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Tanja Straka | Maren Mischo | Konstantin Petrick | Ingo Kowarik
Technische Universität Berlin
Urban cemeteries in Berlin
D...
Cemeteries
...Are multidimensional places (Woodthorpe, 2011; Hornbogen, 2013) in the urban fabric and are crucial for biod...
Study area
Berlin holds 244 cemeteries distributed all over the urban fabric (Fig.
4). Most of them are designed in a park...
The aims of our study were to investigate the…
1. Acceptability for ‚grey development‘ (e.g. built structures), ‚green dev...
Self-administered online survey June 2020
(15 June 2020: 523 participants)
Closed questionaire addressing: reasons for vis...
Preferences for management of
open green areas and of wild
elements (deadwood) on cemeteries
Concepts
Measured on a 5- poi...
Acceptability for...
13 different development strategies
could be grouped in three categories
(Exploratory Factor Analysis...
Predictors
8
Spiritual experience
What feelings does a visit to the
cemetery trigger in you?
Own developed scale, items
de...
Preliminary results
1. Acceptability for different
development strategies on
cemeteries
9
‘Green development’ was
signific...
Preliminary results
2. Preferences for how green areas
on cemeteries should be managed
10
Significant different. Tukey’s H...
Preliminary results
11
The reason to visit cemeteries for nature experiences, spiritual experiences on cemeteries and high...
Preliminary results
4. Acceptability for different development strategies: predictive
potential of spiritual experiences, ...
Conclusion
Areas with wilderness or meadows with wildflowers were preferred above mown lawn;
irrespective if dead wood was...
Conclusion
‚Green‘ (e.g. community gardens) was the most preferred development strategy for unused areas
on urban cemeteri...
Prof. Ingo Kowarik
Thank you!
Dr. Tanja Straka Maren Mischo Konstantin Petrick
Expertise in biodiversity patterns and
unde...
References
● Fischer, Leonie K.; Honold, Jasmin; Cvejić, Rozalija; Delshammar, Tim; Hilbert, Sven; Lafortezza, Raffaele; ...
References
● cover photos: own photos
● Fig 1: Yvonne Zimmerer (2019): Langer Tag der Stadtnatur am 25.05.2019. Evangelisc...
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Development and wilderness on urban cemeteries: The role of spiritual experiences, nature orientation and reason for visit on acceptance and preferences

Presentation for the virtual ISSRM 2020 conference

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Development and wilderness on urban cemeteries: The role of spiritual experiences, nature orientation and reason for visit on acceptance and preferences

  1. 1. Tanja Straka | Maren Mischo | Konstantin Petrick | Ingo Kowarik Technische Universität Berlin Urban cemeteries in Berlin Development and wilderness on urban cemeteries: The role of spiritual experiences, nature orientation and reason for visit on acceptance and preferences ISSRM - Virtual Conference by IASNR
  2. 2. Cemeteries ...Are multidimensional places (Woodthorpe, 2011; Hornbogen, 2013) in the urban fabric and are crucial for biodiversity and people. While their main function is burial and activities linked to mourning, they provide a range of ecosystem services. (Francis et al., 2000; Hrsg. Kowarik et al., 2016) They are important recreational, cultural and historical places for people (Nordh et al., 2017; Swensen, 2018). They are also crucial habitats for a lot of urban animals, plants and many endangered species (Kowarik et al., 2016; Yilmaz et al. 2017). Fig 1: guided tour on a cemetery in Berlin Fig 2: natural succession on the jewish cemetery in Berlin Fig 3: common buzzard 2
  3. 3. Study area Berlin holds 244 cemeteries distributed all over the urban fabric (Fig. 4). Most of them are designed in a park style with urban forest patches (Skar et al., 2018; Kowarik et al. 2019). Due to changing burial practices they differ in ● intensity of use ● management levels ● wilderness and successional process (Kowarik et al., 2016; Graf, 1986). As Berlin grows many cemeteries are under pressure. There is discussion to convert some of the cemeteries or areas within them into green spaces (for recreation/leisure) or building land (e.g. apartments/social infrastructure) (SenStadtUm 2014, Struchholz, 2019). Fig 4: Berlin city map with “Planungsräume LOR” and location of cemeteries 3
  4. 4. The aims of our study were to investigate the… 1. Acceptability for ‚grey development‘ (e.g. built structures), ‚green development‘ (e.g. urban gardens) and acceptability of intensive leisure activities (e.g. playground) 2. Preferences for green areas on cemeteries differing in their level of wilderness (ranging from mown lawns to overgrown areas) 3. Predictive potential of spiritual experiences on cemeteries, nature orientation and reason to visit cemeteries on acceptability and preferences Study aims 4
  5. 5. Self-administered online survey June 2020 (15 June 2020: 523 participants) Closed questionaire addressing: reasons for visiting, preferences, acceptability and predictors. Preferences and accepatibility with photo stimuli. Snowball sampling to Berlin citizens: institutions as multiplicators, social media (e.g. facebook), leaflets with QR- codes, online platform. Fig 5: Leaflet with QR-Code, translated for ISSRM virtual conference by IASNR Study methods 5
  6. 6. Preferences for management of open green areas and of wild elements (deadwood) on cemeteries Concepts Measured on a 5- point scale with photo stimuli (e.g. mown lawns to overgrown areas with or without dead wood) 6 with deadwood without deadwood wildmeadowmown Fig 6: Preferences of management-levels with or without deadwood ‘On a scale from 1 (don’t like at all) to 5 (like very much), which scenario on a cemetery do you find appealing?’
