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MODAL VERBS
What are modal verbs?
• Modal verbs (also called modal verbs, modal auxiliary verbs,
modal auxiliaries) are special verbs ...
Modals
• Modals in the present
: You should see a doctor.
• Modals in the past
: You should have seen a doctor
Advice
Modal Verbs OF
- Use to give advice and make recommendations.
- For example:
- I think you shouldn’t lazy to do your homework.
- We shoul...
Ought to
- Similar to should but less common speech and
usually not used in negative way
- For example:
- You ought not to...
Had better
- Stronger and more urgent than should or ought to, so it
used to give
stronger advice and warning
- For exampl...
Obligation
Modal Verbs OF
Obligation
• OBLIGATION means something by which a person is obliged to do,
and which arises out of a sense of duty or res...
Have to /
Don't have to
Positive Obligation Negative Obligation
☀ Use for strong obligation
☀ This is usually referring to...
Had to /
Didn't have to
Positive Obligation Negative Obligation
☀ Obligation in the past
Example:
-I had to wear a school ...
Must (Must Have) /
Mustn't
Positive Obligation Negative Obligation
☀ Strong obligation (possibly based on
the speaker's op...
SPECIAL EXAMPLE
• Take care to distinguish correctly between "had to" and "must
have"
• They had to go to Thailand.
= They...
Should have + past participle /
Shouldn't have + past participle
Positive Obligation Negative Obligation
☀ A past action w...
SPECIAL EXAMPLE
• Here is an example of the difference between 'have to' and 'must':
• -My doctor said that I have to stop...
NOTE TO SELF:
• Be careful about the difference between don't have to and
mustn't!
• Don't have to means you don't need to...
Should (Ought to) /
Shouldn't
Positive Obligation Negative Obligation
Mild obligation
Advice
Logic/Conclusion
Examples:
-Y...
Permission
Modal Verbs OF
Definition of PERMISSION
: the right or ability to do something that is given by someone
who has the power to decide if it...
Ask For Permission
• We often use “can” to ask for permission.
Ex. Can I go home now?
Can we eat this pizza?
• Could is mo...
Give Permission
• We also often use “can” to give permission
Ex. You can go home now.
You can eat this pizza.
• Could is m...
Refusing Permission
• We use “can’t” to say that something isn’t permitted.
Ex. You can’t go how now.
You can’t eat this p...
TEST YOURSELF
• You don’t look very well, you __________ go to
work.
had better not
TEST YOURSELF
• Mrs. Johnnie's body was found in
the lounge just moments ago, and
it's still warm! Nobody has left the
man...
TEST YOURSELF
• She __________ get up early today, because it's
Sunday.
doesn’t have to
TEST YOURSELF
• You ______ tell anyone what I just told you. It's a
secret.
mustn’t
TEST YOURSELF
• Ned: ______ I borrow your lighter for a minute?
Sarah: Sure, no problem. Actually, you ______ keep it
if y...
Thank you for listening.
Jitrapa Leetanasaksakul No.3
Tanasorn Pajchim No.7
Apichaya Wanwaisart No.11
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Modal Verbs: Advice, Obligation, Permission

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Modal Verbs for high school students.

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Modal Verbs: Advice, Obligation, Permission

