Tools and Techniques for Project Management professional
Tools and Techniques for Project Management professional
Some people argue that building the Egyptian pyramids was a project, as was building the Great
Wall of China. Most people consider the Manhattan Project to be the first project to use modern
project management. This three-year, most projects had a separate project manager. All
management is concerned with these, of course. But project management brings a unique focus
shaped by the goals, resources and schedule of each project. The value of that focus is proved by
the rapid, worldwide growth of project management. Describe project management and discuss
key elements of the project management framework, including project stakeholders, the project
management knowledge areas, common tools and techniques, and project success
Many organizations today have a new or renewed interest in project management. “The
world as a whole spends nearly $10 trillion of its $40.7 trillion gross product on projects of all
kinds. More than 16 million people regard project management as their profession”
Project management is the application of knowledge, skills and techniques to execute
projects effectively and efficiently. It’s a strategic competency for organizations, enabling them
to tie project results to business goals and thus, better compete in their markets
A project is “a temporary endeavor(i.e., effort) undertaken to create a unique product,
service, or result(Mulcahy, 2011, p. 23).
Group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not
available from managing them individually(Mulcahy, 2011, p. 23).
Project Management Process
The Initiation Phase consists of the processes that facilitate the formal authorization to start a
new project or a project phase.
Information is gathered from many sources with each having varying levels of completeness
and confidence. The planning processes identify, define and mature the project scope, project
cost, and schedule the project activities.
The execution phase aims at completing the work defined during the Planning Phase to
accomplish the project’s requirements.
Monitoring and Control
This phase is related to observing project execution so that potential problems can be
identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the
execution of a project.
This phase is related to the formal termination of all activities of a project or a project phase,
hand-off the completed product to others or close a cancelled project.
Project Management knowledge Area
Integration Management Plan
Task of the Project Integration Management is to describe and organize all processes and
activities needed to identify, combine, unify, and coordinate the various process and project
management activities within the Project Management Process Groups. It's the knowledge area
of handling those different aspects, which must be integrated into the big picture. Therefore
"integration is making choices about where to concentrate resources and effort on any given day,
anticipating potential issues, dealing with these issues before the become critical, and
coordinating work for the overall project good"(Mulcahy, 2011, p. 126)
Develop charter. It's the collection of all those specifications the external people and
organizations want to be fulfilled by the project. In the last sense, it's a widely spreaded wish list.
Develop project management plan. The Preliminary Project Scope Statement is the first
answer of the project manager to the external units (project owner, sponsor, stakeholders) who
enjoin the project targets. But it is not necessarily the (final) commitment of the project manager:
In a strict sense the preliminary project scope statement shows the project owner what the project
manager has understood, not what the project manager really will delive.
Direct and manage work. The project manager commits himself on the base of the project
management plan: The project management plan must be developed by a process which is
constituted by many sub processes being member of different knowledge areas.
Perform integrated change control. Is the process for "reviewing all change requests,
approving changes, and controlling changes to the deliverables and organizational assets
"(Mulcahy, 2011, p. 137).
"Control and monitor work "Monitoring includes collecting, measuring, and disseminating
performance information, and assessing measurements and trends to effect process
improvements"(Mulcahy, 2011, p. 831).
Close project. After having executed all process activities finally the project has to be closed by
documenting and communicating the deliveries.
Scope Management Plan
Scope involves getting information required to start a project, and the features the product
would have that would meet its stakeholders requirements.
Plan scope management. Is the process which generates the Project Scope Management Plan.
And this Project Scope Management Plan (which itself naturally is part of the project
management plan) " documents how the project scope will be defined, verified, controlled, and
how the work break down structure (WBS) will be created and defined "(Mulcahy, 2011, p. 863).
Collect requirements. The detail contained within the requirements that lead to a clear
understanding of what is needed to satisfy the stakeholders so that their expectations can be
managed. This key documentation is the touchstone from which the schedule, budget, quality
specifications, resource plans, and risks emanate from.
Define scope. Is the process which generates (refines) the Project Scope Statement
Create WBS. Work Breakdown Structure is the process which "subdivides the major project
deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components"(Mulcahy, 2011, p.
Validate scope. Is the process by which the project manager gets “the formalized acceptance of
the completed project deliverables “(Mulcahy, 2011, p. 811). The scope of the project in its
inherent sense is the work that must be done to meet the required targets.
Control scope. The process of "controlling changes to the project scope" “(Mulcahy, 2011, p.
118). Naturally the project management has to manage scope changes too. The world is a
collection of changes. Therefore changes are allowed. But they must be integrated into the
existing project scope statement by refering to a defined change process. Undocumented 'by the
way'-changes are not state of the art. Hence scope control is both: avoiding of "unaccepted" new
work packages and integrating "accepted" new work packages into the project scope statement
and/or into the WBS “(Mulcahy, 2011, p. 818)
Time Management Plan
The project time management has to describe and execute all those processes required to
accomplish timely completion of the project. And like the other knowledge areas the Project
Time Management contains an internal structure following the pattern of plan, execute, and
Plan schedule management. On the one hand one has to estimate the nescessary resources of
the activities.On the other hand one has to estimate the duration of the activities. Having all these
information one can create the project schedule as big picture.