  7. 7. Acceptability for... 13 different development strategies could be grouped in three categories (Exploratory Factor Analysis)GREEN DEVELOPMENT LEISUREincl. urban wilderness, community gardens, grazing, meadow orchard incl. playground, campsite, sports ground incl. apartments, industrial buildings, social infrastructure 7 GREY DEVELOPMENT Fig 7: urban wilderness on a cemetery Fig 8: playground on a cemetery Fig 9: building land ‘On a scale from 1 (don’t accept at all) to 5 (totally accept), how acceptable are the following development strategies for cemetery areas that are no longer used for burial?’
  8. 8. Predictors 8 Spiritual experience What feelings does a visit to the cemetery trigger in you? Own developed scale, items derived from the literature and tested in cognitive interviews with n = 12. Capturing spiritual experiences on cemeteries such as (Cronbach‘s alpha 0.76) ‚Old trees help me to cope with my grief’ ‘Overgrown graves bring the cycle of life to me’ Nature orientation Items on connection to nature (Fischer et al. 2018) (Cronbach’s alpha 0.74) ‘I am interested in animals and plants’. ‘I enjoy watching nature documentaries or books about nature.’ Reasons Items derived from the literature and tested in cognitive interviews with n = 12. Grief 19% Nature 19% Relaxatio n 16% History 18% Crossing 8% Walking tour 16% Other 4%
  9. 9. Preliminary results 1. Acceptability for different development strategies on cemeteries 9 ‘Green development’ was significantly more preferred than other development strategies. ‘Grey development’ was the least preferred. All significant different. Tukey’s HSD: Green-grey p < 0.001, green- leisure p < 0.001, grey-leisure p < 0.001 Fig 10: Acceptability of development strategies
  10. 10. Preliminary results 2. Preferences for how green areas on cemeteries should be managed 10 Significant different. Tukey’s HSD: meadow-lawn p < 0.001, wild-lawn p < 0.001. Areas with wilderness or meadows with wildflowers were significantly more preferred than mown lawns; irrespective if with dead wood was present or not. Fig 11: Landscape preferences of management strategies. Since no differences were found between scenarios with and without dead wood, photo sets were here combined.
  11. 11. Preliminary results 11 The reason to visit cemeteries for nature experiences, spiritual experiences on cemeteries and high nature orientations showed all positive predictive potential to appreciated wild green areas and meadows with wildflowers on cemeteries; however, the reason to visit a cemetery for grief showed negative predictive potential on preferences for wild green areas. Fig 12: Predictive potential on landscape preferences 3. Landscape preferences: predictive potential of spiritual experiences, nature orientation and reason for visit
  12. 12. Preliminary results 4. Acceptability for different development strategies: predictive potential of spiritual experiences, nature orientation and reason for visit 12 Spiritual experiences on cemeteries and the reason to visit cemeteries for nature experiences showed positive effects on the acceptability of green development; while the reason to visit cemeteries for grief showed negative effects. Nature orientations showed a negative effect on the acceptability of ‚grey development‘. Fig 13: Predictive potential on acceptability of development strategies
  13. 13. Conclusion Areas with wilderness or meadows with wildflowers were preferred above mown lawn; irrespective if dead wood was shown on the photos or not. People with high orientation towards nature, who visit cemeteries for nature experiences and who gain comfort in experiencing nature on urban cemeteries (in our survey: spiritual experiences) showed higher appreciation for wild areas or meadows with wildflowers on urban cemeteries. However, people who visit cemeteries for grief did not appreciate wild areas or meadows with wildflowers. Hence, it might be worth to manage areas differently (e.g. for grief and/or for nature experiences) to meet the needs of visitors for cemeteries. 13
  14. 14. Conclusion ‚Green‘ (e.g. community gardens) was the most preferred development strategy for unused areas on urban cemeteries while ‚grey‘ (e.g. buildings) was the least preferred one. Similarly here, people who visit urban cemeteries to experience nature and who gain comfort in experiencing nature on urban cemeteries were most supportive of ‚green‘ development, while people who visit urban cemeteries for grief not. Hence, urban areas with limited areas of green spaces, urban cemeteries should have a ‚green‘ development for people who appreciate nature and who can gain comfort on these special urban places; this could contribute to environmental justice. Survey‘s during COVID-19: nearly all (97%) of our responses derived from social media and email distribution list. 14
