Chapter 11 Weather and Climate lesson slides published
CHAPTER 11WEATHER AND CLIMATE
Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• to differentiate between weather and climate• about the use and siting of weather instruments• to compare weather and climatic data to understand weather and climatic variations• about the distribution and characteristics of the world’s major climatic types• how weather and climate affect people positively and negatively
It varies from place to place• Places nearer the Equator are warmer throughout the year than places farther away from it• The increase in distance away from the from the Equator is known as Latitude.
It varies from place to place• Temperature gets cooler as we go to higher grounds• As the Altitude gets higher, the Temperature gets lower• Give me 1 location in Malaysia that is influence by Altitude.
• Air temperature is measured with a thermometer• The scale is in degree Celsius (OC)• Daily maximum temperature refers to the highest temperature reading for the day• Daily minimum temperature refers to the lowest temperature reading for the day
A Minimum and Maximum Thermometer ( Six’s Thermometer)Minimum thermometer Maximum thermometer Contains alcohol mercury and a metal indexMeasure the minimum Temperature rises>temperature mercury expands Why is alcohol used? mercury pushes the index up Temperature falls > mercury contracts and stays in place How do you reset t he thermometer?
How do we read thetemperature using a Six’s thermometer?
• What is the minimum and maximum temperature shown in the thermometer on the right? Minimum temp = 13 oC Maximum temp = 32 oC• By taking the bottom of the index.
Where are thethermometers placed to measure temperature?
•Stevenson Screen Parts Why1 White in color reflects heat2 Louvres allows air to flow freely through it3 Raised above shelters the instruments form ground the heat radiating from the ground4 Face north Do not get the direct heat and south from the sun
Where should aStevenson Screen be located and why?
•Describe thelocations ofthe StevensonScreen on the
Where is the best location to place a Stevenson Screen in School
A: In an open field– Air will circulate easily in the Stevenson Screen asthe Screen is in an open space and is far awayfrom buildings.B: Within the school– Heat within the building may affect theinstruments inside the Screen.– The Screen may be disturbed by people. Eg People may open the Screen door and this will affect the reading of the instruments.
C: Under the trees– The Screen will be in the shade, protected fromdirect sunlight.– Air may not circulate freely under the trees.D: On the basketball court– Instruments inside the Screen may be affectedby the heat from the ground.– People in the basketball court may disturb theScreen. Ans: Choice A best fulfills the criteria set for the siting of a Stevenson Screen.
Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• Definition of rainfall.• How it is rainfall formed• How is rainfall measured.
Why do we study rainfall? Too much? Too little? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1BgYeepNlE&feature=re lated
Definition of rainfall• refers to the amount of rain that an area receives over a period of time•It is measured in millimetres (mm) or centimetres (cm)
How is rain formed 3 Condensation 2 Transpiration 4 Rain or snow falls 1 Evaporation
How is rainfall measured? • A rain gauge is an instrument used to measure rainfall
Rain Gauge • Parts of a rain gauge: Funnel Copper Cylinder Outer CasingGround Glass bottle
Calculating Rainfall• Daily rainfall refers to the amount of rain thatfalls over 24 hours• Monthly rainfall refers to the total amount of rainwater collected throughout the month• Annual rainfall is the total amount of rainwater collected throughout the year
Rainfall Map(Refer to textbook page 142) •Rainfall map shows the distribution of annual rainfall in a place for a period of time
•Refer to textbook page 142 CVSS isohyets •Name 1 location that has the same amount of rainfall as CVSS •Name 1 location that has less amount of rainfall than CVSS •Name 1 location that has more amount of rainfall than CVSS
• Temperature isdisplayed as a linegraph in aclimograph• Rainfall isdisplayed as barin a climograph
• Rain Gauge• Look at the two photographs below, describe the locations of the rain gauge?
• Discuss in pair: (5 minutes)1. Which is the most suitable location to place a Rain Gauge. Give Two reasons for your answer2. Explain why the other sites are not suitable?
Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• Definition of wind.• How it is wind formed?• How to read wind directions?• Where should a wind vane be sited?• How to read a wind rose?
WindWhy do we study wind? Too much? Too Little?
Definition of wind:• Wind is defined as the movement of air overthe surface of the Earth.
How is wind formed?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itj-x1XhzQo&feature=related
• The Earth is heated up at a differentrate.• Warm air expands and rises up whilecool air condenses and sinks.• Low Pressure is formed when warm airrise.•Cool air will move in from area of highpressure to replace the warm air thatrises.•Wind if formed when cool air blows fromarea of high to area of low pressure.
How is wind direction measured?• Wind direction is given by the compass point of North, South, East and West.• A wind vane is used to measure the direction of the wind.
How is wind direction measured?• The pointer on the wind vane points to the direction that the wind is blowing from. SE N
Where should the wind vane be sited tomeasure the wind directions accurately?• A wind vane is usually placed on a high, open place with little or no obstruction to the flow of wind
Where should the wind vane be sited tomeasure the wind directions accurately? B C A
Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• To compare weather and climatic data to understand weather and climatic variations• About the distribution and characteristics of the world’s major climatic types
Major Climatic Types of the World• Temperature and rainfall are commonly used to classify different climates of the world• Three broad types of the world’s climates Tropical Temperate Polar• A climograph is used to present the climatic data of a place
Climograph:Describe the key information that you canderive from the climograph of Singaporeshown below.
