Research paper: Tourism & employment pdf


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This is my Research based on 3 sources on the topic of "Employment in Tourism: Gender differentiation"

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Research paper: Tourism & employment pdf

  1. 1. Research:Theories and methods of tourism sciences By: Liogchii Tatiana
  2. 2.  Which are the main problems of working females in the Tourism Industry?(please name 5 and give explanation where/if needed).  follow the red arrow 2
  3. 3. 1.Lucas, R., 2004, Employment relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries, London: Routledge. (slides: 13, 17, 19, 20)2. Berhane, H., Van der Cammen, S., a. o., 1999. Gender & Tourism: Womens Employment and Participation in Tourism. London: UNED-UKs Project Report. (slides: 15, 16, 20, 21, 25, 26)3. Food Service Europe & Middle East Nr. 01, 2012, The Female Factor. (slides: 16-18, 22- 24) 3
  4. 4. The first 2 Case Studies carry similar ideas and are presented so through the research. And the 3rd source is mostly used for bringing up different relevant examples.The research is structured in a gradual way, around 3 parts:-Tourism;-Employment and-Women’s employment as an issue in tourism. 4
  5. 5. Purpose: To bring out the genderaspects of tourism.Objectives:- Analysis of the literature on the problem of Gender Inequality in Tourism Industry, examples;- Establishment of the reasons of gender inequality;- Emphasis of some advantages of being an employed female, examples. 5
  6. 6. Methods:- literature/synthesis of the reviews,- research method,- analytical method,- deductive methods,- qualitative research,- quantitative research,- online research methods. 6
  7. 7. Tourism, employment, gender, female, payment, inequality, harassment, sex tourism. 7
  8. 8. Gender & Tourism:Employment relations in Womens Employment the Hospitality and The Female Factor and Participation in Tourism Industries Tourism• complex • complex • not complex• key terms – defined • key terms – defined • key terms – not defined • mostly a primary data• mostly a secondary • mostly a secondary material data material data material with primary data • involves a collection of • it is a case study• involves a huge collection of case case studies studies• contains general info • contains general info • contains specific info 8
  9. 9. Tourism is “the activities of a person outside his or her usual environment for less than a specified period of time and whose main purpose of travel is other than exercise of an activity remunerated from the place visited.” (Source: Chadwick, 1994:66 in Pender and Sharpley, 2005, p.4) 9
  10. 10. The travel and tourism industry is one of the largest and most dynamic industries in today’s global economy. (Source: )- Travel & Tourism contribution to World’s Economy = over US $6 trillion or 9% of global GDP (2011).- Provided 255 million jobs = 8,7% of total employment (2011). (Source: 10
  11. 11. Tourism industry nourishes a country’s economy, stimulates development process, restores cultural heritage, and helps in maintaining international peace and understanding.(Source: ore.htm) 11
  12. 12. 1. Accommodation 2. Adventure 7. Tourism andTransportation Recreation6. Tourism 3. Attractions Services 5. Food and 4. Events and Beverage Conferences (own figure, adapted based on: 12
  13. 13. “Work dominates the lives of men and women” (Source: Blyton and Turnbull, 1998: 3 in Lucas, R., 2004, p. 8)Tourism has a great potential for creating direct and indirect employment possibilities in almost all sectors of the national economy.“Female workforce in the Tourism Industry sector - 46 %.” (2007) (Source: 13
  14. 14. There are also known to be challenges facing women in tourism. Women are often concentrated in low status, low paid and precarious jobs in the tourism industry. (Source: Global Report on Women in Tourism 2011, p. 3) 14
  15. 15. As in many other sectors, there is a significant horizontal and vertical gender segregation of the labour market in tourism. Horizontally - women and men are placed in different occupations - women are being employed as waitresses, chambermaids, cleaners, travel agencies sales persons, flight attendants, etc., whereas men are being employed as barmen, gardeners, construction workers, drivers, pilots, etc. 15
  16. 16.  Vertically - the typical "gender pyramid" is prevalent in the tourism sector - lower levels and occupations with few career development opportunities being dominated by women and key managerial positions being dominated by men. (Source: Berhane, H., Van der Cammen, S., a. o., 1999, p. 3) When it comes to management positions and entrepreneurship, the picture changes and men largely dominate the field. (Source: The Female Factor, 2012, p. 37) 16
  17. 17.  Women “have shorter service, work fewer hours and earn less pay, but are more likely to do jobs performed equally by men and women.” (Source: Lucas, R., 2004, p. 199)1. "I do not present myself as a woman. Im a chef and I do as much as I ask my male counterparts to do and noticed that my gender is very easily forgotten! In fact, my colleagues and my employees call me Chef, never Madame or such, which I appreciate very much.“ says Susy Massetti - Executive chef, the Masso for the Palace Bahrain Hotel. (Source: The Female Factor, 2012, p. 37) 17
  18. 18. 2. "Women always have to work twice as hard at any job they do and especially in a male dominated environment.“ Suzanne Husseini - Dubai-based celebrity chef, book author and TV presenter. (Source: The Female Factor, 2012, p. 37) 18
  19. 19.  “Harassment is unwanted behavior of a sexual nature including physical, verbal and non-verbal behaviour.” (Source: Sherry, 1995 in Lucas, R., 2004, p. 97)Tourism “HRM has utilized and underpinned existing sex segregation, with the core being defined partly by reference to masculine attributes. […] Assessment in selection […] is understood in terms of power-based relations, […] tend to interact with gender and racial stereotypes and lead to discrimination”. (Source: Taylor and Tyler, 2000 in Lucas, R., 2004, p. 97) 19
  20. 20.  Female labour may be sexualized, requiring workers to flirt or suffer harassment to earn tips. (Source: Lucas, R., 2004, p. 228)Women are expected to dress in an "attractive" manner, to look beautiful (ie slim, young, pretty) and to "play along" with sexual harassment by customers. (Source: Berhane, H., Van der Cammen, S., a. o., 1999, p. 7) 20
