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INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING UOM

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INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING UOM

  1. 1. B.TANDARAYEN 2/1/2017 1Introduction to Agricultural Engineering INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
  2. 2. Outline of presentation Agricultural Engineering & Agricultural engineers Challenges Agricultural operations Agricultural machinery Resources conservation Agricultural structures 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 2
  3. 3. Agricultural Engineering  The Level of mechanisation of agriculture determines the development of agriculture and the development of human society  Undeveloped agriculture depends on hand tools Farm activities labour intensive  It takes large team of farmers and field hands to cultivate small area for farmers to feed the people 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 3
  4. 4. Agricultural engineering was recognized as a discipline in 1907, with the formation of ASAE which coincided with rapid advancement of mechanisation 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 4 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, CONT…
  5. 5. It is the application of engineering principles to any process associated with producing agriculturally based goods and management of natural resources It is concerned with the development of: Labour saving farm machines, farm buildings, irrigation and drainage systems It include processes for preserving and converting agricultural produce to useful Food, Feed, and Fibre products 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 5 WHAT IS AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
  6. 6.  Part Agriculture and Part Engineering – Mostly tipping towards the latter  Agricultural Engineering is a Science on its own  The scope of Agricultural Engineering is wide and varied  Covering: 1. Farm machinery and Power 2. Agricultural Processes and Agro Machinery 3. Soil and Water Conservation 4. Farm Irrigation, tube well pumping and drainage 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 6 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
  7. 7.  They are broadly and intensively trained professionals who devise practical and efficient solutions for producing, storing, transporting, processing and packaging agricultural produce • More specifically they solve problems related to systems, processes and machines • They develop solutions for alternative use of agricultural products, by-products, wastes and natural resources • More importantly to ensure protection of people, animals and the environment  It is good to note the interaction of the Mechanical, Civil, Electrical and Agricultural Engineers 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 7 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS
  8. 8.  Increase in world population  Decrease in natural resources  Changes in climatic conditions  Increase in demand for quality products  People are in a hurry – more in short period of time  Decrease of agricultural land  Decrease in labour for agriculture  Need to devise means and ways for low cost production and high quality produce 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 8 CHALLENGES
  9. 9. 1.Monitor the implementation of new projects and introduction of new technologies in the field of Agricultural Engineering; 2.Assess the design consideration of locally manufactured/ modified farm machinery and implements from prospective manufacturers/ individuals; 3.Assist in the preparation of Tender Documents for the Ministry and other Para-statal Bodies under the aegis of the Ministry of Agro-Industry & Food Security; 4. Advise Ministries and Government Institutions on matters related to Agricultural Engineering; 5.Assist in the formulation of Agricultural Engineering policies and in framing of appropriate Engineering Legislation; 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 9 ACTIVITIES OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS - MAURITIUS
  10. 10. 6.Ensure that repairs and maintenance of vehicles, agricultural machineries and related equipment are carried out properly; 7.Supervise the repairs and maintenance of all civil works undertaken by the Ministry; 8. Ensure the proper design of farm buildings and irrigation network; 9. Trials with, and adaptations to, farm equipment and agricultural support equipment so that they respond better to local conditions; 10. Land preparation including ploughing and furrowing 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 10 ACTIVITIES OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS - MAURITIUS
  11. 11. 11. Processing, analyzing and interpreting raw satellite images depending upon the user needs; 12.Generating various thematic maps of natural resources. 13. Identifying potentials and problems of land, water and socio-economic parameters. 14.Production of hard copy maps. 15. Generate action plans for:  Land use change analysis  Land capability and land irrigability analysis  Watershed/water resource development planning  National Agricultural Land Bank 16. Provision of training in the different trades and in supervision 17. Industrial Training (Pre Reg, MITD etc.) 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 11 CONT….
