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Successful writing. lecture 4(2)


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lecture 4,5,6.

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Successful writing. lecture 4(2)

  1. 1. Successful Writing Lecture Four
  2. 2. Review <ul><li>Preciseness </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement for good writing </li></ul><ul><li>Use concrete details (form the habit of thinking concretely even at the initial stage of writing) </li></ul><ul><li>Look for specific words (and learn how to use them alongside the expansion of your vocabulary) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Effectiveness <ul><li>Adds power to the meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting effective words is not easy and it needs study and practice </li></ul>
  4. 4. -ing and –ed forms of verbs <ul><li>The –ing form of a verb is used when the action described by the verb continues to happen or when the relationship between the modified and the verb is active </li></ul><ul><li>Example: She is cooking so much food for all of us </li></ul><ul><li>Example: When I saw her, she was cooking so much food for all of us </li></ul>
  5. 5. -ing and –ed forms of verbs <ul><li>The –ed form of a verb is used when the action is completed at the time another action occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Or when the relationship between the modified and the verb is passive </li></ul><ul><li>Example: She stopped with us quickly before she ran out the door </li></ul><ul><li>Example: She grabbed the taxi that drove past the subway station </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nouns as Modifiers <ul><li>Nouns can be put ahead of another noun as its modifiers in English </li></ul><ul><li>Too many nouns clustered can cause ambiguity (uncertainty) and misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly, the maximum of the number of nouns as modifiers is two (sometimes this number can be exceeded) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nouns as Modifiers <ul><li>Guiding Principle: nouns as modifiers should not pose too much difficulty to the reader’s comprehension </li></ul>
  8. 8. Adverbs <ul><li>Can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb or even a whole sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Usually appears after the verb it modifies but before the adjective or the adverb </li></ul><ul><li>If it modifies the whole sentence, it can appear either at the beginning or the end </li></ul>
  9. 9. Adverbs <ul><li>indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as &quot;how,&quot; &quot;when,&quot; &quot;where,&quot; &quot;how much&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic &quot;ly&quot; suffix , most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Adverbs <ul><li>In the following examples, each of the highlighted words is an adverb: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this sentence, the adverb &quot;quickly&quot; modifies the verb &quot;made&quot; and indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Adverbs <ul><ul><li>The boldly spoken words would return to haunt the rebel. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this sentence the adverb &quot;boldly&quot; modifies the adjective &quot;spoken.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We urged him to dial the number more expeditiously . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Here the adverb &quot;more&quot; modifies the adverb &quot;expeditiously.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfortunately , the bank closed at three today . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this example, the adverb &quot;unfortunately&quot; modifies the entire sentence. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Adverbs <ul><li>Conjunctive Adverbs </li></ul><ul><li>You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are &quot;also,&quot; &quot;consequently,&quot; &quot;finally,&quot; &quot;furthermore,&quot; &quot;hence,&quot; &quot;however,&quot; &quot;incidentally,&quot; &quot;indeed,&quot; &quot;instead,&quot; &quot;likewise,&quot; &quot;meanwhile,&quot; &quot;nevertheless,&quot; &quot;next,&quot; &quot;nonetheless,&quot; &quot;otherwise,&quot; &quot;still,&quot; &quot;then,&quot; &quot;therefore,&quot; and &quot;thus.&quot; </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adverbs <ul><li>A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adverbs <ul><li>The highlighted words in the following sentences are conjunctive adverbs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The government has cut university budgets; consequently , class sizes have been increased. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for; therefore , he decided to make something else. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The report recommended several changes to the ways the corporation accounted for donations; furthermore , it suggested that a new auditor be appointed immediately. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Adverbs <ul><ul><li>The crowd waited patiently for three hours; finally , the doors to the stadium were opened. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batman and Robin fruitlessly searched the building; indeed , the Joker had escaped through a secret door in the basement. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Problems with Modifiers (1) <ul><li>The problem with these phrases is the redundancy of modifiers </li></ul><ul><li>The modifiers are useless because they do nothing but repeat what the following nouns say </li></ul><ul><li>Useless modifiers can make your writing repetitious and wordy </li></ul>
  17. 17. Problems with Modifiers (2) <ul><li>A) the notice said nothing else </li></ul><ul><li>B) people other than visitors were not invited to see exhibits </li></ul><ul><li>C) the visitors were invited to do nothing but see the exhibits on the third floor </li></ul><ul><li>D) there might be exhibits on other floors but the visitors were invited to see those on the third floor </li></ul>
  18. 18. Problems with Modifiers <ul><li>Summary: </li></ul><ul><li>One problem is about useless modifiers. A useless modifier adds nothing to the meaning of the modified but redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>2) Another problem is concerned with misplaced modifiers. Clear writing demands that modifiers be put as close as possible to the word or phrase being modified </li></ul>
  19. 19. Inversion <ul><li>In English, the usual order of words in a sentence is subject + verb + object . Sometimes certain adverbs come at the beginning of the sentence. This order is then inverted and the verb comes before the subject. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Inversion <ul><li>Study the following sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcely had I stepped out when the telephone rang. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardly had I reached the station when the train departed. </li></ul><ul><li>No sooner had she read the telegram than she started crying. </li></ul><ul><li>Never have I seen such a mess. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Inversion <ul><li>Note that the sentences given can also be written with normal word order: </li></ul><ul><li>I had scarcely stepped out when the telephone rang. </li></ul><ul><li>I had hardly reached the station when the train departed. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Tense: Simple Present <ul><li>Summary: In general, the present tense expresses the present time, but there are exceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to indicate future events or actions </li></ul>
