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Unit 5 Low Cost Automation
Automation in Manufacturing (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research)
Studocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university
Unit 5 Low Cost Automation
Automation in Manufacturing (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research)
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U18PCME701-AUTOMATION IN MANUFACTURING
UNIT 5
SYLLABUS
Low cost Automation-Mechanical & Electro mechanical Systems, Assembly Automated Material
handling- Robotics- Pneumatics and Hydraulics- Illustrative Examples and case studies.
LOW COST AUTOMATION
Low Cost Automation (popularly known as LCA), is the introduction of simple pneumatic, hydraulic,
mechanical and electrical devices into the existing production machinery, with a view to improving
their productivity.
These would also enable the operation of these equipment by even semi-skilled and unskilled labour,
with a little training. This will involve the use of standardized parts and devices to mechanize or
automate machines, processes and systems.
Utilizing a human being as a source of energy is an inefficient method, in addition to being boring
and monotonous to the worker. It is estimated that it costs approximately 400 times as much for a
man to supply 1 kwh of energy as it does to get this from electrical power.
Similarly, using an operator as a sensing device is not, only un-economical but also would result in
excessive fatigue.
Misconception About Automation
There has been considerable opposition towards automation. The very word itself brings strong
reactions. It is considered a new tool in the hands of management to dispense with the workers.
It is feared that introduction of automation would lead to large scale unemployment and hence,
considered as an enemy of the working class. Let us try to find out how far these are true.
First of all, the concept of automation is not new; only the word is comparatively new.
Describing automation, it is said that its main characteristics are 'feedback' or 'closed loop' system.
There is nothing new about the feedback system as, long ago, James Watt invented the governor,
which is essentially a feedback mechanism, to provide the steam engine with a smooth constant speed
control under changing load conditions.
Secondly, automation is also described as numerical control, punched or magnetic tape control.
Again, there is nothing new in this, as in the early 18th century Basil Buchan designed the punched
card control for looms to get the desired pattern woven correctly, without faults due to human error.
As regards the fear of increased unemployment it is true that indiscriminate application of automation
on a large scale would result in increased unemployment problem. But, it is worth remembering here
that it 'is not the automation itself but the application that is to be blamed.
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Low cost Automation. which unfortunately has not received as much attention as it deserves, perhaps
because of lack of publicity, lack of knowledge and understanding, does not lead to retrenchment as
is feared by many. Low Cost Automation results in improvements in production processes, systems
etc. and any improvements would result in reduced time for the work being done and, if the quantum
of work remains the same, requirements of labour would reduce.
But, looking to a growing economy like ours, the demand for commodities are rarely met. Therefore,
if the amount of time taken to do a job is reduced, more number of jobs can be done in a day, a month
or a year. This means that there would be increased productivity with attendant reduction in the unit
cost of production.
No doubt there would be some minor displacement of workers, but this would not result in
retrenchment of workers as. the increased output and increased market demand would definitely not
only absorb whatever workers have been found surplus but also provide employment opportunities
to some more.
But shunning away from improvement, thinking that it would result in displacement of some workers
from their existing place, would, in the long run, affect the company in the smaller sense and the
economy as a whole in the broader sense.
One should not lose sight of the long term benefits of increased productivity, which is essential for
achieving prosperity.
Another argument one comes across is that 'our labour is cheap; so why go in for LCA?’ This is a
clear case of misunderstanding between 'cheap labour' and 'low labour costs'. The point that should
be remembered is not how much we pay a person but how much output we get for each rupee we pay.
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
Introduction
A mechanical system is a set of physical components that convert an input motion and force into a
desired output motion and force.
Mechanical systems have at least three elements: input, process and output.
 The input part of the system is any type of motion and force that drives the mechanical
system. The input motion and force may be from any power source including human effort, energy
from the wind, water, heat etc., from a chemical reaction or from an electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic
device.
 The process part of the system is where mechanisms are used to convert the input motion
and force into an output motion and force.
 The output is the change created in the input motion and force by the mechanism.
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Example of mechanical system showing the INPUT, PROCESS and OUTPUT stages
A simplified animated diagram of the crank and slider mechanism found in a single cylinder
internal combustion engine is shown opposite.
The system shown above is a small part of a larger and more complex system, e.g.