  12. 12. Agricultural power deals with tractors, equipment and all forms of power in agriculture. Harvest and post harvest equipment Power tiller, Sheller, Lawn mower, Leaf blower 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 12 AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY/POWER
  13. 13. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 13 POWER TILLER
  14. 14. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 14 THRESHER
  15. 15. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 15 SHELLER
  16. 16. Labour in Agriculture:  The basic skills in the selection and use of tools and materials  The employee in agriculture (mechanics, welder, masons, plumber, fitter etc) must be able to locate and repair parts for agricultural tools, plant and equipment Today, the need for multi-skilled workforce is highly being felt 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 16 LABOUR
  17. 17.  The operations on a farm can be classified as: 1. Tractive work such as land preparation, cultivation, harvesting, and transportation 2. Stationary work: cutting feed, handling & storing, grinding and lifting of irrigation water  Sources of power: a. Human and animal b. Human and machines 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 17 AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS
  18. 18.  A tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction.  Most commonly, the term is used to describe a farm vehicle that provides the power and traction to mechanise agricultural tasks, especially (and originally) tillage, but nowadays a great variety of tasks. Agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the tractor, and the tractor may also provide a source of power if the implement is mechanised. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 18 TRACTOR
  19. 19.  PTO: Power Take-OFF It is part of the tractor transmission system. It is provided with a standard splined shaft at rear of the tractor to operate the PTO operated machines like mowers and harvesters Tractor mounted hedge trimmer, below 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 19 TRACTOR & PTO
  20. 20. 1. Tillage – Basic operation in farming . It is done to create favourable conditions for seed placement and plant growth 2. Ploughs 3. Harrows 4. Cultivators 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 20 IMPLEMENTS/ATTACHEMENTS
  21. 21. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 21 PLOUGH The diagram shows the basic parts of the modern plough: 1. beam 2. hitch or hake 3. vertical regulator 4. coulter (knife coulter pictured, but disk coulter common) 5. chisel (foreshare) 6. share (mainshare) 7. mouldboard
  22. 22. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 22 FOUR FURROW REVERSIBLE PLOUGH
  23. 23. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 23 CULTIVATOR
  24. 24. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 24 BALANCE PLOUGH
  25. 25. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 25 DISK HARROW
  26. 26. This Includes the design and construction of: Ditches Terraces Irrigation system The control of erosion& The collection and storage of rain water 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 26 RESOURCES CONSERVATION PRACTICES
  27. 27. The artificial application of water to arid land for growing crops. The objective of the Engineer is to make water available to the cultivators with respect of location, time and quantity as per crop requirements The need for Investigation, Planning, design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of pipe network, pump and distribution system 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 27 IRRIGATION
  28. 28.  System: Gravity, Lift & Infiltration  Method: Surface, subsurface, overhead, drip, suction, burried Impact type sprinkler head Canal irrigation     S Sprayers and bubblers 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 28 IRRIGATION SYSTEM & METHOD
  29. 29. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 29 HUB OF A CENTRE PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEM
  30. 30. Components: 1. Control Head  Pumping Unit – Lifts water form source and generate pressure in pipe lines  Control Valves and pressure gauges- Regulates pressure and flow control  Filtration units – Remove foreign material from water  Fertigation units – Inject soluble fertilisers along with irrigation water 2. Pipe network  Main and sub-main units – Distribute water throughout the fields  Laterals – Distribute water to the crops and to emitting devices 3. Dripper devices : micro sprayers, drippers, perforated pipes – Dissipate pressure and discharge water 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 30 DESIGN CONSIDERATION OF A PRESSURISED IRRIGATION METHOD
  31. 31.  Total head (m)  Discharge (m3/Hr)  Water requirements m3  Area of irrigation m2  Irrigation time  Calculate losses: I Operations loss ii Filters loss iii Pipes loss 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 31 DESIGN CONSIDERATION
  32. 32. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 32 DRIPS FOR PLANTS AND SHRUBS
  33. 33. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 33 SPRINKLER FOR VEGETABLE GARDEN
  34. 34. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 34 WATER CONNECTIONS
  35. 35.  Only a small fraction of the rainfall falling in arid and semi-arid areas percolates into deeper soil or rock layers to recharge an aquifer. Another small fraction is used for transpiration of vegetation or of agricultural crops.  The majority of the precipitation evaporates from the often bare soil or from surface depressions. To increase agricultural production in the country, the necessity to think about the utilisation of water before it is “loss” to the sea. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 35 RAINWATER HARVESTING
  36. 36.  Since time immemorable, farmers in dry areas of the world collect surface runoff of precipitation, using various types of “water harvesting”. Water harvesting is here defined as the collection of surface runoff mainly for agricultural and domestic purposes 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 36 CONT….