  15. 15. Prof. Ingo Kowarik Thank you! Dr. Tanja Straka Maren Mischo Konstantin Petrick Expertise in biodiversity patterns and underlying mechanisms, with a particular focus on cities and biological invasions, people-nature intersection and how to integrate biodiversity in urban environments. 15 Expertise in urban ecology, urban bats and human dimensions of wildlife conservation. Combination of social science theories and ecological research. Urban planning student (Bachelor of Science). Bachelor-Thesis Urban planning student (Bachelor of Science). Bachelor-Thesis own photographs of different urban cemeteries in Berlin
  16. 16. References ● Fischer, Leonie K.; Honold, Jasmin; Cvejić, Rozalija; Delshammar, Tim; Hilbert, Sven; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Nastran, Mojca; Nielsen, Anders Busse; Pintar, Marina; van der Jagt, Alexander P.N. and Kowarik, Ingo (2018) Supplementary data - Beyond green: Broad support for biodiversity in multicultural European cities. ● Francis, Doris; Kellaher, Leonie and Neophytou, Georgina (2000) Sustaining cemeteries: The user perspective, Mortality 5 (1). ● Graf, Annerose (1986) Flora und Vegetation der Friedhöfe in Berlin (West). ● Hornbogen, Marie-Luise (2013) Heute Friedhof - Morgen Wohngebiet? Fallstudie Berlin zur Friedhofsentwicklung in der Stadtplanung. ISR Impulse Online. ● Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha; von der Lippe, Moritz; Seitz, Birgit (2016) Biodiversity functions of urban cemeteries: evidence from one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. ● Kowarik, Ingo; Hiller, Anne; Planchuelo, Greg.; Seitz, Birgit.; von der Lippe, Moritz; Buchholz, Sascha. (2019) Emerging Urban Forests: Opportunities for Promoting the Wild Side of the Urban Green Infrastructure. Sustainability 2019. ● Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha; Lippe, Moritz; Seitz, Birgit (2016) Biodiversity functions of urban cemeteries: Evidence from one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. ● Kowarik, Ingo; Bartz, Robert and Brenck, Miriam (editors) (2016) Naturkapital Deutschland – TEEB DE (2016): Ökosystemleistungen in der Stadt – Gesundheit schützen und Lebensqualität erhöhen. Technische Universität Berlin, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung – UFZ. Berlin and Leipzig. ● Nordh et al. (2017) A peaceful place in the city – A qualitative study of restorative components of the cemetery. Landscape and Urban Planning. ● Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Wohnen (editor) (2014). Bericht zum Stand der Umsetzung des Friedhofsentwicklungsplans (FEP) 2006. ● Skår, Margrete; Nordh, Helena and Swensen, Grete (2018) Green urban cemeteries: more than just parks. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability. ● Struchholz, Thomas (2019): Friedhof - ein Ort mit Zukunft. Friedhofsplanung in der Praxis. Fachverlag des deutschen Bestattungsgewerbes GmbH. ● Swensen, Grete (2018) Between romantic historic landscapes, rational management models and obliterations – urban cemeteries as green memory sites. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. ● Woodthorpe, Kate (2011): Sustaining the contemporary cemetery: implementing policy alongside conflicting perspectives and purpose. Mortality 16 (3). ● Yılmaz, Hatice; Kuşak, Bahriye and Akkemik, Ünal (2017) The role of Aşiyan Cemetery (İstanbul) as a green urban space from an ecological perspective and its importance in urban plant diversity. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 16
  17. 17. References ● cover photos: own photos ● Fig 1: Yvonne Zimmerer (2019): Langer Tag der Stadtnatur am 25.05.2019. Evangelischer Friedhofsverband Berlin Stadtmitte. Online access: https://evfbs.de/index.php?id=54&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=57&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&cHash=bf2114dbb1279b5678c284ac05a 124a8 ● Fig 2: own photo ● Fig 3: Jens Scharon (n.d.): Mäusebussard. Online access: https://www.dbu.de/inc/phpThumb/phpThumb.php?src=/media/260918025222u0oi.jpg&w=1000 ● Fig 4: own figure (2020): map based on "Geoportal Berlin / [Friedhofsbestand Berlin]" ● Fig 5: own leaflet with own photos (2020) ● Fig 6: own arranged photos (2020) ● Fig 7: own arranged photo (2020) ● Fig 8: own arranged photo (2020) ● Fig 9: building land: spuno, ID #198758933, Name: Europacity Berlin, Source: Adobe Stock, unverändert (n.d.) ● Fig 10: own figure (2020) ● Fig 11: own figure (2020) ● Fig 12: own figure (2020) ● Fig 13: own figure (2020) ● last slide: own photos 17

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