Analysis of problems and bpr implementation in evergreen landscaping and maintenance company

2,679 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,679
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
61
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Analysis of problems and bpr implementation in evergreen landscaping and maintenance company

  1. 1. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 3 Core Business segment ............................................................................................................................. 3 Retail ......................................................................................................................................................... 4 Landscaping............................................................................................................................................... 4 Lawn care .................................................................................................................................................. 4 Key players ................................................................................................................................................ 5 Business operations and analyses of problems in Evergreen Maintenance Company ............................ 6 Business operations .................................................................................................................................. 6 Business operations work flow ................................................................................................................. 7 Analysis of the problems in evergreen ..................................................................................................... 8 Sales department ...................................................................................................................................... 8 Operations department ............................................................................................................................ 8 Administration department ...................................................................................................................... 8 Finance department.................................................................................................................................. 9 Management executive council (MEC) ..................................................................................................... 9 The fish bone diagram .............................................................................................................................. 9 Root causes identification....................................................................................................................... 11 Pareto Analysis ........................................................................................................................................ 12 Improper inventory management .......................................................................................................... 12 Improper logistic management............................................................................................................... 13 Improper warehouse management ........................................................................................................ 13 No effective data storage........................................................................................................................ 13 No teamwork .......................................................................................................................................... 14 Unskilled employees ............................................................................................................................... 14 Poor plant layout .................................................................................................................................... 14 Poor security ........................................................................................................................................... 14Business recommendation and potential solutions for problems identified in evergreen landscaping andMaintenance Company ............................................................................................................................... 15 Implementing business process re-engineering in evergreen landscaping and Maintenance Company ................................................................................................................................................................ 16 1|Page
  2. 2. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM) Define project ......................................................................................................................................... 17 Learn from others (customers, associates, benchmarking, and technology) ......................................... 17 Create vision and design new business process model .......................................................................... 17 Supply chain management...................................................................................................................... 19 Operational performance improvement ................................................................................................ 19 Process management.............................................................................................................................. 19 Business process integration .................................................................................................................. 19 Develop enabling technology architecture and organizational model ................................................... 19 Perform a gap analysis and prepare a business case for change (benefits and costs) ........................... 20 Define process, systems and training requirements, and plan implementation ................................... 20 Develop and pilot solutions .................................................................................................................... 20 Implement solution and measure performance ..................................................................................... 20Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 20 References .............................................................................................................................................. 21 2|Page