  37. 37.  The objectives of the study are to calculate the design rate of rainfall and calculate roof run-off and to size gutters and rainwater pipes from tables and by calculation. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 37 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF AN INVERTED ROOF FOR WATER HARVESTING IN AGRICULTURE
  38. 38. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 38 TYPICAL SYSTEM
  39. 39.  A rainwater harvesting system consists of three basic elements: a collection area, a conveyance system, and storage facilities. The collection area in most cases is the roof of a house or a building. The effective roof area and the material used in constructing the roof influence the efficiency of collection and the water quality. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 39 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
  40. 40.  A conveyance system usually consists of gutters or pipes that deliver rainwater falling on the rooftop to cisterns or other storage vessels. Both drainpipes and roof surfaces should be constructed of chemically inert materials such as wood, plastic, aluminum, or fiberglass, in order to avoid adverse effects on water quality. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 40 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
  41. 41. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 41 INVERTED ROOF - MAURITIUS
  42. 42.  The water ultimately is stored in a storage tank or cistern, which should also be constructed of an inert material. Reinforced concrete, fiberglass, or stainless steel is suitable materials. Storage tanks may be constructed as part of the building, or may be built as a separate unit located some distance away from the building. Figure below shows a proposed schematic of a rooftop catchment system 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 42 CONT….
  43. 43. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 43 SCHEMATIC DRAWING
  44. 44. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 44 COLLECTION SYSTEM
  45. 45.  Agricultural structures deal with the facilities used in agriculture:  Green house  Pens (animals)  Barns (tobacco)  Laboratory (Testing & certification)  Post harvest building  Storage building  The design, evaluation of offer, supervision of construction of structures, together with drainage system 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 45 AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES
  46. 46. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 46 GREEN HOUSE - SHED
  47. 47.  This shed is made from metal tubes and polycarbonate sheet.  The shed is used for tissue culture for plants.  It is fitted with: 1. Automatic opening and closing of the roof: depending on the weather 2. Automatic curtain depending on the sunlight requirements 3. Automatic irrigation system – pump and timer for specific time of the day 4. Automatic extractor fan – depending on the inside temperature  The role of the engineer is to maintain this system in proper condition 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 47 HARDENING SHED
  48. 48. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 48 AUTOMATIC ROOF AND CURTAIN
  49. 49. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 49 CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT
  50. 50. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 50 CONTROL PANEL
  51. 51.  Storage means the phase of the post-harvest system during which the products are kept in such a way as to guarantee food security other than during periods of agricultural production.  In order to attain these general objectives, it is obviously necessary to adopt measures aimed at preserving the quality and quantity of the stored products over time. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 51 STORAGE
  52. 52. The main objectives of storage can be summed up as follows:  at the food level, to permit deferred use (on an annual and multi-annual basis) of the agricultural products harvested;  at the agricultural level, to ensure availability of seeds for the crop cycles to come;  at the agro-industrial level, to guarantee regular and continuous supplies of raw materials for processing industries;  at the marketing level, to balance the supply and demand of agricultural products, thereby stabilising market prices. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 52 STORAGE: OBJECTIVES
  53. 53. To conserve the quality of products over long-term storage, degradation processes must be slowed down or even stopped. Degradation of grains during storage depends principally on a combination of three factors:  temperature,  moisture,  oxygen content. During storage, as during other phases of the post- harvest system, the combined effects of these three factors can sometimes cause severe losses. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 53 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