 In order for the fuel to ignite, an ignition system must be in place.
 The fuel must ignite at precisely the correct time so a timing system must also be in place.
 A measured amount of fuel must be injected into the combustion chamber at precisely the
correct time so a fuel injection system must be place.
 Exhaust gases must be evacuated from the combustion chamber so a valve system must be
in place.
 An internal combustion engine is a system that gives a motor vehicle the power to move. The
ignition system, the timing system, the fuel injection system and the valve system are subsystems of
the internal combustion engine system.
 Subsystems are systems that are part of a larger system. Mechanical systems usually comprise
of a number of subsystems.
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Feedback and control
The system described above consists of input, process and output elements that result in a crankshaft
rotating. The system does not allow for control over the speed of rotation of the crankshaft. In order
to control the speed of rotation, there must be a monitoring and control subsystem built into the
system. This can be achieved by:
 using sensors to monitor the input part of the system and feeding the information to a
controlling device that makes changes to the input
 using sensors to monitor the mechanisms in the process part of the system and feeding
the information to a controlling device that makes changes to the input and/or the process part of the
system
 using sensors to monitor the output part of the system and feeding the information to a
controlling device that makes changes to the input and/or the process part of the system.
Examples of sensors used on a motor vehicle
Example 1
A sensor senses the speed of a vehicle and feeds information back to the driver through a
speedometer. Feedback is through the speedometer. The driver has control of the vehicle and
decides whether to increase, decrease or maintain current speed.
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Example 2
A sensor senses the temperature of the internal combustion engine and displays the information on a
meter (thermometer). The information is also fed to a controlling device. When the temperature
reaches a predetermined point the controlling device switches on an electric fan that cools the engine.
The fan continues cooling the engine until the engine temperature is back within normal working
limits and is then switched off by the controlling device.
Example 3
An engine control unit (ECU) uses information from sensors together with settings programmed
by the driver to control the fuel and ignition systems and so control the speed of the vehicle. Other
uses of the control unit can be to:
 maintain a constant speed by the use of a cruise control
 maintain optimum revolutions of the crankshaft for any given driving condition
 control brake pressure to prevent the vehicle from skidding
 disengage vital systems in order to prevent theft of the vehicle.
Some of Gears used in Mechanical systems
Types of Gears
 Spur Gear. Gears having cylindrical pitch surfaces are called cylindrical gears. ...
 Helical Gear. Helical gears are used with parallel shafts similar to spur gears and
are cylindrical gears with winding tooth lines. ...
 Gear Rack. ...
 Bevel Gear. ...
 Spiral Bevel Gear. ...
 Screw Gear. ...
 Miter Gear. ...
 Worm Gear.
Types of Mechanical Power Transmission
 Shaft couplings.
 Chain drives.
 Gear drives.
 Belt drives.
 Power screws (lead screws)
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unit-5-low-cost-automation.pdf

  • 1. Studocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university Unit 5 Low Cost Automation Automation in Manufacturing (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research) Studocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university Unit 5 Low Cost Automation Automation in Manufacturing (Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research) Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
  • 2. U18PCME701-AUTOMATION IN MANUFACTURING UNIT 5 SYLLABUS Low cost Automation-Mechanical & Electro mechanical Systems, Assembly Automated Material handling- Robotics- Pneumatics and Hydraulics- Illustrative Examples and case studies. LOW COST AUTOMATION Low Cost Automation (popularly known as LCA), is the introduction of simple pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical and electrical devices into the existing production machinery, with a view to improving their productivity. These would also enable the operation of these equipment by even semi-skilled and unskilled labour, with a little training. This will involve the use of standardized parts and devices to mechanize or automate machines, processes and systems. Utilizing a human being as a source of energy is an inefficient method, in addition to being boring and monotonous to the worker. It is estimated that it costs approximately 400 times as much for a man to supply 1 kwh of energy as it does to get this from electrical power. Similarly, using an operator as a sensing device is not, only un-economical but also would result in excessive fatigue. Misconception About Automation There has been considerable opposition towards automation. The very word itself brings strong reactions. It is considered a new tool in the hands of management to dispense with the workers. It is feared that introduction of automation would lead to large scale unemployment and hence, considered as an enemy of the working class. Let us try to find out how far these are true. First of all, the concept of