  3. 3. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM) ANALYSIS OF PROBLEMS AND BPR IMPLEMENTATION IN EVERGREEN LANDSCAPING AND MAINTENANCE COMPANYINTRODUCTIONEvergreen landscaping and Maintenance Company is a company with historical backgroundswhich lead to the present services provided by this company, as any organization it had the needfor growth and expansion of its products and services. The company provides services such asretail, lawn care and landscaping services to its customers. Every organization faces differenttypes of operational, managerial problems of different categories and it’s the duty of theorganization to rectify the problem in order to improve the quality of its product or services.Evergreen landscaping and maintenance Co. is a company that have prospect for the future andthis cannot be achieve if a positive action is not taken. This report will analyze and identify theroot causes of this company’s problems and proffer solutions to these problems, it will alsopropose a strategy that will prevent these problems from occurring in the future.Core Business segmentEvery organization or company in the world is known for a certain or various activitiesdepending on the nature of the company, therefore the core business segments identifies oranswer questions that roams in the minds of the customers or the public, the major question iswhat product or services do this company offers? So it’s very essential for a company to clearlyidentify its core business segments. Westerbeek and Smith (2005) 1defined core business as themain business of an enterprise as opposed to any ancillary business and it is the activity in whicha business generates its greatest income. Evergreen landscaping and Maintenance Company ischaracterize by three major core business segments which includes the following Retail Landscaping1http://books.google.com.my/books?id=N43SwFG2p7MC&pg=PA30&dq=Zook+and+Allen+core+business&hl=en&ei=HWDJTdmbGMXnrAe8uqiYBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=2&sqi=2&ved=0CD8Q6wEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Zook%20and%20Allen%20core%20business&f=false 3|Page
  4. 4. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM) Lawn careRetailThis is usually at the end of supply chain; retail refers to the sales of goods to end users for useor consumption not to be resold. It is quite obvious Evergreen major source of revenue is inretailing(see diagram 1) of products such as seeds, tools, fertilizer, basic landscaping materials,and pesticides from the company projections, current and completed fiscal year budget.LandscapingThis is also a major source of revenue for Evergreen; it involves certain activities that modifiesor improve the natural beauty of an environment. This company offers these activities as servicesto their consumers. These activities include creating different topology (land positioning andelevation) it also involves planting flowers and trees to your own taste.Lawn careThe grassy lawns of homes and businesses need regular maintenance. Lawn care contractors arethe professionals who perform these services. Lawn care contractors use mowers and tractors totrim grasses. Some lawn care contractors also apply manure treatments or chemicals toexterminate grubs or other pests. This is also a core business segment in Evergreen, and it isquite obvious that the services rendered by this company are interrelated. Below is the graphicalrepresentation of the of the fiscal year budget of Evergreen. Diagram 1 4|Page
  5. 5. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM) $30,000 $25,000 $20,000 $15,000 Sales $10,000 Expenses $5,000 Profit Profit $0 Expenses Retail Sales Landscaping Lawn care OtherSource: data from Evergreen complete fiscal year budgetThe above graph clearly reveals that retail business in Evergreen is the major source of revenue.This report has successfully analyzed the core business segment in Evergreen MaintenanceCompany, now it’s time to identify the key players in this company.Key playersIt is impossible for an organization to exist without individuals who are linked with the activitiesof the organization, these individuals could be within or outside the organization, and the mostimportant people involved in organization activities are the key players.NO KEY PLAYER FUNCTIONS 1. Lily Doucette, President Does medium and long term planning with the management executive council(policy matters) 2. Connie Somerset, Sales manager Makes projection of what will sell, set prices and also make 5|Page
  6. 6. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM) promotions (MEC) 3. Tulley Fix, Purchasing manager Handles paper works and does some buying 4. Heather Cariad, Vice president finance In charge of financial functions 5. Frances Harmone, Vice president Administration In charge of employees 6. Thomas Davidoff, Vice president operations Deals with operation and physical plant..Table 1Business operations and analyses of problems in Evergreen MaintenanceCompanyIt is certain that every organization most experience some sort of problems and organizations allover the world experience different and similar types of problems, this section of the report willgive detail analysis of the business operations and problems in Evergreen Company and identifythe root causes of the problems associated with the company.Business operationsBusiness operations varies in organizations due to the nature or type of business carried out inthe organization, for instance the business operations of a manufacturing company will be quitedifferent from a service company and even though a service rendering organization may havesimilarities with each other they still tend to have different ways or method of operations,because the type of operations is determined by the type of services rendered. Evergreen is aservice oriented company rendering retail, landscaping and lawn care services to its customers.The day to day activities which leads to accomplishing the main purpose of the organizations isreferred to as business operations. Below is a work flow of the business operations of EvergreenMaintenance Company. 6|Page
