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  1. 1. LEPTOSPIROSIS<br />Causative Agent<br />Incubation Period<br />Mode of Transmission<br />Clinical Manifestations<br />Diagnosis and Treatment<br />Nursing Management<br />
  2. 2. Also called as Weils Disease, Mud Fever, Trench Fever, Flood Fever, Spiroketal Jaundice, Japanese Seven Days Fever<br />It is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by bacteria leptospires. <br />Rat is the main host to leptospirosis although pigs, cattles, rabbits, hare, skunk and other wild animals serve as reservoir hosts.<br />It is an occupational disease affecting veterinarians, miners, farmers, sewer workers, etc.<br />What is Leptospirosis?<br />
  3. 3. 1. Leptospiremic phase- leptospires are present in the blood and Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF). Onset of signs and symptoms are abrupt with fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, cough and chest pain.<br />2. Immune phase- correlates with the appearance of circulation IgM.<br />Clinical Phases<br />
  4. 4. Leptospira interrogans – gram negative, fine spiral bacteria 0.1um in diameter and 6-20 um in length. Locomotion is achieved in a fluid medium by a whirling motion around the longitudinal axis and by a serpentine or corkscrew motion in a semisolid medium.<br />Causative Agent<br />
  5. 5. Ranges from 7-19 days, with average of 10 days.<br />Incubation Period<br />
  6. 6. Entry of the leptospira bacteria <br />through wounds when in contact <br />with flood waters, vegetation, <br />moist soil contaminated with the <br />urine of infected animals, <br />especially rats.<br />Mode of Transmission<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Fever<br />Non-specific symptoms of muscle pain, headache<br />Severe cases result to liver involvement, kidney failure or brain involvement.  Thus some cases may have yellowish body discoloration, dark-colored urine and light stools, low urine output, severe headache.<br />Clinical Manifestations<br />
  9. 9. By presenting clinical manifestations<br />Culture <br />Blood and CSF examination during the first week <br />Urine examination on the 10th day<br />Diagnosis<br />
  10. 10. Antibiotics duly prescribed by a physician.<br />Penicillins and other B- lactam antibiotics (PCN at 2M units q6H IM/IV)<br />Tetracycline (Doxycycline at 100mg q12H PO)<br />Erythromycin (500mg q12H PO) – if allergic to Penicillin<br />Early recognition and treatment within two days of illness to prevent complications of leptospirosis, so early consultation is advised.<br />Treatment<br />
  11. 11. Provide education to clients telling them to avoid swimming or wading in potentially contaminated water or flood water.<br />Use of proper protection like boots and gloves when work requires exposure to contaminated water.<br />Drain potentially contaminated water when possible.<br />Nursing Management<br />
  12. 12. Control rats in the household by using rat traps or rat poison, maintaining cleanliness in the house.<br />Isolate the patient and concurrent disinfection of soiled articles.<br />Report all cases of leptospirosis. <br />Chemoprophylaxis can be done in a group of high risk infected hosts.<br />