automation is not new; only the word is comparatively new. Describing automation, it is said that its main characteristics are 'feedback' or 'closed loop' system. There is nothing new about the feedback system as, long ago, James Watt invented the governor, which is essentially a feedback mechanism, to provide the steam engine with a smooth constant speed control under changing load conditions. Secondly, automation is also described as numerical control, punched or magnetic tape control. Again, there is nothing new in this, as in the early 18th century Basil Buchan designed the punched card control for looms to get the desired pattern woven correctly, without faults due to human error. As regards the fear of increased unemployment it is true that indiscriminate application of automation on a large scale would result in increased unemployment problem. But, it is worth remembering here that it 'is not the automation itself but the application that is to be blamed. Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
  • 3. Low cost Automation. which unfortunately has not received as much attention as it deserves, perhaps because of lack of publicity, lack of knowledge and understanding, does not lead to retrenchment as is feared by many. Low Cost Automation results in improvements in production processes, systems etc. and any improvements would result in reduced time for the work being done and, if the quantum of work remains the same, requirements of labour would reduce. But, looking to a growing economy like ours, the demand for commodities are rarely met. Therefore, if the amount of time taken to do a job is reduced, more number of jobs can be done in a day, a month or a year. This means that there would be increased productivity with attendant reduction in the unit cost of production. No doubt there would be some minor displacement of workers, but this would not result in retrenchment of workers as. the increased output and increased market demand would definitely not only absorb whatever workers have been found surplus but also provide employment opportunities to some more. But shunning away from improvement, thinking that it would result in displacement of some workers from their existing place, would, in the long run, affect the company in the smaller sense and the economy as a whole in the broader sense. One should not lose sight of the long term benefits of increased productivity, which is essential for achieving prosperity. Another argument one comes across is that 'our labour is cheap; so why go in for LCA?’ This is a clear case of misunderstanding between 'cheap labour' and 'low labour costs'. The point that should be remembered is not how much we pay a person but how much output we get for each rupee we pay. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS Introduction A mechanical system is a set of physical components that convert an input motion and force into a desired output motion and force. Mechanical systems have at least three elements: input, process and output.  The input part of the system is any type of motion and force that drives the mechanical system. The input motion and force may be from any power source including human effort, energy from the wind, water, heat etc., from a chemical reaction or from an electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic device.  The process part of the system is where mechanisms are used to convert the input motion and force into an output motion and force.  The output is the change created in the input motion and force by the mechanism. Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
  • 4. Example of mechanical system showing the INPUT, PROCESS and OUTPUT stages A simplified animated diagram of the crank and slider mechanism found in a single cylinder internal combustion engine is shown opposite. The system shown above is a small part of a larger and more complex system, e.g.  In order for the fuel to ignite, an ignition system must be in place.  The fuel must ignite at precisely the correct time so a timing system must also be in place.  A measured amount of fuel must be injected into the combustion chamber at precisely the correct time so a fuel injection system must be place.  Exhaust gases must be evacuated from the combustion chamber so a valve system must be in place.  An internal combustion engine is a system that gives a motor vehicle the power to move. The ignition system, the timing system, the fuel injection system and the valve system are subsystems of the internal combustion engine system.  Subsystems are systems that are part of a larger system. Mechanical systems usually comprise of a number of subsystems. Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
  • 5. Feedback and control The system described above consists of input, process and output elements that result in a crankshaft rotating. The system does not allow for control over the speed of rotation of the crankshaft. In order to control the speed of rotation, there must be a monitoring and control subsystem built into the system. This can be achieved by:  using sensors to monitor the input part of the system and feeding the information to a controlling device that makes changes to the input  using sensors to monitor the mechanisms in the process part of the system and feeding the information to a controlling device that makes changes to the input and/or the process part of the system  using sensors to monitor the output part of the system and feeding the information to a controlling device that makes changes to the input and/or the process part of the system. Examples of sensors used on a motor vehicle Example 1 A sensor senses the speed of a vehicle and feeds information back to the driver through a speedometer. Feedback is through the speedometer. The driver has control of the vehicle and decides whether to increase, decrease or maintain current speed. Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