  54. 54. The Ministry of Agro-Industry & FS is the only producer of vegetable and crop seeds in Mauritius. In order to maintain their viability, the seeds are kept in a controlled environment. Seeds generally benefit from low temperature and low humidity storage. Normally the seeds are kept in cold room (positive) for proper conservation. Hence the need for the design of a refrigeration system for the storage of seeds. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 54 DESIGN OF REFRIGERATION SYSTEM FOR THE STORAGE OF SEEDS AT BES
  55. 55. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 55 ROOMS TO BE REFRIGERATED
  56. 56. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 56 SEEDS ON RACKS
  57. 57.  This project deals with the design hypotheses and engineering concepts adopted and applied for the design load calculation for a refrigeration system.  The objective of the load calculation is to design an appropriate system capable of maintaining a certain temperature and humidity level and also to handle the load of seeds for conservation.  The approach is based on the basic theories of psychometrics, thermodynamics and heat transfer. The project was started from the calculation, drafting of technical specifications, launching of tender, evaluation and selection of the offer. The equipment was installed and commissioned. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 57 THE DESIGN CALCULATION
  58. 58.  The existing structure consists of four rooms dimension 8x6x3.3 m with storage capacity of 20 tons each and one room of dimension 8x2x3.3 m with 7 tons capacity.  Inside temperature: 10 – 12 0c  Relative humidity: 40-50%  Outside temperature: 28 0c 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 58 FACILITIES - STRUCTURE
  59. 59. The total load depends on both sensible and latent heat gain from:  Product load (products to be stored – seeds)  Transmission load (gain in temperature from outside)  Infiltration load  Internal heat sources (equipment, lighting)  Heat from respiration (seeds)  Heat from people (during loading and unloading)  Results: The 20 tons capacity room required a refrigeration load of 24 Kw, while the 7 tons capacity required a refrigeration load of 14Kw 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 59 REFRIGERATION LOAD
  60. 60. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 60 REFRIGERATION PLANT
  61. 61. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 61 STAND BY GENERATOR SET
  62. 62.  With the recent construction of a new floor at the Engineering Division. We need to install air conditioners for comfort use.  The space will be used partly for a training unit to accommodate about 75 persons and partly for office for 5 persons.  First we need to size the appropriate air conditioning unit for each space. We need to make a cooling load calculation to reach the requirements in terms of cooling capacity.  There are several factors that need to be taken into consideration, namely; heat gain from people, lighting, equipment, transmission, amongst others 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 62 COOLING LOAD CALCULATION FOR AIR CONDITIONING OF NEW BUILDING ED
  63. 63. As an engineer we need to think of how w can get the work done in a better way: Quality rather than Quantity, taking into consideration the safety aspect of the work and very important, is how we do not cause damage to the environment. The need to provide training: on job training, conduct theoretical training and calculations, seminars/talks amongst others. We need to keep our workforce up to date in their respective trades. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 63 PROVISION OF TRAINING
  64. 64.  From the above, we can have a broad idea of Agricultural Engineering, specially the inter-relationship between Mechanical Engineers and other Engineers to make the work complete.  The importance of each related field have been highlighted and all to contribute to the betterment of the country as a whole. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 64 CONCLUSION
  65. 65. QUESTIONS? 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 65 END OF PRESENTATION
  66. 66. Following the installation of a new incinerator plant at the Quarantine Department, a chimney was to be fixed on the incinerator and held by guy wires. The chimney was a 5.4 m high, in two parts, bolted together through flanged. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 66 DESIGN OF GUY WIRE TO SUPPORT THE CHIMNEY OF AN INCINERATOR PLANT
  67. 67. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 67 EGG COOLING ROOM
  68. 68. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 68 FUMIGATION CHAMBER & EQUIPMENT
  69. 69. 2/1/2017 Introduction to Agricultural Engineering 69 END OF PRESENTATION

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