  7. 7. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Business operations work flowA workflow consist of sequential step, task, events, or interaction that comprise a work process,it simply shows the procedures involved in accomplishing the main purpose of an organization.Diagram 3 WORKFLOW OF EVERGREEN SALES MANAGER ASST MANAGER RETAIL Makes project Runs promotion ion of products and set prices Fills in the retail to be bought space ASST MANAGER CONTRACT SERVICES PURCHASING MANAGERFinds customer throughadvertisements in local newspapers and magazines Prepare the Looks for products necessary order form Negotiates contract Orders product from wholesale dealers and contract growers Alert operational manager to prepare for stocking items ASST OPERATIONAL MANAGER Moves all the stock using trucks Costumers TRANSPORT SUPERVISOR t 7|Page
  8. 8. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Analysis of the problems in evergreenIt was early stated in this report that every organization is faced with different or similarproblems such problems may be managerial or operational, and it’s the duty of the organizationto try and rectify these problems. The problems of evergreen will be analyzed using some basicproblem solving tools such as the fishbone diagram, Pareto analysis chart.. The problems will beidentified first before the fishbone diagram can be used to identify the root causes, therefore theproblems will be identified base on the operations of the departments of evergreen.Sales departmentThis is the department that carries out activities which involves sales in Evergreen and it has twomain branches retail and contract services. The problems faced by this department includes thefollowing Customer makes request that are usually out of stock The updates of inventories are out of dateOperations departmentThis department is responsible for all operational activities and physical plants in Evergreen, theactivities of this department is very vital to the company because it deals with delivering resultsand maintenance of physical plants of the company, the department is faced with problemswhich includes Lack of adequate storage facilities Poor security Transportation difficultyAdministration departmentThis department is in charge of employee’s welfare and development and also handling internalcommunication is the company. This department is experiencing problems such as High staff turnovers Lack of skilled employees No integration between employees the work and products 8|Page
  9. 9. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Finance departmentEvery organization or business deals with finance and financial functions such as investmentmanagement, cash flow, account receivable and various financial responsibilities. Evergreenfinance department is face with one major financial problem which is Money is tied up in inventoryManagement executive council (MEC)This is the council that’s responsible for top management decisions such as policy making, it’s acouncil made up of the vice presidents of each department, and this is very vital to the companybecause policies determine how the company will operate and functions. That means this councilserves as the top management of the company, and just like any management team stumble onproblems, evergreen top management problems includes Scare data in meetings Problems are being ignored Pet projects being revisited over and over New ideas are being ignoredThe fish bone diagramThis problem solving tool was invented by Dr Kaoru Ishikawa, a Japanese quality controlstatistician, it is also referred to as cause and effect diagram, because it is used to arrive at thepotential causes of problems and identifying their root causes. 9|Page
  10. 10. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM) PEOPLE ENVIRONMENT No integration Customers being High staffs turn over between employees scratch by cactus Children getting lost Seasonal staffs Some employees Poor layout consider themselves Poor layout above others Unskilled No team work THE PROCESS NOT SYSTEMATIC OR RELIABLEImproper warehouse Improper logistic managementmanagement Improper inventory No space in Trucks shortage management warehouse Inventory is outdated No effective data storage Storage Transportation shortage difficulties Most Products requested Scare data are out of stocks Poor security Stocks disposal Problems are being ignored in MEC meetings problem Green house Improper inventory target for management vandalism MACHINES/EQUIPMENTS Poor security Cart being stolen Money tied up in inventory PROCESS/METHODS Diagram 4 10 | P a g e
  11. 11. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Root causes identificationThe root causes of problems simply means the origin of the problems, from the fishbone diagramsome root causes of the problems of Evergreen have been identified the problems are listedbelowNo Problems Root causes Score 1. Stock disposal, and Improper logistic 65 Transportation management difficulty 2. Stock disposal, Improper warehouse 50 difficulty and storage management shortage 3. Most product request Improper inventory 80 out of stock, money management tied up in inventory 4. Problems being 45 ignored in MEC No effective data storage meetings 5. Cart being stolen, 10 Green house target for Poor security vandalism 6. No integration between 40 employees No teamwork 7. High staff turnover 35 among seasonal staff Unskilled employees 8. Children getting lost, Poor plant layout 12 customers being scratch by cactusTable 2 11 | P a g e