  • 6. Example 2 A sensor senses the temperature of the internal combustion engine and displays the information on a meter (thermometer). The information is also fed to a controlling device. When the temperature reaches a predetermined point the controlling device switches on an electric fan that cools the engine. The fan continues cooling the engine until the engine temperature is back within normal working limits and is then switched off by the controlling device. Example 3 An engine control unit (ECU) uses information from sensors together with settings programmed by the driver to control the fuel and ignition systems and so control the speed of the vehicle. Other uses of the control unit can be to:  maintain a constant speed by the use of a cruise control  maintain optimum revolutions of the crankshaft for any given driving condition  control brake pressure to prevent the vehicle from skidding  disengage vital systems in order to prevent theft of the vehicle. Some of Gears used in Mechanical systems Types of Gears  Spur Gear. Gears having cylindrical pitch surfaces are called cylindrical gears. ...  Helical Gear. Helical gears are used with parallel shafts similar to spur gears and are cylindrical gears with winding tooth lines. ...  Gear Rack. ...  Bevel Gear. ...  Spiral Bevel Gear. ...  Screw Gear. ...  Miter Gear. ...  Worm Gear. Types of Mechanical Power Transmission  Shaft couplings.  Chain drives.  Gear drives.  Belt drives.  Power screws (lead screws) Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
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  • 8. ELECTRO – MECHANICAL SYSTEMS The purpose is to present techniques of systematic derivation of mathematical models (differential equations) for lumped-parameter electromechanical systems. The theory is outlined for N electrical coils and M mechanical variables. A set of electrical coils that interact to produce the force or torque on the mechanical system. • The force or torque of electric origin will be derived from fundamental principles of stored energy in the magnetic field both the currents in the electrical coils and the force or torque are time varying. • A basic electromechanical system has an electrical part, a mechanical part, and electromechanical coupling. This coupling is assumed to be lossless. • Systems with linear motion see a force f and a displacement x, while rotational systems see a torque T and a displacement θ. ASSEMBLY AUTOMATED MATERIAL HANDLING Material Handling and logistics are expensive operations which comprise of 10 % to 80 % of the product cost and this percentage tends to rise for inexpensive or commodity products. Physical distribution alone, i.e., the movement of products from the manufacturing plants to the customers, accounts for 25 % of the product cost. Internal to the plants, more than 90 % of the product flow time in a job shop is spent in material handling functions including waiting for an available machine. The traditional view of material handling sees material handling operations as non value-adding and only contributing to the cost of the product. Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
  • 9. As such, material handling should be avoided and minimized as much as possible. Since material handling operations often involve a substantial amount of direct labor and labor is expensive, many material handling design engineers were very supportive of automation. This trend is even more pronounced in Japan and Western Europe where labor is more expensive. The modern view recognizes the space and time utility of material handling operations, i.e., a product is worth more if it is at the right place at the right time. The modern goals in material handling system design are to create a flexible system that can be used for a variety of products and processes and to integrate the currently designed material handling system in the overall material handling plan. ROBOTICS WHAT IS A ROBOT? A robot is a programmable machine that can complete a task, while the term robotics describes the field of study focused on developing robots and automation. Each robot has a different level of autonomy. These levels range from human-controlled bots that carry out tasks to fully-autonomous bots that perform tasks without any external influences. Robotics is the intersection of science, engineering and technology that produces machines, called robots, that replicate or substitute for human actions. While the overall world of robotics is expanding, a robot has some consistent characteristics: 1. Robots consist of some sort of mechanical construction. The mechanical aspect of a robot helps it complete tasks in the environment for which it’s designed. For example, the Mars 2020 Rover’s wheels are individually motorized and made of titanium tubing that help it firmly grip the harsh terrain of the red planet. 2. Robots need electrical components that control and power the machinery. Essentially, an electric current — a battery, for example — is needed to power a large majority of robots. Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
