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Team Motivation
A Historical Perspective
Motivation is always a good thing
2
3
Motivation is always a good thing
 Increased productivity
4
Motivation is always a good thing
 Increased productivity
 Higher profits
5
Motivation is always a good thing
 Increased productivity
 Higher profits
 A happier workforce
6
Motivation is always a good thing
 Increased productivity
 Higher profits
 A happier workforce
 More cohesive teams
7
Motivation is always a good thing
 Increased productivity
 Higher profits
 A happier workforce
 More cohesive teams
 Reduced absenteeism
8
First, let’s give a brief historical sketch
of factors that have influenced the study
of workplace motivation.
Agrarian societies are characterized
by …
• Stability
• Family-run operations
• Simple tools
9
The Industrial Revolution was
characterized by …
• The steam engine
• Urbanization
• Mass Production
10
F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns
of inefficiency.
1
 Conformity to group norms.
F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns
of inefficiency.
1
 Conformity to group norms.
 Patterns from pre-industrial age.
F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns
of inefficiency.
1
 Conformity to group norms.
 Patterns from pre-industrial age.
 Zero-sum labor availability.
F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns
of inefficiency.
1
 Conformity to group norms.
 Patterns from pre-industrial age.
 Zero-sum labor availability.
 No incentive for increased output.
The absence of ambition
was viewed as a virtue.
15
Efforts to rise above the crowd were
interpreted as social treason.
16
Rising leaders faced social pressures
to return to their equalized status
within the group.
17
1
Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—
would bring …
 Objectivity
1
Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—
would bring …
 Objectivity
 Structure
2
Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—
would bring …
 Objectivity
 Structure
 Efficiency
2
Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—
would bring …
 Objectivity
 Structure
 Efficiency
 Training
2
Taylor’s Solution—Scientific
Management—would bring …
 Objectivity
 Structure
 Efficiency
 Training
 Matching the worker to the job
But Weber saw a problem …
How can organizations operate
rationally and systematically?
23
2
According to Weber …
Untested Personal Opinions should be replace by …
2
Untested Personal Opinions should be replace by …
Proven
Rules
2
Charismatic or Traditional Authority
should be replaced by …
2
Charismatic or Traditional Authority
should be replaced by …
Rational-legitimate
authority
Political favoritism should be replaced by ….
28
2
Political favoritism should be replaced by ….
Selection by
Competence
3
Weber called this innovative management system …
Bureaucra
cy
The Critics
According to some, Scientific Management was …
“the attempt to make human work productive by
eliminating the employees’ responsibility for their own
work and concentrating it in the hands of a science-based
managerial elite.”
Hardy, L. (1990). The fabric of this world: Inquiries into
calling, career choice, & the design of human work.
Grand Rapids: MI: William B. Eerdmans.
31
The Critics
“Small opportunity is now given the workman to exercise
that initiative of which Mr. Taylor talks so glibly.”
Letter to the American Magazine, 1911, Cited in Dean, C. C.
(1997) Primer of scientific management by Frank B.
Gilbreth: A response to publication of Taylor's principles in
The American Magazine. Journal of Management History
3(1), 31-41.
32
Weber Sensed the Need for Something
More …
“The fate of our times is characterized by rationalization
and intellectualization and, above all, by the
disenchantment of the world. Precisely the ultimate and
most sublime values have retreated from public life
either into the transcendental realm of mystic life or
into the brotherliness of direct and personal human
relations. It is not accidental that our greatest art is
intimate and not monumental.” –Max Weber
Source: The Columbia World of
Quotations, 1996.
33
3
Abraham Maslow
developed a
framework for
understanding this
“something more.”
3
The framework involved
a pyramid (or hierarchy)
of human needs.
Physiological
3
The framework involved
a pyramid (or hierarchy)
of human needs.
Safety
(Security)
3
Physiolog
ical
3
The framework involved
a pyramid (or hierarchy)
of human needs.
Social
(Affiliation)
3
Safety
(Security)
Physiologica
l
4
The framework involved
a pyramid (or hierarchy)
of human needs.
Esteem
(Recognition)
Social
(Affiliation)
4
Safety
(Security)
Physiological
4
The framework involved
a pyramid (or hierarchy)
of human needs.
Self-
Actualization
Esteem
4
(Recogni
tion)
Social
(Affiliatio
n) Safety
(Security)
Physiological
4
Other researchers began to focus on the
emotional or “softer”
side of organizational
behavior.
4
Mary Parker Follett
Saw the importance of relationships.
Advocated employee participation.
Recommended power sharing.
4
Elton Mayo …
Studied workplace environment.
Discovered the relationship factor.
4
Lillian Gilbreth discovered …
That wages are not the only motivators.
The importance of affirmation.
The importance of communication.
The value of training in “emotion work.”
4
Graham, L. (2000) Lilian Gilbreth & the mental revolution at Macy's,
1925-1928. Journal of
Management History 6(7), 285-305.
4
Douglass McGregor brought a new dimension to
the study of worker motivation . . .
the manager's perspective
on the nature of people.
5
McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
5
Theory X Sees People as …
• Lazy
• Irresponsible
• Lacking in ambition
• Needing someone to prod
and control them.
5
Theory Y Sees
People as …
• Intrinsically motivated
• Responsible
• Enjoying work
• Highly productive …
when empowered
5
Researchers began to notice that
motivation has a
two-dimensional character.
B =f (P, S)
Kurt Lewin
5
Researchers began to notice that
motivation has a
two-dimensional character.
Individual behavior (B)
is a function of (f) psychological
factors (P) and the work
situation (S)
Kurt Lewin
5
Rensis Likert discovered that
close supervision often reduces
motivation.
Number of First-Line Supervisors Who Use . . .
Close Supervision General Supervision
High-Producing Sections 1 9
8 4
Low-Producing Sections
5
Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. H. & Johnson, D. E. (1996). Management of organizational
behavior (7th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 109.
Two-Dimensional Management
50
5
Two-Dimensional Management
Concern for Productivity
5
Conce
rn
for
People
Two-Dimensional Management
Concern for Productivity
5
Conce
rn
for
People
Two-Dimensional Management
No
Relationshi
p
(Indiffere
Concern for Productivity
5
No
Relationship
Command
and
(Indifferenc
e) Relationshi
p
Conce
rn
for
People
Two-Dimensional Management
Control
Concern for Productivity
5
Paternalisti
c
Relationshi
p
No
Relationship
Command
and
(Indifferenc
e) Relationshi
p
Conce
rn
for
People
Two-Dimensional Management
Control
Concern for Productivity
5
Paternalisti
c
Empowerin
g
Relationshi
p
Relationshi
p
No
Relationship
Command
and
(Indifferenc
e) Relationshi
p
Conce
rn
for
People
Two-Dimensional Management
Control
Concern for Productivity
5
So, what are the motivational
issues of the future?
Ethical Leadership
58
Globalization
59
Virtual teams
60
Information
Overload
61
Spirituality
& Meaning
62
Thank You

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