  23. 23. Tense: Simple Present <ul><li>In statements about the content of literature and other works of art we generally use the present tense (the historical present) however; statements about the facts of a dead author’s life are normally in the past tense </li></ul>
  24. 24. Tense: Simple Present <ul><li>In statements of natural truth or of lasting significance, we use the present tense. However, if the statement does not contain the truth, we do not use the present tense </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Ancient Greeks believed that the earth was motionless </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sequence of Tenses <ul><li>When the main verb is in the present tense, the subordinate (secondary/inferior) verb can only be in the simple past tense, the past perfect tense, or the past future tense </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sequence of Tenses <ul><li>When the main verb indicates the future, the subordinate verb can be in the simple past tense, the present perfect tense, but never in the future tense </li></ul>
  27. 27. Mood <ul><li>The subjunctive mood </li></ul><ul><li>1. The first pattern of the subjunctive mood is the Be-pattern (as in sentences a, b, and c) </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to express indirect commands, motions, and resolutions </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Subjunctive Mood (cont’d) <ul><li>Verbs frequently used in this patter, to name just a few are; insist, order, decide, instruct, and propose </li></ul><ul><li>This pattern is also used in the that-clause following adjectives or nouns to express opinions or intentions </li></ul><ul><li>This pattern can be replaced by the should + infinitive form </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Subjunctive Mood (3) <ul><li>The second pattern of the subjunctive mood is the Were-pattern (as in sentences d, e, and f) </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to express a condition contrary to a fact. This pattern is mainly used in the wish clause or in the clauses introduces by if, as if, and as though </li></ul>
  30. 30. Attributes <ul><li>A word or phrase that is syntactically/grammatically subordinate (secondary) to another and serves to limit, identify, particularize, describe, or supplement the meaning of the form with which it is in construction. In the red house, red is an attribute of house. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Attributes: Classroom Activity <ul><li>Big, fat </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny, shallow </li></ul><ul><li>Every </li></ul><ul><li>In it </li></ul><ul><li>Easily </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest </li></ul><ul><li>Politely </li></ul>
  32. 32. Attributes: Classroom Activity <ul><li>Behind him </li></ul><ul><li>Very </li></ul><ul><li>There </li></ul><ul><li>Very fine </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of </li></ul><ul><li>Some fine </li></ul>
  33. 33. Attributes: Classroom Activity <ul><li>Some dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Lovely </li></ul><ul><li>In a large pond </li></ul><ul><li>Foolish </li></ul>
  34. 34. Narrowing-down Attributes: <ul><li>Every; in it; a lot of (frogs); (life) in a large pond </li></ul>
  35. 35. Descriptive Attributes <ul><li>Big; fat; tiny; shallow; biggest; fine; bigger; fine; dangerous; lovely; foolish </li></ul>
  36. 36. Descriptive Attributes (3) <ul><li>Single adjectives or parallel adjectives are placed before nouns, while prepositional phrases are placed after nouns </li></ul>
  37. 37. Classroom Activity <ul><li>Slowing down (N) </li></ul><ul><li>Of a few hundred, even a few thousand, kilometers per hour (D) </li></ul><ul><li>Of almost 297, 600 kilometers per second (D) </li></ul><ul><li>A kind of (N) </li></ul><ul><li>Of its beating (N) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Classroom Activity (cont’d) <ul><li>Of breathing (N) </li></ul><ul><li>Of the body (N) </li></ul><ul><li>In a high speed (D) spaceship (N) </li></ul><ul><li>These (N) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Classroom Activity (3) <ul><li>the prepositional phrase ‘in a high speed spaceship’ modifies the noun ‘human being’ but within this propositional attribute, there is another attribute, ‘high speed’, which modifies ‘spaceship’ </li></ul>
  40. 40. Relative Clauses <ul><li>When using a sentence as a part of another larger sentence, we turn it into a subordinate clause in a complex sentence </li></ul><ul><li>In sentences 2 & 3 in each group, we can find some clauses functioning as a modifier, or attribute of the nouns before them </li></ul>
  41. 41. Relative Clauses <ul><li>In English, we usually use words like that, who, which, when, where, whose, why etc. to connect these nouns and clauses </li></ul><ul><li>The words are called relatives which is why we call these relative clauses </li></ul>
  42. 42. Relative Clauses <ul><li>Sentence 2 expresses more than sentence 1 and sentence 3 expresses more than sentence 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Relative clauses we use make nouns either more exact or more vivid </li></ul><ul><li>More relative clauses in a sentence=more information (expanding the sentence)  very useful </li></ul>
  43. 43. Classroom Activity <ul><li>Who teaches you geography </li></ul><ul><li>That every kid looks forward to </li></ul><ul><li>No relative clause </li></ul><ul><li>Who know the law thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>Where all the animals can be your friend </li></ul>
  44. 44. Why Use Relative Clauses? <ul><li>Version 1: I bought a toy car for my son on his birthday, and he liked it very much </li></ul><ul><li>Version 2: I bought a toy car for my son on his birthday, which he liked very much </li></ul><ul><li>My son liked, very much, the toy car which I bought for him on his birthday </li></ul>
  45. 45. Classroom Activity <ul><li>1. Mr. Johnson, whom I hate the most, asks us to write an article every week. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Do you dare board a plane where there is no pilot </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tony swears to kill the guy who damaged his new dictionary that he bought in the States. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Classroom Activity <ul><li>4. The girl whom Jim fell in love with is the daughter of a local businessman. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Wang, who heads the bankers’ association in this city, is to speak first at the meeting. </li></ul>