  21. 21. Prehistorically facts Value of male & femaleBiological considerations skills- Men’s power- Women’s ability to give birth Reasons for- Body’s different constitution gender inequality in Tourism“Gender stereotypes are prevalent in “In addition, traditional gendermost cultures and rather resemble roles assign to women the Family/household responsibilitieseach other than being countries Socio-cultural traditions of culturally main responsibilities forspecific. (ex. Turkey, Dubai, Africa).stereotypes Gender raising children, caring for theinfluence the way we perceive each elderly, and doing householdother and how we see ourselves.” work.” (Source: Berhane, H., Van der Cammen, S., a. o., 1999, (own figure based on Jackson, Van der Cammen, and (Source: Berhane, H., p. 4-5) R., o., 1999, p. S., a. 2012, 4-5) Jackson, R., 2012, Ch. 2, p. 29-48) 21
  22. 22. More Multi- attention tasking to details Express their feelings More open ‘Caretaker’ to creativity (own figure based on ‘The Female Factor’, 2012, p. 37) 22
  23. 23. - Gabriele Kurz: "We may approach things sometimes in a different way, but we are no less focused, tough or professional than our male colleagues," […] But it takes time to get to the top in any company.“- Susy Massetti: "There are obvious differences mainly connected to the customs and religious beliefs that affect the way a woman is perceived or received. However, I found very little if any challenges in this regard.” 23
  24. 24. As a female chef, I guess I am still seen as a novelty, in a positive way, I must note.“- Suzanne Husseini: “Some men have preconceived ideas about women but these are quickly changed when they slice their way through any task with excellence. That said, I know women chefs do encounter their share of macho man chefs who still cant get over the fact that they have to share their pots and pans with them.“ (Source: The Female Factor, 2012, p. 37) 24
  25. 25. 1.Women make up a large proportion of the formal tourism workforce.2.The tourism sector has almost twice as many women employers as other sectors.3.Women are well represented in service and clerical level jobs but poorly represented at professional levels.4.Women in tourism are still underpaid, under- utilized, under-educated, and under- represented; but tourism offers pathways to success. 25
  26. 26. 5.Women in tourism are typically earning 10% to 15% less than their male counterparts.6.A large amount of unpaid work is being carried out by women in family tourism businesses. (Source: Global Report on Women in Tourism 2011, p. 4)7.Tourism development should be seen as a major sector of development addressing all issues related to all forms of tourism and their impact. (own conclusions, based on Berhane, H., Van der Cammen, S., a. o., 1999, p. 13) 26
  27. 27. Data should be treated with caution, because it is not the most recent. Further discussions and review topics: East Asian states’ culture and females’ implication in the economy Sustainable gender policies of the future Feminist approach in Tourism. 27
  28. 28.  Food Service Europe & Middle East Nr. 01, 2012, The Female Factor, UAE, Bahrain, p. 37. Lucas, R., 2004, Employment relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries, London: Routledge. Berhane, H., Van der Cammen, S., a. o., 1999. Gender & Tourism: Womens Employment and Participation in Tourism. London: UNED-UKs Project Report. Pender, L. and Sharpley, R., 2005. The Management of Tourism. Padstow, Cornwall: TJ International Ltd. 28
  29. 29.  World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Employment of Women (UN Women), 2011, Global Report on Women in Tourism 2011. Jackson, R., 2012, Seminar: What causes gender inequality? acc. 22.10.2012 acc. 03.10.2012 acc. 15.10.2012 acc. 03.10.2012 29
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  32. 32.  Please form 3-4 groups. Think of a real example of gender discrimination in the employment sector that took place in your life, your friends’ or family members’. (2 min) Give solutions of how could the situation be managed. (3 min) Give recommendations for Government, NGOs, tourism organizations of how to avoid or eradicate female discrimination. (10 min) 32
  33. 33. - providing child-care;- affirmative action and equal opportunity programmes;- increased education and training for women in non-traditional areas;- create community based institutions and services to help women and men to cope with the double burden of family and household work as well as work outside the home to generate income; 33
  34. 34. - school curricula should address issues of cross-gender respect;- providing educational programmes about womens rights and how to properly respect them in an inter-cultural context;- loans to womens initiatives;- providing information about customers and successful strategies of marketing products;- providing trainings for women to promote activities that are indirectly linked to tourism, such as printing, dying and folk-arts; 34
  35. 35. - training and education programmes should aim at encouraging women to move into non- traditional occupations which require more skills and are better paid and at encouraging women to aim at rising into key managerial positions;- women should be encouraged to get involved in independent community based tourism initiatives: through promoting the opportunities, offering advice, contacts and networks, training and education, access to information and access to credit - by national and local governments, trade unions, NGOs 35
  36. 36. and industry collaborating with womens local initiatives;- international networking among women should be built up more effectively and widespread;- create effective incentives for employers to take measures towards the advancement of women;- employers should set targets for the percentage of women in key management positions; 36
  37. 37. - the tourism industry and tourism boards should abolish marketing strategies using womens stereotypical images as part of the product;- employers should review their standards and criteria of employing women and men, and their policies to protect women from sexual objectification and sexual harassment by customers. (adapted based on Berhane, H., Van der Cammen, S., a. o., 1999, p. 10-15) 37
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