involves gathering new
Thomas Armstrong (an educator): “This book
emerged from my work over the past fourteen
years in applying Howard Gardner’s theory of
multiple intelligences to the issues of classroom
Traditional Theory Gardner’s Theory
Intelligence can be measured by short
answer tests. IQ
Short answer tests only measure rote
memorization, not deep understanding
People are born with a fixed amount
Humans have all of the intelligences,
but each person has a unique
combination, or profile.
Intelligence level does not change
over a lifetime.
Intelligences can be improved through
education or other ways.
Intelligence consists of ability in logic
There are many different types of
Teachers teach the same material to
Teachers teach and assess differently
based on individual intellectual
Teachers teach a topic or “subject” Teachers develop strategies that allow
for students to demonstrate multiple
ways of understanding
Gardner claims that individuals possess at least
eight independent types of intelligence (2004).
What are the Multiple Intelligences?
• Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence -- well-developed verbal skills and
sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words
• Mathematical-Logical Intelligence -- ability to think conceptually
and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns
• Musical Intelligence -- ability to produce and appreciate rhythm,
pitch and timber
• Visual-Spatial Intelligence -- capacity to think in images and
pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly
• Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence -- ability to control one's body
movements and to handle objects skillfully
• Interpersonal Intelligence -- capacity to detect and respond
appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others.
• Intrapersonal Intelligence -- capacity to be self-aware and in tune
with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes
• Naturalist Intelligence -- ability to recognize and categorize
plants, animals and other objects in nature
• The ability to use words
effectively (both spoken
• Politician, playwright,
• The capacity to use
numbers effectively and
to reason well.
• to categorize, classify,
make inferences, etc.
• CPA, computer
• Sensitivity to the rhythm,
pitch or melody and
timbre or tone color of a
• The capacity to perceive,
discriminate, transfer, and
Musician, performer, critic
• Involves sensitivity to
color, line, shape, form,
space, and the
relationships that exist
• Architect, pilot, artist,
• Skill in using one’s
whole body to
express ideas and
• Surgeons, athletes,
• Sensitivities to the
feelings of others.
• Salesman, educator,
• Self-knowledge and the
ability to act adaptively on
the basis of that
• Inventor, yoga instructor
• Expertise in the recognition
and classification of the
numerous species of an
• Naturalist, park ranger, fishing
• Why is it important for you to know which
intelligence is your strongest?
– To make yourself aware of your bias
• Why is it important for you to know the
preferred intelligence of your students?
– To better adapt your materials
"The way to determine what intelligences
are in play is to identify the objective of
the task at hand."
Impact on the classroom/curriculum
• Value all students
– Equitable education
• Present materials in
– Appeal to different
• Assess students fairly
– Not standardized tests
– Various testing
Multiple Intelligences Unit
• You will be given a Learning Scenario
• In groups of 4 or 5, you will develop
activities around the learning scenario
which tap into the multiple intelligences
• I will come around to offer you which
multiple intelligences your group will have.