Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

3,901 views

Published on

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

  1. 1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
  2. 2. Edward Deci (1975:23) defined intrinsic motivation as ones for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itself. People seem to engage in the activities for their own sake and not because they lead to an extrinsic reward. It is aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences, namely, feelings of competence and self-determination. Extrinsically motivated behaviors are carried out in anticipation of a reward from outside and beyond the self. Typical extrinsic rewards are money, prizes, grades, types of positive feedback. Avoiding punishment is also extrinsically motivated behavior.
  3. 3. Which is more superior? Maslow (1970) found that intrinsic motivation is clearly superior to extrinsic. We are ultimately motivated to achieve “self-actualization” once our basic physical, safety, and community needs are met. Regardless of the presence or absence of extrinsic rewards, we will strive for self-esteem and fulfillment. Jerome Bruner (1966) claimed that one of the most effective ways to help both children and adults think and learn is to free them from the control of rewards and punishments. One of the principal weakness of extrinsically driven behavior is its addictive nature.
  4. 4. Factors of Intrinsic Motivation Dornyei and Csizer (1998) proposed a taxonomy of factors by which teachers could motivate their learners. Factors such as developing a relationship with learners, building learner’s self-confidence and autonomy, personalizing the learning process, and increasing learner’s goal orientation belong to the intrinsic side of motivation.
  5. 5. THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF AFFECT
  6. 6. Role of Neurobiology   We need to engage neurological bases of affect in relation to personality and language learning.  Schumann (1998) states that neurobiology, including neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neurophysiology informs several areas of interest for language acquisition studies, for example, plasticity, affect, memory and learning.  He found amygdala, which can make an appraisal of a stimulus, as major player in the relationship of affect to language learning.
  7. 7. Role of Neurobiology   Besides, amygdala helps to decide whether or not our perception is novel, pleasant, relevant to our needs or goals, manageable, and compatible with our own social norms and self-concept.  Due to amyglada can make an appraisal of stimulus, positive appraisals of the language learning situation surely enhance language learning and negative appraisal inhibit second language learning (Schumann, 1998)
  8. 8. MEASURING AFFECTIVE FACTORS
  9. 9. MEASURING AFFECTIVE FACTORS Most tests of personality are paper-and-pencil tests that ask for a self-rating of some kind.  It consists of some items on which a subject agrees or disagrees in order to measure self-esteem, empathy, and so on. Nevertheless, these tests present three problems.
  10. 10. PROBLEMS IN MEASURING AFFECTIVE FACTORS  The main issue in measuring af fectivity is the problem of validity. Because most tests use a self-rating method, one can justifiably ask whether or not self-perceptions are accurate. Therefore, instruments such as interview, observation, indirect measures, and multiple methods are sometimes occupied as additional measurement. Paper-and-pencil self-rating may be valid if it has been validated before, and we are supposed to rely on only one instrument or method.
  11. 11. PROBLEMS IN MEASURING AFFECTIVE FACTORS The second problem might come in case of “self-flatter y” syndrome. In general, test takers will tr y to discern “right” answers to questions (that is, answers that make them look “good” or that do not “damage” them, even though test directions say there are no right or wrong answers. Therefore, perceptions of self are likely to be considerably biased toward what the test taker perceives as a highly desirable personality type.
  12. 12. PROBLEMS IN MEASURING AFFECTIVE FACTORS Test of self-esteem, empathy, motivation, and other factors can be quite culturally ethnocentric, using concepts and references that are difficult to interpret cross-culturally.

×