  • 10. 3. Robots contain at least some level of computer programming. Without a set of code telling it what to do, a robot would just be another piece of simple machinery. Inserting a program into a robot gives it the ability to know when and how to carry out a task. PNEUMATICS AND HYDRAULICS PNEUMATIC SYSTEM A pneumatic system carries power by employing compressed gas, generally air, as a fluid for transmitting energy from an energy-generating source to an energy-using point to accomplish useful work. Figure 1.3 shows a simple circuit of a pneumatic system with basic components. Figure 1.3 Components of a pneumatic system.The functions of various components shown in Fig. 1.3 are as follows: 1. The pneumatic actuator converts the fluid power into mechanical power to performuseful work. 2. The compressor is used to compress the fresh air drawn from the atmosphere. 3. The storage reservoir is used to store a given volume of compressed air. 4. The valves are used to control the direction, flow rate and pressure of compressed air. 5. External power supply (motor) is used to drive the compressor. 6. The piping system carries the pressurized air from one location to another. Air is drawn from the atmosphere through an air filter and raised to required pressure by an air compressor. As the pressure rises, the temperature also rises; hence, an air cooler is provided to cool the air with some preliminary treatment to remove the moisture. The treated pressurized air then needs to get stored to maintain the pressure. With the storage reservoir, a pressure switch is fitted to start and stop the electric motor when pressure falls and reaches the required level, respectively. Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
  • 11. The three-position change over the valve delivering air to the cylinder operates in a way similar to its hydraulic circuit. HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS Hydraulic systems are power-transmitting assemblies employing pressurized liquid as a fluid for transmitting energy from an energy-generating source to an energy-using point to accomplish useful work. Figure 1.1 shows a simple circuit of a hydraulic system with basic components. Figure 1.1 Components of a hydraulic system Functions of the components shown in Fig. 1.1 are as follows: 1. The hydraulic actuator is a device used to convert the fluid power into mechanical power to do useful work. The actuator may be of the linear type (e.g., hydraulic cylinder) or rotary type(e.g., hydraulic motor) to provide linear or rotary motion, respectively. 2. The hydraulic pump is used to force the fluid from the reservoir to rest of the hydraulic circuit by converting mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. 3. Valves are used to control the direction, pressure and flow rate of a fluid flowing through the circuit. 4. External power supply (motor) is required to drive the pump. 5. Reservoir is used to hold the hydraulic liquid, usually hydraulic oil. 6. Piping system carries the hydraulic oil from one place to another. 7. Filters are used to remove any foreign particles so as keep the fluid system clean and efficient, as well as avoid damage to the actuator and valves 8. Pressure regulator regulates (i.e., maintains) the required level of pressure in the hydraulic fluid. Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
  • 12. The piping shown in Fig. 1.1 is of closed-loop type with fluid transferred from the storage tank to one side of the piston and returned back from the other side of the piston to the tank. Fluid is drawn from the tank by a pump that produces fluid flow at the required level of pressure. If the fluid pressure exceeds the required level, then the excess fluid returns back to the reservoir and remains there until the pressure acquires the required level. Cylinder movement is controlled by a three-position change over a control valve. 1. When the piston of the valve is changed to upper position, the pipe pressure line is connected to port A and thus the load is raised. 2. When the position of the valve is changed to lower position, the pipe pressure line is connected to port B and thus the load is lowered. 3. When the valve is at center position, it locks the fluid into the cylinder(thereby holding it in position) and dead-ends the fluid line (causing all the pump output fluid to return to tank via the pressure relief). In industry, a machine designer conveys the design of hydraulic systems using a circuitdiagram. Figure 1.2 shows the components of the hydraulic system using symbols. The working fluid, which is the hydraulic oil, is stored in a reservoir. When the electric motor is switched ON, it runs a positive displacement pump that draws hydraulic oil through a filterand delivers at high pressure. The pressurized oil passes through the regulating valve and does work on actuator. Oil from the other end of the actuator goes back to the tank via return line. To and fro motion of the cylinder is controlled using directional control valve. The hydraulic system discussed above can be broken down into four main divisions that areanalogous to the four main divisions in an electrical system. 1. The power device parallels the electrical generating station. 2. The control valves parallel the switches, resistors, timers, pressure switches, relays, etc. 3. The lines in which the fluid power flows parallel the electrical lines. 4. The fluid power motor (whether it is a rotating or a non-rotating cylinder or a fluid power motor) parallels the solenoids and electrical motors. Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960
  • 13. Difference between Hydraulic and Pnumatic Systems Downloaded by Tanaya Bhide (bhidetm@gmail.com) lOMoARcPSD|28157960