Climograph: 11. Location of the place 22. Latitude of the place3. Months ( J,F,M,A……..) 4 54. Temperature (o C )5. Amount of Precipitation (mm or cm) 3
Climograph: • A line graph shows the mean monthly temperature during the year • A bar graph shows the average precipitation for each month
Climograph: • What is the average annual temperature for Singapore? • What is the total annual rainfall for Singapore? •What is the annual temperature range?
Major Climatic Types of the World- Tropical Climate• Places with a tropic climate Lie on or near the Equator In the region known as the Tropics, between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5oN) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5oS)
Major Climatic Types of the World- Tropical Climate• Places with a tropic climate o o Experience high temperatures ranging from 20 C to 30 C Receive almost the same amount of sunlight all year around Receive high annual rainfall ranging from 1000 to 2000 millimetres or more Has a small annual temperature range.• Characteristics of places with a tropical climate: High temperature and high rainfall throughout the year Hot and wet climate eg Singapore, Malaysia, Brazil and Kenya
Major Climatic Types of the World- Temperate Climate• Places with a temperate climate Lie between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5oN) and Arctic Circle (66.5oN), and between the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5oS) and Antarctic Circle (66.5oS)
Major Climatic Types of the World- Temperate Climate• Places with a temperate climate Experience four seasons every year: spring, summer, autumn (or fall) and winter Receive different amounts of sunlight in different periods of the year hence, temperatures vary greatly throughout the year Annual rainfall is moderate(300 to 1000 millimetres)• Characteristics of places with a temperate climate Low to Moderate temperatures dependingon the seasonModerate rainfall throughout the year Examples: Korea, Japan and the United States of America
Major Climatic Types of the World- Polar Climate• Places with a polar climate o o Lie between Arctic Circle (66.5 N) and the North Pole (90 N), o o and between Antarctic Circle (66.5 S) and the South Pole (90 S)
Major Climatic Types of the World- Polar Climate• Places with a polar climate Experience only summer and winter From March to September: the North Pole receives six months of continual sunshine while the South Pole faces six months of darkness Are very dry because the air lacks water vapour for the formation of clouds and rain or snow• Characteristics of places with a polar climate Very low temperatures (often below freezing point) and rainfall throughout the year eg Arctic, Antarctica, Northern Canada and Siberia
• Guide to describe the climate of a place :1. Describe the temperature.2. Describe the total annual rainfall.3. Describe the annual temperature range.4. Describe any distinct rainfall or temperature if they are present. E.g. Hot and wet, four seasons etc.
Major Climatic Types of the World-Practise time:Base on the climographs provided in the next slide:a. Describe the climate of the locations.b. Identify the type of climate associated withthe locations.
Major Climatic Types of the World-Climograph 1 Climograph 2 Climograph 3
Major Climatic Types of the World- Climograph 1 1. It has low to moderate temperature depending on the season. In winter, the temperature is around -10oC and 22oC in the summer. 2. It has a low annual rainfall of less than 1000mm 3. It has a large annual temperature range of about 32 oC 4. It has 4 seasons. 5. It probably has a Temperate climate.
Major Climatic Types of the World- Climograph 2 1. It has high temperature averaging 27 degree Celsius. 2. It has a small annual temperature range of about 2 to 3 degree Celsius. 3. Its has high annual rainfall of more than 2000mm 4. This place is hot and wet. 5. It has no season. 6. It probably has a Tropical Equatorial climate.
Major Climatic Types of the World- Climograph 3 1. It has very low temperature throughout the whole year. ( -28oC to - 3oC 2. It has very low rainfall throughout the year with an annual rainfall of less 300mm 3. It has a large annual temperature range of about 25oC 4. It probably experience summer and winter only 5. It probably has a Polar climate.
Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• how weather and climate affect humans positively and negatively.
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Study the photographs on the next slide 1st row to look at picture A 2nd row to look at picture B 3rd row to look at picture C 4th row to look at picture D 5th row to look at picture E 6th and 7th row to look at picture F• Write down on the same piece of paper earlier: Describe any activities or things that caught your attention on the photographs Describe how they can be related to climate and weather?
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Daily activities Weather will determine whether we stay indoorsor participate in outdoor activities.
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• The Daily activities Weather will determine the types of activities wecan engage in.
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Housing The locations people choose to live in. People prefer to live in places where it is neithertoo hot nor too cold.
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Housing The climate will also influence the types ofhousing people live in. eg In many Southeast Asian countries, housesare built on stilts to prevent water from damagingtheir property during floods
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Tourism The different climates experienced around theworld encourage tourism
How Weather and Climate Affect Us•Production of electricity Modern-day windmills harness the energy from thewind to generate electricity. Solar energy is harness from the sun to generateelectricity. Hydroelectric power is harness from fast-movingwater to generate electricity.
How Weather and Climate Affect Us•Production of electricity The wind, water and sun are known as renewableresources. Can be naturally restored or replenished Petroleum, natural gas and coal arenon-renewable resources
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Food and water supplies Different crops thrive under different climaticconditions
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Food and water supplies Changes in the climate will affect crops andanimals e.g a drought will destroy crops and reduce watersupplies which can result in a famine and affectlivestock
How Weather and Climate Affect Us•Loss of lives and property Extreme weather conditions can destroy manylives and property e.g. floods, heat waves andhurricanes
Spend 3 minutes to answer these questions EXIT SLIP: Describe any 3 ways that weather and climate can affect us: Something that I still do not understand is :