  1. 1. MODAL VERBS
  2. 2. What are modal verbs? • Modal verbs (also called modal verbs, modal auxiliary verbs, modal auxiliaries) are special verbs that give additional information about the function of the main verb. • Examples : CAN, COULD, SHALL, SHOULD and so on. • Types of modal verbs 1.Advice 2.Obligation 3.Permission
  3. 3. Modals • Modals in the present : You should see a doctor. • Modals in the past : You should have seen a doctor
  4. 4. Advice Modal Verbs OF
  5. 5. - Use to give advice and make recommendations. - For example: - I think you shouldn’t lazy to do your homework. - We should wake up in early morning because we must go to school. • Should is used for advice in the present. • Should is used for advice in the past. • For negative advice. Should
  6. 6. Ought to - Similar to should but less common speech and usually not used in negative way - For example: - You ought not to steal your mother’s money. - You ought to study hard for the bright future. • For negative advice
  7. 7. Had better - Stronger and more urgent than should or ought to, so it used to give stronger advice and warning - For example: - It looks like rain, you had better take an umbrella. - She had better hurry up because the train leaves in 5 minutes. • For negative advice
  8. 8. Obligation Modal Verbs OF
  9. 9. Obligation • OBLIGATION means something by which a person is obliged to do, and which arises out of a sense of duty or results from custom, law, and so on. • We can use • - have to + infinitive (V.1) • - must + infinitive (V.1) • - should + infinitive (V.1) • to express obligation (Something you have to do)
  10. 10. Have to / Don't have to Positive Obligation Negative Obligation ☀ Use for strong obligation ☀ This is usually referring to a rule or law Examples: -Children have to go to school. -You have to be careful with scissors. ☀ Use "Don't have to" to show something that is not necessary Examples: -I don't have to work on Sundays. -You don't have to eat anything you don't like.
  11. 11. Had to / Didn't have to Positive Obligation Negative Obligation ☀ Obligation in the past Example: -I had to wear a school uniform when I was a child. ☀ No obligation in the past Example: -We didn't have to go to school on Saturdays.
  12. 12. Must (Must Have) / Mustn't Positive Obligation Negative Obligation ☀ Strong obligation (possibly based on the speaker's opinion) : I must study today. ☀ It is formal and normally used in writing :You must use a pencil on the test. ☀ Logic/Certainty or strong probability. : She must be hungry because she has not eaten for 2 days. ☀ MUST HAVE: use in supposition : I can't find my laptop, I must have left it in the train. ☀ "Must not" shows something that is prohibited Examples: -You mustn't smoke here. -You mustn’t eat in the computer room. (Food in the computer room is prohibited.)
  13. 13. SPECIAL EXAMPLE • Take care to distinguish correctly between "had to" and "must have" • They had to go to Thailand. = They were obliged to go to Thailand. Vs. • They must have gone to Thailand. = In my opinion, they have certainly gone to Thailand.
  14. 14. Should have + past participle / Shouldn't have + past participle Positive Obligation Negative Obligation ☀ A past action which didn't happen. Example: -You should have gone to bed earlier, now you have missed the train. ☀ A past action which didn't happen. Example: -You shouldn't have taken that job, it was a bad idea.
  15. 15. SPECIAL EXAMPLE • Here is an example of the difference between 'have to' and 'must': • -My doctor said that I have to stop smoking or I'll risk serious problems. (I have no choice) Vs. • -I must stop smoking. It’s costing me too much money. (It’s my decision)
  16. 16. NOTE TO SELF: • Be careful about the difference between don't have to and mustn't! • Don't have to means you don't need to do something, but it's fine if you want to do it: • -I don't have to get up early at the weekend (of course, if I want to get up early, that's fine, but I can stay in bed if I want). • Mustn't means it's not allowed, or it's a bad idea: • -You mustn't eat so much chocolate, you'll be sick.
  17. 17. Should (Ought to) / Shouldn't Positive Obligation Negative Obligation Mild obligation Advice Logic/Conclusion Examples: -You should save some money. -I ought to get a haircut Mild negative obligation Advice Examples: -You shouldn't smoke so much. Should and ought to are more or less synonymous Example: -You should stop smoking. = You ought to stop smoking.
  18. 18. Permission Modal Verbs OF
  19. 19. Definition of PERMISSION : the right or ability to do something that is given by someone who has the power to decide if it will be allowed or permitted
  20. 20. Ask For Permission • We often use “can” to ask for permission. Ex. Can I go home now? Can we eat this pizza? • Could is more formal and polite than can. Ex. Could I play a video games? Could I smoke at the school? • May is another more formal and polite way. Ex. May I go to shopping? May I drink water?
  21. 21. Give Permission • We also often use “can” to give permission Ex. You can go home now. You can eat this pizza. • Could is more formal and polite than can, and we use could to say that something was permitted in the past Ex. You could play a video games . You could smoke at the school 15 years ago. • May is more formal and polite way to give permission Ex. You may go shopping. You may drink water.
  22. 22. Refusing Permission • We use “can’t” to say that something isn’t permitted. Ex. You can’t go how now. You can’t eat this pizza. • We use “couldn’t” to say that something was not permitted in the past. Ex. You couldn’t smoke in the bus. You couldn’t do exercise in the toilet. • We can also use “may” to say that something isn’t permitted too. Ex. No, you may not.
  23. 23. TEST YOURSELF • You don’t look very well, you __________ go to work. had better not
  24. 24. TEST YOURSELF • Mrs. Johnnie's body was found in the lounge just moments ago, and it's still warm! Nobody has left the mansion this evening, so the killer ______ be someone in this room. It ______ be any one of us!!! must could
  25. 25. TEST YOURSELF • She __________ get up early today, because it's Sunday. doesn’t have to
  26. 26. TEST YOURSELF • You ______ tell anyone what I just told you. It's a secret. mustn’t
  27. 27. TEST YOURSELF • Ned: ______ I borrow your lighter for a minute? Sarah: Sure, no problem. Actually, you ______ keep it if you want to. I've given up smoking. Can can
  28. 28. Thank you for listening. Jitrapa Leetanasaksakul No.3 Tanasorn Pajchim No.7 Apichaya Wanwaisart No.11

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