  12. 12. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Pareto Analysis Pareto chart 100.0% 97.0% 140 93.5% 90.0% 120 83.1% 80.0% 71.2% 70.0% 100 80 57.9% 60.0% score 80 65 50.0% 60 43.0% 40.0% 50 45 40 30.0% 40 35 23.7% 20.0% 20 12 10 10.0% 0 0.0% Root problemsDiagram 5Improper inventory managementInventory management refers to the processes which oversees the constant flow of goods in andout of the inventory, according to Wrice M (2004)2 inventory management is the planning andcontrol involved in marketing, the right merchandise at the right time, in the right place, in the2http://books.google.com.my/books?id=ddyEjQ9syvcC&pg=PA170&dq=inventory+management+is+the+planning+and+control+involved+in+marketing,+the+right+merchandise+at+the+right+time,+in+the+right+place,+in+the+right+quantities,+and+the+right+place.&hl=en&ei=zo3nTf-bBoq6vQOD2YnkDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CC8Q6wEwAA#v=onepage&q=inventory%20management%20is%20the%20planning%20and%20control%20involved%20in%20marketing%2C%20the%20right%20merchandise%20at%20the%20right%20time%2C%20in%20the%20right%20place%2C%20in%20the%20right%20quantities%2C%20and%20the%20right%20place.&f=false 12 | P a g e
  13. 13. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)right quantities, and the right place. Evergreen is stumbling on problems with regard to itsinventory, money is being tied down in the inventory and the inventory is outdated and theseproblems occurred due to improper inventory management.Improper logistic managementLogistic management have been defined by different authors, according to Sople V (2007)logistic management is basically an integrative process that optimizes the flow of materials andsupply to customers. While Schary P (2007)3 see it as “the corporate traffic cop” directing theflow of materials from source, through production and distribution, to the final customers,despite the differences in definitions logistic management as a common objective, which is to aidorganizations to be able to deliver products or services to customers when and where they wantthem. Evergreen landscaping and Maintenance Company is faced with this problem of stockdisposal and transportation and this problem was cause due to improper logistic management.This root cause can also increase cost and delay responsiveness to customers.Improper warehouse managementWarehouse management is a complete guide on how to manage warehouse operations and alsohow to improve warehouse productivity and reduce cost associated with its operations.Evergreen warehouse has no space to store large items; this really hinders the operations of thecompany in terms of delivery large items requested by customers.No effective data storageData is very importance and vital to any organization, because most policies decisions are madebase on the data available with regards to the subject matter. Evergreen is ignoring vitalproblems which need attention due to scare data, and any organization that is starved with datawhich is relevant to its decision making is bound to face obstacles in running the affairs of theorganization.3http://books.google.com.my/books?id=UswE24CnC3wC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=%E2%80%9Cthe+corporate+traffic+cop%E2%80%9D+directing+the+flow+of+materials+from+source,+through+production+and+distribution,+to+the+final+customers,&source=bl&ots=bAuN82vxhL&sig=X1Sc5VgxCtAMG7U_GsC_CFSBhBY&hl=en&ei=nI7nTZn5L4uCsQPp94nmDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%9Cthe%20corporate%20traffic%20cop%E2%80%9D%20directing%20the%20flow%20of%20materials%20from%20source%2C%20through%20production%20and%20distribution%2C%20to%20the%20final%20customers%2C&f=false 13 | P a g e
  14. 14. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)No teamworkEmployee’s involvement in any organization is very vital to any organizational business process,but the involvement differs from organization to organization based on the methods ofoperations, some are involved with teamwork while others are not. Teamwork according Brill(20054) as the work which is done by a group of people who posses individual expertise, who areresponsible for making individual decisions, who hold a common purpose and who meet togetherto communicate, share and consolidate knowledge from plans are made, future decisions areinfluenced, and action determined. Teamwork is absent in evergreen, due to this some problemswere stumbled upon.Unskilled employeesThese are the employees who do not have any training or skill with regards to the job they areengage in. Evergreen is experiencing high turnovers among the seasonal staff and the root causeof this problem is because most seasonal workers are unskilled.Poor plant layoutPlant layout is very vital to an organization, because it is the physical distribution of machines,tools, furniture, equipments; it simply means the physical distribution of the company ororganization. Evergreen layout is hindering the operations of the company, because someproblems such as children getting lost are problems associated with the plant layout.Poor securityEvergreen landscaping and Maintenance Company is battling with security related problemswhich include cart being stolen, green house being targets for vandalism, all these problems aresecurity related. So there is definitely a flaw in the security network of the company.4http://books.google.com.my/books?id=7rkYu8Q5xxsC&pg=PA6&dq=as+the+work+which+is+done+by+a+group+of+people+who+posses+individual+expertise,+who+are+responsible+for+making+individual+decisions,+who+hold+a+common+purpose+and+who+meet+together+to+communicate,+share+and+consolidate+knowledge+from+plans+are+made,+future+decisions+are+influenced,+and+action+determined.&hl=en&ei=6Y_nTeSNNoLMuAOQkdiaDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-preview-link&resnum=2&ved=0CDQQuwUwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false 14 | P a g e