Define activities. Is the process of " identifying the the specific schedule activities that need to
be performed to produce the various project deliverables" (Mulcahy, 2011, p. 122). This process
identifies the deliverables at the lowest level in the work breakdown structure which is the level
of "work packages". Each work package is planned (decomposed) into smaller components
called schedule activities to provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, and monitoring
and controlling the project work
Sequence activities. Identifying and documenting dependencies among schedule activities
"logical relationships"(Mulcahy, 2011, p. 128).
Estimate activity resource. Estimating the type and quantities of resources required to perform
each schedule activity.
Estimate activity duration. Estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to
perform each schedule activity.
Developschedule. Is the process of "analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource
requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule"(Mulcahy, 2011, p.
186).Putting all components together, one gets not only the order of the tasks, but also the
durance and the needed resources.
Control schedule. Controlling changes to the project schedule.
Cost Management Plan
As already mentioned the project cost management has to describe and execute all those
processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, and controlling costs so that the project
can be completed within the approved budget. And naturally there exists also an intrinsic order
following the pattern plan, execute, and control.
Plan cost management. Cost management is the process of planning and controlling the budget
of a business. Cost management is a form of management accounting that allows a business to
predict impending expenditures to help reduce the chance of going over budget.
Estimate costs. Is the process of "developing an approximation of the costs of the resources
needed to complete the project activities". Cost estimating is part of the Project Cost
Management which " includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, and
controlling costs so that project can be completed within the approved budget" (Mulcahy, 2011,
Determine budget. Is the process for "aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or
work packages to establish a cost baseline, it has to establish a total cost baseline for measuring
project performance" (Mulcahy, 2011, p. 161). The estimated costs of individual schedule
activities or work packages.
Control cost. Influencing the factors that create cost variances and controlling changes to the
Quality management plan
At first one has to plan the quality by identifying which quality standards are relevant to the
project and determining how to satisfy them.
Plan quality management. “Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and
determining how to satisfy them” (Site, 1993, p. 5).
Perform quality assurance. Is the process for "applying the planned, systematic quality
activities to ensure that the project employs all processes needed to met the requirements"
(PMBOK3 Guide, p. 179). This process itself is a meta process: It has to improve products and
processes following the rule that "continuous process improvement provides an iterative means
for improving the quality of all processes" (PMBOK3 Guide, p. 187).
Perform quality control. Is the process for "monitoring specific project results to determine
whether the comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of
unsatisfactory performance" (PMBOK3 Guide, p. 179). "Quality standards include project
processes and product goals" (PMBOK3 Guide, p. 190).
Human Resource Management plan
The project human resource management has the task to organize and manage the project
Develophuman resource plan. “Identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities,
and reporting relationships, as well as creating the staffing management plan" (PMBOK3 Guide,
p. 199). The main task of this process is the creation of the staffing management plan.
Acquire project team. “Obtaining the human resources needed to complete the project”
(PMBOK3 Guide, p. 199). The main task is to generate the project staff assignments.
Developproject team. “Improving the competencies and interaction of team members to
enhance project performance, which particularly includes the improvement of skills and the
improvement of feelings of trust and cohesiveness among team members(Jackson, 2009, p. 70).
Manage project team. Tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving
issues, and coordinating changes to enhance project performance( Heller, 2002, p. 100).
Risk Management plan
Includes the processes concerned with conducting risk management planning, identification,
analysis, responses, and monitoring and control on a project.
Plan risk management. Is the process for "deciding how to approach, plan, and execute the risk
managment activities for a project” (Royer, 2001, p. 35). The main task of planning the risk
management is "to ensure that the level, type, and visibility of risk management are
commensurate with both the risk and the importance of the project to the organization "
(PMBOK3 Guide, p. 242).Project risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a
positive or a negative effect on at least one project objective. A risk may have one or more
causes and, if it occurs, one or more impacts.
Identify risk. “Should be continually reassessed By Documentation Reviews: Including the
charter, contracts, and planning documentation, can help identify risks. Information Gathering
Techniques: Delphi technique, Interviewing, Root cause, analysis” (Khatta, 2008, p. 250).
Perform qualitative risk plan. It involves creating a short list of the previously identified risks.
Determine whether the project should be selected, continued, or terminated. The probability and
The impact of each risk occurring, using a standard scale such as Low, Medium, High
Perform quantitative risk plan. Involves a numerical analysis of the probability and impact.
The amount the risks moved to this process from qualitative risk analysis. Qualitative risk
analysis rating for a risk like 5.
Plan risk responses. Do something to eliminate the threats before they happen.To make sure the
opportunities happen. Decrease the probability and or impact of threats. Increase the probability
and /or impact of opportunities.
Monitor and control risks. Look for the occurrence of risk triggers. Identify new risks and then
analyze and plan for them. Communicate with stakeholders about risks. Ensure proper risk
management procedures are being followed. Revisit the watch list to see if additional risk
responses need to be –desterilized. Look at the changes, to see if they lead to identifying more
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge.(2004). PMBOK3 Guide, 3rd.
Pennsylvania (USA): Project Management Institute.
Royer, S, P.(2001).Project risk management proactive approach. Vienna: Management Concepts.
Khatta, R, S. (2008). Risk management. New Delhi: Global India.
Heller, R. (2002). Manager’s handbook. London: Dorling Kindersley.
Jackson, M. (2009). Human resource management. Mason (USA): South-Western.
Site, I. (1993). Planning quality management. London: Thomas Telford services.
Mulcahy, R. (2013). Pmp exam prep. USA: RMC