  15. 15. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Business recommendation and potential solutions for problemsidentified in evergreen landscaping and Maintenance CompanyBusiness process re-engineering (BPR) is the business recommendation which is suitable ofevergreen company, because the processes of operations of this company needs re-engineering.The concept of BPR originated from the management theory of Fredrick Taylor in the 19thcentury, in order to make businesses best in class re-engineering of business processes wasadopted by managers. Fredrick Taylor first introduces BPR when he published his article “theprinciple of scientific management” in the 1900s. Business process reengineering according toStanleigh M (20105) is the fundamental re-thinking and re-designing of a business process inorder to exceed customer and quality requirements. It is also a management approach used forimprovements by means of elevating efficiency, effectiveness of the processes that exist withinand across organization. The basic methodologies used in business process re-engineering (BPR)are stated below.BPR Methodology 1 BPR Methodology 2 BPR Methodology 3 BPR Methodology 4 1. Describe the 1. Define the project 1. Create project 1. Define project project (establish 2. Document as-is prospectus and identify team boundaries) processes (define project) 2. Brainstorm new 2. Create vision, (diagnose) 2. Learn from others processes and values and 3. Redesign (customers, technologies objectives business associates, 3. Analyze and 3. Redesign processes and benchmarking, prioritize business technology technology) opportunities processes and 4. Develop a cost / 3. Create vision and (benefit analysis) tools (model) benefit analysis design new 4. Select "best" 4. Evaluate concept 5. Plan and business process opportunity and (benefits Implement new model design solution statement) processes and 4. Develop enabling 5. Develop and trial 5. Plan for systems technology new processes, implementing the 6. Evaluate process architecture and information solution performance organizational systems and 6. Implement the model enabling tools redesign 5. Perform a gap 6. Plan transition 7. Transition to analysis and and implement continuous prepare a solution process business case for5 http://www.bia.ca/articles/pj--pm-vs-pjm.htm 15 | P a g e
  16. 16. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM) improvement change (benefits 7. Measure results (measure results) and costs) 6. Define process, systems and training requirements, and plan implementation 7. Develop and pilot solutions 8. Implement solution and measure performanceTable 3 Source BPR online learning centerImplementing business process re-engineering in evergreen landscaping andMaintenance Company Create Perform a Create vision and gap analysis and prepare a project design new business case prospectus business for change Develop (define process (benefits and and pilot project) model costs) solutions Learn from Develop Define Implement others enabling process, syste solution (customers, a technology ms and and ssociates, ben architecture training chmarking, te and requirements measure chnology) organizationa , and plan performanc l model implementati e onDiagram 6Methodology 3 will be used to re-engineer the processes of Evergreen Company. 16 | P a g e
  17. 17. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Define projectThis is the first process in this methodology, the need to define the problems in evergreencompany and what the company is trying to achieve. The problems of this company have alreadybeen identified and the root causes have been sorted out through the fishbone, see (diagram 4).The company is trying to achieve a reliable and systematic process of operations and eliminationof the identified problems already existing in the company.Learn from others (customers, associates, benchmarking, and technology)This is the second process in this methodology; the process involves learning from others such ascustomers, associates, benchmarking and technology. Learning from customers is very vitalbecause satisfying them is one of the major goals. It is quite obvious that the problems inevergreen company is related to factors mention above the customer’s needs are not satisfied,some associates not happy with the process and the technology is not suitable for achieving thegoals in the company.Create vision and design new business process modelThis process is concern with designing a business process which will implement business changein relation to the organization development and growth.Below is the recommended business process model for evergreen company 17 | P a g e
  18. 18. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM) Problems Solutions Improper logistic management Improper warehousing management Supply chain Improper inventory management management No effective data storage Poor security Operational performance No teamwork improvement Unskilled employees Process management Business process integrationDiagram 7 18 | P a g e
  19. 19. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Supply chain managementSupply chain management according to Hugos. M (20066) is the coordination of production,inventory, location, transportation among the participants in a supply chain to achieve the bestmix of responsiveness and efficiency for the market being served.This is where the logistic problem warehousing and inventory problems will be rectified inevergreen in order to attain the best mix of responsiveness to the customers.Operational performance improvementAdopting a new system which will improve the operational performance of the company andproblems which hinder the operations of the company will be eradicated; such problems are poorsecurity, unskilled employees, lack of teamwork and the ineffectiveness of the data storagesystem.Process managementThis is a holistic approach which involves aligning the business process towards satisfying thecustomer’s needs.Business process integrationBusiness process integration, also known as BPI, is the strategy of finding ways to connectindividual technology systems within the internal and external operation framework of thecompany; it simply means the integration of the business processes.Develop enabling technology architecture and organizational modelEvergreen should also develop and enabling technology such as GUI (graphical user interface) toprovide the means to manage the business processes and data within the company and withexternal related process.6http://books.google.com.my/books?id=RJSNUE7AR54C&printsec=frontcover&dq=essential+of+supply+chain+management&hl=en&ei=EeTlTZ-ML5DqrQfFv7StCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6wEwAA#v=onepage&q=essential%20of%20supply%20chain%20management&f=false 19 | P a g e
  20. 20. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Perform a gap analysis and prepare a business case for change (benefits andcosts)Evergreen company should perform a gap analysis for benefit and cost in order to analyze if thebenefits outruns the cost of changing the business process.Define process, systems and training requirements, and plan implementation • Evergreen company in this stage needs to define the process involved in the new business process and the system the process requires and should also lay down the training required to adopt the new business process.Develop and pilot solutionsEvergreen company also needs to develop and pilot the solutions developed by the new businessprocess.Implement solution and measure performanceThis is the final stage of the methodology. Evergreen will implement the solutions recommendby the new process and also measure the performance to see if the new system eliminated themajor roots cause of the former system. This simply means measuring the performance of as it isand how it was.ConclusionThe major problem of evergreen landscaping and Maintenance Company was the process wasnot systematic or reliable; many companies around the world have similar problems in theirbusiness process, this report identified the problems in the process and also proffered solution byadopting a new system through implementing BPR (business process re-engineering)methodology. 20 | P a g e
  21. 21. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)ReferencesBacal B., 2005, 101 customer’s service training scripts for handling any situation [online], U.S.A,McGraw-Hill Company, Availablefromhttp://books.google.com.my/books?id=Sxzu3pgQY9gC&pg=PA6&dq=definition+of+customer&hl=en&ei=fNbKTYGYOofsvQP7uvztBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&sqi=2&ved=0CFAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=definition%20of%20customer&f=false [Accessed on 24th may 2011]BPR online learning, 2010, reviewing reengineering methodology, [online], Prosci, Availablefrom http://www.prosci.com/bpr_method.htm [Accessed on 22nd may 2011]Cousins J, and Stewart T, 2002, what is business process design and why should I care, [online]Rivcom ltd, Available fromhttp://www.rivcom.com/resources/RivCom-WhatIsBPD-WhyShouldICare.pdf [Accessed on 22nd may 2011]Hugos M. 2006, Essentials of supply chain management,[online], 2nd edition, Canada, John Wiley andsons Inc, Available fromhttp://books.google.com.my/books?id=RJSNUE7AR54C&printsec=frontcover&dq=essential+of+supply+chain+management&hl=en&ei=EeTlTZ-ML5DqrQfFv7StCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6wEwAA#v=onepage&q=essential%20of%20supply%20chain%20management&f=false [Accessed on 19th may 2011]Radhakrishnan R. and Balasubramanian S., 2008, Business process re-engineering text and cases[online], India, Prentice-Hall private limited, Available fromhttp://books.google.com.my/books?id=6PxqYrRIHcYC&pg=PA10&dq=business+process+reengineering+definition&hl=en&ei=GNnkTbSgA4LTrQfP-MGXBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6wEwAA#v=onepage&q=business%20process%20reengineering%20definition&f=false [Accessed on 20th may 2011]Stanleigh M. 2010, process management vs. project management,[online], business improvementarchitects, Available from http://www.bia.ca/articles/pj--pm-vs-pjm.htm [Accessed on 21th may 2011]Sople V. 2007, Logistics management the supply chain imperative, [online], India, DorlingKindersley Inc, Available fromhttp://books.google.com.my/books?id=UswE24CnC3wC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=%E2%80%9Cthe+corporate+traffic+cop%E2%80%9D+directing+the+flow+of+materials+from+source,+through+production+and+distribution,+to+the+final+customers,&source=bl&ots=bAuN82vxhL&sig=X1Sc5VgxCtAMG7U_GsC_CFSBhBY&hl=en&ei=nI7nTZn5L4uCsQPp94nmDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%9Cthe%20corporate%20traffic%20cop%E2%80%9D%20directing%20the%20flow%20of%20materials%20from%20source%2C%20through%20production%20and%20distribution%2C%20to%20the%20final%20customers%2C&f=false [Accessed on 21thmay 2011] 21 | P a g e
  22. 22. LAWAL ABDULRAHMAN TAMBARI TP024691 (ISM)Westerbeek H. and Smith A., 2005, business leadership and lessons from sport [online], New York,Palgrave Macmillan, Available fromhttp://books.google.com.my/books?id=N43SwFG2p7MC&pg=PA30&dq=Zook+and+Allen+core+business&hl=en&ei=HWDJTdmbGMXnrAe8uqiYBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=2&sqi=2&ved=0CD8Q6wEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Zook%20and%20Allen%20core%20business&f=false [Accessed on 24th may 2011]Watt D, 2002, E- business implementation a guide to web services, EAI, BPI, e-commerce, [online], GreatBritain, Butterworth-Heinemann publishers, Available fromhttp://books.google.com.my/books?id=2QTJ4mLs6c4C&pg=PA157&dq=business+process+integration&hl=en&ei=sNjlTdLxGZDkrAemj7GDCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=3&ved=0CDsQ6wEwAg#v=onepage&q=business%20process%20integration&f=false [Accessed on 18th may 2011] 22 | P a g e

×